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Introductions What Risks Are Tolerable? David McIntyre, Director
1. Contents <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>TERMS </li></ul><ul><li>DEFINITION OF RISK </li></ul><ul><li>SOLVE FOR ...
2. Introduction 2.1 Accidents, God and Science
<ul><li>There is a tension between the drive by some to create a risk free workplace and not to overburden Employers </li>...
3. Terms 3.1 Important health & safety terms <ul><li>Risk </li></ul><ul><li>Hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonably Practicabl...
<ul><li>Definition of Risk </li></ul><ul><li>R v Board of Trustees of the Science Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Adamson v Procu...
Risk Formula Probability of a hazard occurring X Number of People Effected and Seriousness of injuries 4. Definition of Ri...
<ul><li>The method needs to be suitable for the circumstances </li></ul>Who should carry out the assessment? What method s...
5. Solve for Risk 5.2 Who and How Badly?
Qualitative Approach Objective Analysis Hybrid Approach 5. Solve for Risk 5.3 Probability
We have all the variables and we can now solve  the formula <ul><li>Hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Probability of the hazard occ...
6. What Risks are Tolerable? 6.1 Elimination and Evaluation Eliminate Risks that are not “Real” Evaluate Remaining Risks W...
6. What Risks are Tolerable? 6.2 Unforeseeable Risks
<ul><li>Unforeseeable Risks </li></ul><ul><li>Austin Rover v Inspector of Factories </li></ul><ul><li>R v H. T. M. Ltd </l...
Because of recent helpful judgements we can take a more sophisticated approach to risk analysis. We should now  Eliminate ...
<ul><li>Hypothetical Risks </li></ul><ul><li>R v Chargot </li></ul><ul><li>R v Porter </li></ul>6. What Risks Can be Toler...
6. What Risks Can be Tolerated? 6.6 Evaluation Evaluation of the Risk
<ul><li>Impracticable Risks </li></ul><ul><li>Edwards v National Coal Board </li></ul>6. What Risks Can be Tolerated? 6.7 ...
Eliminate   Evaluate <ul><li>Insignificant </li></ul><ul><li>Unexpected </li></ul><ul><li>Unlikely </li></ul><ul><li>Hypot...
7. Cadogans Method Some categories of risk can be tolerated because they are not “Real”  Risks and others can be tolerated...
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What Risks Are Tolerable?

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It is not easy for dutyholders to understand what risks are tolerable. This presentation made to solicitors provides useful guidance based on recent guidance and court decisions

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What Risks Are Tolerable?

  1. 2. Introductions What Risks Are Tolerable? David McIntyre, Director
  2. 3. 1. Contents <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>TERMS </li></ul><ul><li>DEFINITION OF RISK </li></ul><ul><li>SOLVE FOR RISK </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT RISKS ARE TOLERABLE? </li></ul><ul><li>CADOGANS METHOD </li></ul>
  3. 4. 2. Introduction 2.1 Accidents, God and Science
  4. 5. <ul><li>There is a tension between the drive by some to create a risk free workplace and not to overburden Employers </li></ul>2. Introduction 2.1 Context <ul><li>The Coalition Government says in its programme for government that </li></ul><ul><li>“ We will amend the health and safety laws that stand in the way </li></ul><ul><li>of common sense policing.” </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Court Judgements have provided some useful insights </li></ul>
  5. 6. 3. Terms 3.1 Important health & safety terms <ul><li>Risk </li></ul><ul><li>Hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonably Practicable </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable and Sufficient </li></ul><ul><li>Foreseeable </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Definition of Risk </li></ul><ul><li>R v Board of Trustees of the Science Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Adamson v Procurator Fiscal </li></ul>4. Definition of Risk 4.1 How do the Courts define Risk?
  7. 8. Risk Formula Probability of a hazard occurring X Number of People Effected and Seriousness of injuries 4. Definition of Risk 4.2 Risk Formula
  8. 9. <ul><li>The method needs to be suitable for the circumstances </li></ul>Who should carry out the assessment? What method should be used? <ul><li>A systematic approach needs to be taken </li></ul><ul><li>All hazards need to be identified </li></ul><ul><li>Employer, Owner, Consultant or Employee? </li></ul><ul><li>Different Perceptions of Risk </li></ul>5. Solve for Risk 5.1 Identify Hazards
  9. 10. 5. Solve for Risk 5.2 Who and How Badly?
  10. 11. Qualitative Approach Objective Analysis Hybrid Approach 5. Solve for Risk 5.3 Probability
  11. 12. We have all the variables and we can now solve the formula <ul><li>Hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Probability of the hazard occurring </li></ul><ul><li>Those who could be effected </li></ul><ul><li>Seriousness of injuries </li></ul>CALCULATE RISK CALCULATE ALL RISKS! 5. Solve for Risk 5.4 Calculate Risk
  12. 13. 6. What Risks are Tolerable? 6.1 Elimination and Evaluation Eliminate Risks that are not “Real” Evaluate Remaining Risks What about unforeseeable Risks?
  13. 14. 6. What Risks are Tolerable? 6.2 Unforeseeable Risks
  14. 15. <ul><li>Unforeseeable Risks </li></ul><ul><li>Austin Rover v Inspector of Factories </li></ul><ul><li>R v H. T. M. Ltd </li></ul>6. What Risks are Tolerable? 6.3 Unforeseeable Risks
  15. 16. Because of recent helpful judgements we can take a more sophisticated approach to risk analysis. We should now Eliminate before we Evaluate 6. What Risks are Tolerable? 6.4 Elimination
  16. 17. <ul><li>Hypothetical Risks </li></ul><ul><li>R v Chargot </li></ul><ul><li>R v Porter </li></ul>6. What Risks Can be Tolerated? 6.5 Elimination
  17. 18. 6. What Risks Can be Tolerated? 6.6 Evaluation Evaluation of the Risk
  18. 19. <ul><li>Impracticable Risks </li></ul><ul><li>Edwards v National Coal Board </li></ul>6. What Risks Can be Tolerated? 6.7 Evaluation
  19. 20. Eliminate Evaluate <ul><li>Insignificant </li></ul><ul><li>Unexpected </li></ul><ul><li>Unlikely </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothetical </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical </li></ul><ul><li>Fanciful </li></ul><ul><li>Every day risks </li></ul>6. What Risks Can be Tolerated? 6.8 Summary
  20. 21. 7. Cadogans Method Some categories of risk can be tolerated because they are not “Real” Risks and others can be tolerated because it would be too much trouble to do anything about them. STEP 1 Carry out a Robust Risk Assessment. Identification and Elimination of tolerable risks should only be made on the basis. <ul><li>STEP 2 Judge what risks can be tolerated using the following guidance. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate fanciful, theoretical or hypothetical risks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate risks associated with normal day to day life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate and if possible eliminate risks that are grossly out of proportion with the money, time or trouble that it would take to eliminate or mitigate the risk. </li></ul></ul></ul>

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