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ReimaginED 2015: Trends in K12 Education

We’re living in a time of tremendous technological change. In the next five years, another billion people will gain access to the internet. By 2020, 80% of the adults on Earth will have a smartphone, double what it is today.

We started the Seed Fund to seek out those places where technological change might be leveraged to improve education, and there is much to improve about our current system. One of the most troubling trends of the last decade is the decrease in educational mobility. As a country, we are doing worse than most at educating our neediest kids which now account for just over half of public school children.

For our neediest children, the problems are cumulative. A series of school failures and missed opportunities add up to an education of accumulated disadvantage, a reverse Matthew Effect of sorts. Our team is focused on how technology can be used to reduce and even eliminate these obstacles so that our school system is an escalator to opportunity for all.

We’ve invested in over 40 teams scaling ideas to improve our education system by empowering students, educators and families with the best tools technology has to offer. Through this lens, we share our second ReImaginED deck. Inspired by KPCB’s Mary Meeker’s widely shared Internet Trends deck, we set out to expose data about our K-12 education system and highlight some of the innovations in education technology. The goal of this deck is to draw out high level trends so it doesn’t include the human stories on the other side of these numbers and charts, see here for some of those.

In ReimaginED 2015 (building off the original published over a year ago), we review the latest systemic challenges, landscape shifts, and emerging innovations that are helping to solve these problems.

Let us know about other innovation trends you are seeing in the comments below or by sharing this on twitter, #ReimaginED2015.

(Cross-post from, original post by Jennifer Carolan and David Havens)

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ReimaginED 2015: Trends in K12 Education

