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ReimaginED: The Future of K12 Education

  1. Re-imagined The future of K12 education by David Havens @eduhavens December 2013
  2. 2 N = 17,624 teachers 80% 95% 5:1RATIO Source: Brightbytes, ambient insights, EVERY 4 DAYS5 STATES Catalyzed by technology, education is undergoing major change Towards greater personalization and access require online coursework to graduate a new edtech company is funded of student to tablet by 2015 agree that their students’ learning is more engaging when using technology of teachers agree that technology use in the classroom can enhance student learning
  3. The time is now to re-imagine our education system 3 Outline  Systemic Challenges [4]  New Landscape [15]  Re-imagined tools [30]  New instructional models [40]  Appendix
  4. Systemic Challenges1 “The notion of education as a public good that facilitates socioeconomic mobility for all citizens is at the heart of the American public education system.” Emily Dalton Smith Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
  5. Percentage of low-income students increasing 5 Source: income/280664/ 2000 2011 48% of public school students are now eligible for free or reduced lunch 51% 63% 60% 56% Note: The report did not include D.C. because its school system is too small relative to those of states 51% 50% 54% 68% 50% 60% 66% 60% 71% 55% 56% 57% 51% 50% 55% 57% 55% *students who qualify for free or reduced-priced lunches +10% Percentage of low-income students 30 40 50%
  6. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Children in higher income households are improving faster 6 It’s not just the bottom getting left behind – the top 10% financially are pulling away academically Income Achievement Gaps Source: Cohort Birth Day Reading, 1943-2000 Birth Cohorts 90th/50th achievement gap 50th/10th achievement gap Averagedifferenceinstandardizedtest scoresbetweenincomepercentiles
  7. US per pupil spending varies 300% across states 7 In 2011, ranged from $6212 (Utah) to $19076 (New York) Per Pupil Current Spending (2009) AK, HI $0 - $9,350 $9,351 - $10,550 $10,550 – 12,000 $12,000 - $13,500 $13,501 - $18,5100 Wyo. $18,068 Utah $7,217 Source:
  8. Students of color are underrepresented in top schools 8 Over 50% of white students are in the top 30% of schools Percentage Of Subgroups Attending Top, Middle, and Bottom performing schools 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% African-American Latino Economically Disadvantaged White Percentageofstudents Top 30% of schools Middle 40% Bottom 30% Source: Notes: In K12 schools in California, based off API scores (2009)
  9. Living in poverty lowers chance of academic success 9 22% of children with a year of poverty do not graduate 6% 2% 9% 22% 11% 26% Total Proficient Not Proficient DropoutRates Children without Poverty Children with Poverty Experience Source: , Of prison inmates are functionally illiterate60%
  10. Teacher satisfaction at lowest level since 1986 10 Principal satisfaction down, too. Teacher stress has increased since 1985. Source:, Teacher Job Satisfaction Through the Years (% Very Satisfied) Base: Teachers (2012, n=1,000) 40% 44% 33% 40% 50% 44% 54% 52% 57% 56% 62% 59% 44% 39% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1995 2001 2003 2006 2008 2009 2011 2012 Series 1
  11. And despite spending 2nd most on education… 11 K-12 Spending Per Student In The OECD Source: OECD, 2009 Education at a Glance
  12. United States lags in basic literacy and numeracy skills 12 Based off OECD assessment of adult skills, 2013 Source: Distribution of numeracy proficiency scores Distribution of literacy proficiency scores #22 #17
  13. United States is below average in equity and achievement 13 Based off OECD Program for International Student Assessment, 2012 Source: (slide 7) PISA scores Social Equity in Learning Opportunities
  14. Summary 14  Income Inequality is growing and has powerful implications on educational attainment  The conditions of poverty can create academic challenges and correlate to dropout rates  When compared internationally, US lags in both equity and achievement Source: Committee on Education Funding Note: Assembled by Jenny House, President of Redrock Reports
  15. New landscape2 “It’s not about the technology; it’s about sharing knowledge and information, communicating efficiently, building learning communities and creating a culture of professionalism in schools. These are the key responsibilities of all educational leaders.” Marion Ginapolis Superintendent at Lake Orion Public Schools
  16. 45 states adopt Common Core - national goals for student learning 16 Pushing students to think critically, collaboratively, creatively Adopted Not Yet Adopted Source:, Aug 22, 2013 Common core adoption across the USA
  17. Fixed Mind-set Intelligence is static Leads to a desire to look smart Growth Mind-set Leads to a desire to learn Intelligence can be developed Rising focus on noncognitive factors to improve student agency 17 New academic mindsets and learning strategies linked to school success Sources: Angela Duckworth:, Carol Dweck: Grit Growth Cultural Competency Effort Perseverance Social Emotional Intelligence Creativity Innovative disposition Habits of scholarship Character
  18. Game-based learning poised to engage and teach 18 Funding and market size expanding from $1.5 billion in 2012 to $2.3 in 2017 Source:, Joan Ganz-Cooney, and Harris Interactive Teenagers spend 14 hours per week playing video games Within Schools: 32% of teachers use games 2-4 days/week in the classroom
  19. Technology is ubiquitous in the classroom 19 97% of teachers have at least one computer in the classroom 94% enter or view grades using electronic system Source:, 5 : 3 current average ratio Student : Computer 40% of teachers use technology often in the classroom 5M iPads in K12
  20. Learning can continue beyond the school building 20 With US smartphone and tablet owners on the rise U.S. Smartphone and Tablet Owners 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 May-10 Jul-10 Sep-10 Nov-10 Jan-11 Mar-11 May-11 Jul-11 Sep-11 Nov-11 Jan-12 Mar-12 May-12 Jul-12 (millions) Source: Pew Research Center, comScore, U.S., census bureau, Note: Includes smartphones owners over age of 13 and tablet owners over age of 18 Tablet Owners Smartphone Owners
  21. Teacher demographics are changing 21 Younger teachers more comfortable with technology Age of Public School Teachers, 1987-88 to 2007-08 Source: 96% number from, 40% under 30 - digital natives!