  1. 1. ReimaginEd 2015 Trends in K12 Education David Havens @eduhavens #ReimaginED2015 Vivek Murali @vivmurali
  2. 2. US students are low income (eligible for free or reduced lunch) 51% US districts interested in implementing 1:1 solution in next 2 years teenagers age 13-18 have smart phones text messages are sent each day by the average teen MEANWHILE 60 79 81% 2 Source: Southern Education Foundation, Ambient Insights, Level Playing Field Institute,, Benedict Evans “Mobile is eating the world” US students were homeless in 2013 states had no black student take the AP Computer Science exam 1 30 11 #ReimaginED2015 The following slides analyze how innovations have scaled in education Systemic inequality rising while mainstream tech catching on
  3. 3. Outline Continued Challenges: Diversity, Equity, and Education The Evolving Landscape Appendix New Technologies and Approaches 4627164 3 #ReimaginED2015
  4. 4. Continued Challenges: Diversity, Equity, and Education “Too often, America’s education system amplifies not opportunity but inequality.” NICHOLAS KRISTOF The New York Times Source: The New York Times. 4 #ReimaginED2015
  5. 5. Russian Federation* Korea Finland Flanders (Belgium) France Ireland Poland Netherlands Canada Estonia Sweden Japan Australia Average Spain England / N. Ireland (UK) Danemark Norway Italy Slovak Republic United States Austria Germany Czech Republic 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Upward mobility Downward mobility There is a 5% college completion rate for Americans whose parents didn’t graduate from High School* Educational mobility in the U.S. is lower than you think ABSOLUTE EDUCATIONAL MOBILITY (2012) Percentage of 25-64 years-old-non-students whose educational attainment is higher than (upward mobility), lower than (downward mobility) or the same as (status quo) that of their parents. *compare to 23% for other wealthy nations 5 Source: Chart A4.3 - OECD Indicators - Education at a Glance 2014 #ReimaginED2015
  6. 6. Many factors influence education opportunity, starting in preschool Over 8,000 toddlers were suspended from preschool in 2011 school year. 70% were minority. DISPARITY IN DISCIPLINE STARTS IN PRESCHOOL 43% 4% 29% 18% 1% 4% 2% 26% 3% 42% 25% 0.1% 1% 1% 0.1% 1% 1% 26% 4% 20% 48% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Overall enrollment Out-of-school suspension (single) Out-of-school suspension (multiple) White Two or more races Hispanio/Latino Black or African-American Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander Asian American Indian or Alaska Native 6 Source: U.S. Department of education, Office for civil Rights Data Collection, 2011-12, #ReimaginED2015
  7. 7. 2006 2010 2013 1/50 1.5M 1/45 1.6M 1/30 2.5M NUMBEROFCHILDRENHOMELESSANNUALLY General (non-HHM or FRL) National Norm Reduced Meals Free Meals Homeless or highly mobile 180 200 220 240 3 4 5 6 7 8 GRADE MATHACHIEVEMENT Homelessness of youth is up 67% in the last 7 years Growth in math and literacy is slower among homeless and highly mobile students 7 Source: The National Center on Family Homelessness at American Institutes for Research RISE IN NUMBER OF HOMELESS CHILDREN #ReimaginED2015
  8. 8. Racial segregation persists 60+ years after Brown v. Board of Education An increasing number of black and hispanic students go to schools that are over half-minority 8 Source: #ReimaginED2015 PERCENTAGE OF LATINO & BLACK STUDENTS ATTENDED SCHOOLS THAT WERE MORE THAN HALF MINORITY Hispanic Students Black Students 55% 77% 80% 74% 1968-69 School Year 2009-2010 School Year 40 years later…
  9. 9. Black students are 62% more likely to receive discretionary discipline than white students The racial disparity in discipline continues in high school 9 Source:, #ReimaginED2015 PERCENT OF STUDENTS COMMITING DISCRETIONARY AND MANDATORY VIOLATIONS, BY RACE AND ETHNICITY. Students suspended or expelled for a discretionary violation are nearly 3 times more likely to be in contact with the juvenile justice system the following year Discretionary Punishment Mandatory Punishment 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% African American (n=133.719) Hispanic (n=366.900) White (n=400.104) 76.7% 7.2% 66.7% 7.9% 47.9% 5.3%
  10. 10. The 90/10 percentile income gap compares to the black/white gap in the 1950s Not just race: achievement gap between rich and poor widening 10 AVERAGE DIFFERENCE IN STANDARDIZED TEST SCORES (90/10 income gap or black-white gap) 90/10 Income Gap Black-White Gap .00 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 .25 .50 .75 1.00 1.25 1.50 COHORT BIRTH YEAR INSTANDARDDEVIATIONUNITS #ReimaginED2015
  11. 11. of 8th graders say they are going to college 95% graduate from HS 80% are prepared to succeed in college 37% of low income students are prepared to succeed in college 17% of students in the lowest income quartile complete a college degree within six years 8% While 95% of 8th graders say they are going to college, schools prepare only 37% A vast majority of young people are ill-prepared for college 11 Source: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation #ReimaginED2015