  22. Tech companies bring devices and content ecosystems to K12 22 Apple dominates hardware while Google Apps for Education (GAFE) grows rapidly App stores deliver rich, diverse content Samsung Apple Google Amplify Microsoft Source:,,,, Cost of hardware lowers; “hardware-as-a-service” enables new buying flexibility
  23. Though serious tech infrastructure challenges remain 23 93% of computers have internet access 72% of schools have adequate bandwidth for 2017 estimates Source: <1% of schools lack adequate bandwidth to use 1:1 devices in every classroomBUT
  24. -75 -25 25 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012E 2014E 2016E Net Funding Surplus/Shortfall State and local budgets are tightening 24 K-12 Funding Sources Source: The Parthenon Group U.S. K-12 Education Spending YoY Growth by Fiscal Year, 1991-2011State and Local Budget Surplus/Shortfall by Fiscal Year, 1990-2015F $B 13 -4 -2 -5 5 8 17 29 43 45 47 18 -47 -59 -16 14 46 34 -21 -103 -45 -37 -76 -52 -36 6 42 -125 -75 -25 25 Net Funding Surplus/ShortfallHistorical Forecasting Net Funding Surplus/Shortfall 0 2 4 6 8 10 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 Series 1 %
  25. Venture capital flows into K-12: 74 financings in 2012 25 $427m from angels and institutional funders, transaction size ranges from $.2-80m Source:
  26. Angel investment fueling early stage edtech 26 Breakdown of NSVF co-investors reveals demographics of capital sources Source: NSVF 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% SociallyAlignedInvestors AngelInvestors TradionalVC Foundaons SociallyAlignedInvestors AngelInvestors TradionalVC Foundaons 2012 2013 PercentageofDollarsSyndicated Composi on of NSVF Syndicated Investors NSVF Syndicate Investors Socially aligned and tradi onal venture firms are an increasingly important part of the Seed Fund's funding network Composition of NSVF Syndicate Investors
  27. 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 1200000 1400000 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 The economy demands new skills 27 In computer science alone, a one million job shortage 1.4million computing jobs 400,000 computer science students 1,000,000 more jobs than students by 2020 9 out of 10 schools don’t even offer programming classes In 2020: 51,474 graduates / 122,300 CS jobs Source: 7000016053 100 Million dollars from Obama for jobs in education
  28. Educational attainment is correlated to higher earnings 28 And lower unemployment Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey
  29. Summary 29  The Common Core State Standards will allow for states to collaborate and compare data as students think more critically  Younger teachers and newer jobs pave the way for innovation and technology (which is everywhere)  Consumer technology companies enter K12 market with hardware + software Source: Committee on Education Funding Note: Assembled by Jenny House, President of Redrock Reports
  30. Re-imagined Tools Used by over 25 million students in US K12 3 “We need technology in every classroom and in every student and teacher’s hand, because it is the pen and paper of our time, and it is the lens through which we experience much of our world.” David Warlick North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction
  31. Re-imagination of literature 31 One size fits all  personalized and interactive Print, static, limited to physical supply Accessible anywhere, customized by teacher, personalized
  32. Re-imagination of current events 32 Periodic updates  real time stories with comprehension checks Print, updated weekly, standardized Accessible anywhere, personalized, adaptive
  33. Re-imagination of behavior management 33 Sticker charts  ongoing feedback and behavior tracking Labor intensive, limited data, not visible to parents or guardians Mobile, quick, accessible to parents and guardians
  34. Re-imagination of engagement 34 Abstract and standardized problems  relevant and personalized content Generic, often irrelevant to the students’ life Problems based on personal interest and real world applications
  35. Re-imagination of assessment formats 35 Deterministic and summative  open-ended and formative Right or wrong, guessing is prevalent Real time enables more tailored instruction and quick adjustments Teacher View Student View
  36. Re-imagination of credentialing 36 Physical diplomas  credentialing and e-portfolio services Brand focused, lacks visibility into skills Tracks progress, competency, and mastery – useful to employers
  37. Re-imagination of data 37 Report cards  interactive dashboards Static, quarterly reports with little qualitative data Real-time, accessible, more nuanced and diverse data, can be mastery based
  38. Re-imagination of teacher training 38 From static resources to interactive video and assistance One size fits all, theory-heavy programs Online, personalized, simulation based, focus on skill mastery
  39. Summary 39  Every corner of the education system is being touched by innovation and/or technology  Many startups are targeting districts or systems to make the analytics, outcome measuring, technology, and buying more streamlined and efficacious  View the entire edsurge edtech index (originally by NewSchools) here:
  40. New instructional models4 “Our collective charge in K-12 innovation today should go beyond merely designing and producing new tools. Rather, our focus should primarily be to design new classroom models that take advantage of what these tools can do.” Joel Rose Founder, New Classrooms
  41. Lab Rotation 41 Students receive instruction from teacher and practice online eg: Milpitas Schools District, original Rocketship Classroom with computers Classroom with teacher Student groups rotate between traditional classroom and online instruction in a computer or learning lab Source: Education Elements and, Group A
  42. Flex Rotation 42 Students work at own pace with small group sessions when needed Source: Education Elements and definitions/ Group A Students learn primarily online in a brick and mortar school location Classroom with computers eg: Carpe Diem Schools, Summit
  43. Classroom Rotation 43 Learn basics online, practice in groups, and go beyond with teacher Students groups rotate between traditional classroom instruction and online instruction within the classroom Group with computers Group with teacher Small work groups eg: KIPP Empower Academy, Alliance Public Schools, Mission Dolores Academy Source: Education Elements and definitions/
  44. Flipped Classroom 44 Watching content at home frees up class time to go deeper Classroom Flip Learning Through Activity Educational Technology The Learning Environment provides opportunity for influencesinfluences uses Anecdotal student achievement results can be dramatic, reducing failure rates by 30% in several cases. To do so needs thoughtful implementation: Source: To see a detailed implementation guide, visit: Create conditions for success Plan Implement Improve
  45. Charter schools also growing to support new models 45 With over 5000 schools and 2.3 million students, many focused on high needs areas Source: INCREASE IN CHARTER SCHOOLS AND ITS STUDENTS 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 2002-2003 2007-2008 2012-2013 Thousands Enrolled Students Number of Schools 100 200 300 400 500 600 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 NEW schools CLOSED schools #ofschools School year NUMBER OF NEW & CLOSED CHARTER SCHOOLS
  46. Summary 46  Schools are changing the way time is spent in the classroom  With improved data feedback from tech to teacher, teachers can better tailor instruction to individuals or groups dynamically  Many schools are experimenting with new models, and we will see much more innovation to come Source: Committee on Education Funding Note: Assembled by Jenny House, President of Redrock Reports
  47. So, you want to re-imagine education? 47
  49. Appendix 49
  50. US lags even in basic technology proficiency 50 Like coordinating and updating reservations online
  51. Parents expect more than 3 R’s from education systems 51 When asked which result was “most essential” in K12 after reading, math, and STEM education, parents were divided: 24% 16% 15% 14% 16% 15% Vocational Preparation Citizenship, Democracy, and Leadership skills High Test Scores Openness to Diversity Arts and Music instruction Source: What Parents Want: Education Preferences and Trade-offs (A Fordham Report)
  52. New “Deeper thinking” tests are harder 52 As new standards roll out, test scores fall (public and private) Percentage of New York City students who were proficient Source: New York State Education Department
  53. Higher income students more likely to attend selective college 53
  54. 20% of Americans control 95% of the wealth 54 And dramatically different opportunities are available to that 80% Source: 35% 28% 14% 12% 11% Top 1% Next 4% Next 5% Next 10% Bottom 80% 42% 30% 13% 11% 5% Net worth distribution, 2010 Financial wealth distribution, 2010 Bottom 80% : 11% of net worth Bottom 80% : 5% of financial wealth
  55. Over $687 billion spent on US K-12, mostly state and local 55 According to the Global Silicon Valley estimates K-12 Funding Sources (1971-2009) Source: Committee on Education Funding Note: Assembled by Jenny House, President of Redrock Reports
  56. Financially struggling students overrepresented in pool of dropouts 56 Poverty Experience of Children Not Graduating from High School No 62% Yes 38% No 30% Yes 70% Poverty Experience of All Children Poverty Experience of Children Not Graduating Source:
  57. Teachers have fewer years of experience 57 Source : Years of Experience of Public School Teachers, 1987-88 to 2007-08
  58. Different majors lead to different earnings 58 Source: graph

Editor's Notes

  1. Make purple
  2. Make purple
  3. Homogenizes market, allowing for 1 tool in 50 states
  4. Use of games Use of mobile devices How many games designed for different grade levels Even though large market with tons of excitement, very few are targeting older students and not spreading all subjects We think games have potential to teach life skills, oppty to use them with older students Talk about children are spending a lot of their time playing games – oppty to make them learning experiences
  5. Yet despite spending the second most of OECD countries...
  6. Yet despite spending the second most of OECD countries...
  7. this is the most terrifying challenge of my generation