  12. 12. Educational inequality is manifest in the corporate world Disparities in STEM Education are mirrored in the STEM Workforce 12 • White and Asian students are more than 4x as likely to take AP Math and Science exams and more than 6x as likely to take the AP Computer Science exam than their Black and Latino/a peers • In eleven states, no black students took the AP Computer Science test RACIAL AND ETHNIC REPRESENTATION IN THE STEM WORKFORCE Total workfoce STEM 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% White alone, not Hispanic or Latino Black or Africain American alone Asian alone American Indian and Alaska Native alone Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 66.9 70.8 10.8 6.4 5.5 14.5 0.6 0.4 14.9 6.5 Note: Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander alone was combined with Some Other Race because of a small number of sample observation. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2011 American Comunity Survey. Source:, Level Playing Field Institute #ReimaginED2015
  13. 13. U.S. tech companies lack diversity 1% of VC-backed internet startups (Series Seed & A) have a black founder. 83% are all white teams. 13 Source: Techcrunch, SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics DIVERSITY IN LEADING U.S. TECH COMPANIES IS LACKING White Asian Hispanic Black Two or more race Other Facebook Google Yahoo Lnkedln Non-Hispanic white Hispanic Black Asian Did not Identify racially or ethnically 64% 16% 12% 5% 3% The labor force by ethnicity Ethnicity (US only) 34% 57% 30% 61% 38% 55%39% 50% #ReimaginED2015
  14. 14. Fortune 500 CEOs by Gender 96% Men 4% Women Fortune 500 CEOs by Race and Ethnicity 96% Non-Hispanic white 1% Hispanic 1% African American 2% Asian And the inequality continues up the ladder to leadership White men make up over 90% of Fortune 500 CEOs but less than 35% of all Americans 14 Source: Diversity Inc. #ReimaginED2015
  15. 15. With equitable access, education can help level the field Education continues to offer a strong return on investment RETURNS TO EDUCATION COMPARED TO OTHER INVESTMENTS 15 Source: CPS (2009, 2010-12); Damodaran (2013), Federal Reserve Economic Data (2013); National Center for Education Statistics: (NCES 2012-13); National Mining Association (2012); Shiller (2013); authors’ calculations. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Associate’s degree Professional degree Bachelor’s degree Some college Stocks Gold 10-year Treasury bonds T-bills Housing PERCENTRETURN #ReimaginED2015
  16. 16. The evolving landscape “School is where childhood happens. Even if civil war dates are forgotten and geometry becomes a blur, one lesson must stick: the love of learning.” LILY ESKELSON NEA President 16 #ReimaginED2015
  17. 17. Universal pre-K is gaining traction A highly researched benefit begins to make its way to practice 0% of 4-year-olds served 1-10% of 4-year-olds served 11-20% of 4-year-olds served 21-30% of 4-year-olds served 31-40% of 4-year-olds served 41-50% of 4-year-olds served 51-60% of 4-year-olds served 61-70% of 4-year-olds served 17 Source: #ReimaginED2015 PERCENT OF 4-YEAR-OLDS SERVED BY STATE PRE-K
  18. 18. Adopted Not adopted Common Core continues to roll out around the country Confronting new challenges and opportunities along the way COMMON CORE ADOPTION ACROSS THE USA 18 Source: #ReimaginED2015
  19. 19. Graduation rates have increased in the past twenty years 81% of high school students are graduates (the equivalent of 7,000 dropouts/day) AVERAGED FRESHMAN GRADUATION RATE FOR PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS: SCHOOL YEARS 1990–91 THROUGH 2011–12 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 2011-121990-91 74 71 72 73 80 81 1995-96 2000-01 2005-06 2010-11 SCHOOL YEAR 19 Source: #ReimaginED2015
  20. 20. Teachers have a huge impact on student performance Student performance varies greatly depending on quality of teacher 20 Source: THE EFFECT OF TEACHER QUALITY There is a 53% difference in student achievement based on performance of the teacher 100th 50th 0th 8 11 Age STUDENTPERFORMANCE (INPERCENTILE) Student with top-quintile teacher Student with bottom-quintile teacher 90th 37th #ReimaginED2015 "Students of different ethnicities respond equivalently within the same quintile of teacher effectiveness"
  21. 21. 1 2 3 4 5 Other 1 4 32 4 6 4 Years of experience required Number of states Two years is too soon for a teacher to earn tenure Public school teachers should not receive tenure at all Two years is the right amount of time for tenure Refuse Two years is too long for teachers to wait for tenure 38% 41% 35% 35% 17% 13% 6% 7% 4% 5% All voters Parents VOTERS DISAGREE WITH CURRENT TEACHER TENURE REQUIREMENTS Poll Question: California public school teachers are currently awarded tenure after 18th months in the classroom. Which of the following do you agree with most: Vergara v California put spotlight on teacher tenure laws nationally States re-examine how easy it should be to get tenure HOW LONG BEFORE A TEACHER EARNS TENURE? 21 Source:, #ReimaginED2015
  22. 22. Total working hours Hours spent on teaching Hours per week United States Chile Alberta (Canada) Brazil Mexico Abu Dhabi (UAE) Estonia Portugal Finland Slovak Republic England (United Kingdom) Croatia Average Latvia Flanders (Belgium) Iceland Denmark Korea Spain Poland France Australia Bulgaria 0 10 20 30 40 50 While teachers continue innovating with few resources The average U.S. teacher spends 1000 hours instructing each year TEACHERS SALARIES $1000 s (OECD DATA) These figures show how much teachers get paid on average each year in dollars, average gathered over 15 years. AVERAGE HOURS SPENT WORKING AND TEACHING PER WEEK 68.82 57.87 53.73 51.47 47.34 47.3 45.93 44 42.81 41.71 41.52 41.46 40.90 Switzerland Netherlands Germany Belgium Korea Ireland Japan Australia Finland Danemark Spain United States United Kingdom Source:, Guide.pdf 22 #ReimaginED2015 Total working hours Hours spent on teaching Hours per week States Chile nada) Brazil Mexico (UAE) stonia rtugal nland public gdom) roatia erage Latvia gium) eland nmark Korea Spain oland rance stralia lgaria Serbia Israel public apan weden Italy apore 0 10 20 30 40 50
  23. 23. Venture capital entering edtech at record levels With investments in K12 education technology up 32% from 2013, to $643 million ED TECH FINANCING: INVESTMENT DEALS AND DOLLARS Q1’09 – Q2’14 23 Source:, NewSchools Venture Fund 12 29 19 22 17 29 25 29 43 57 47 44 51 63 62 72 78 98 85 73 95 81 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Q1'09 Q2'09 Q3'09 Q4'09 Q1'10 Q2'10 Q3'10 Q4'10 Q1'11 Q2'11 Q3'11 Q4'11 Q1'12 Q2'12 Q3'12 Q4'12 Q1'13 Q2'13 Q3'13 Q4'13 Q1'14 Q2'14 DollarsInvested(M) Amounted Invested (M$) Number of Deals #ReimaginED2015
  24. 24. Signed a new law Passed a bill Introduced a bill Had no bills A bill died Ensuring that companies use learning data to improve learning, not sales Privacy laws concerning student data continue to evolve see appendix for more details 24 Source:, #ReimaginED2015
  25. 25. Virtual school students are fastest growing K12 sub-population While adoption is increasing dramatically, effectiveness is mixed and controversial VIRTUAL SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 0 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 50.000 100.000 150.000 200.000 250.000 NUMBEROFSTUDENTS YEAR 25 Source: #ReimaginED2015
  26. 26. Source: The Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project, April 26 – May 22, 2011 Teen/Parent Survey. n=799 teens ages 12-17 and a parent or guardian. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish, on landlines and cell phones. Mobile phones offer key access to poor and rural communities Teens w/ household incomes <$30k per year send significantly more SMS messages than their peers TEXTS SENT PER DAY FROM TEENS (12-17) BY HOUSEHOLD INCOME SMARTPHONE PENTRATION BY AGE DEMOGRAPHIC % by age group who own a smartphone 26 Source: AGE 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% All 61% 74% 80% 79% 69% 57% 45% 25% 12-17 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ NUMBEROFTEXTS Mean Median 0 50 100 150 200 250 Less than $30K $30K - $50K $50K - $75k $75K + #ReimaginED2015
  27. 27. New Technologies and Approaches “With the energy, creativity and money being invested recently in [education], I am optimistic that this time will indeed be different” UMANG GUPTA Silicon Valley Technology Entrepreneur, wrote Oracle’s first business plan 27 #ReimaginED2015
  28. 28. Evolution of student and school data 28 #ReimaginED2015
  29. 29. Re-imagination of student data One-dimensional data systems → holistic and benchmarked data Incremental and static Holistic and actionable Source: Schoolzilla 29 #ReimaginED2015
  30. 30. Evolution of data analytics tools New tools provide school leaders with actionable, timely data that make school decisions proactive Key Questions Addressed 30 How do we ensure more equitable enrollment of students in AP/IB courses? How do we make rigorous AP/IB course offerings more available to minority students? What’s the connection between technology use and learning outcomes in my school? What residual problems may arise from technology adoption? Do I provide my students with effective feedback to improve? Am I conveying class material effectively? How does school spending impact student outcomes? How does school spending compare to other districts with similar demographics? #ReimaginED2015
  31. 31. Evolution of assessments 31 #ReimaginED2015
  32. 32. Re-imagination of assessments Driven by mobile and CCSS, moving from high-stakes summative testing to digital portfolios of work Important and longitudinal, but infrequent and often too late Valuable diagnostic tools that identify gaps Media rich digital portfolios Long Cycle Time Short Cycle Time 32 #ReimaginED2015
  33. 33. Evolution of feedback Written feedback → dynamic voice enabled feedback Dynamic, voice enabled feedback Prescriptive feedback that lacks nuance 33 #ReimaginED2015
  34. 34. Evolution of school-to-home communication 34 #ReimaginED2015
  35. 35. Re-imagination of school-to-home communication Robo-calling and infrequent in-person meetings → personalized, real-time communications Infrequent one-way status updates Regular communication that empowers parents to be actors, not observers 35 #ReimaginED2015
  36. 36. Evolution of school-to-home communication Free & teacher friendly products are pioneering a new model of viral, consumer-like growth 23 million teachers and parents $60 million invested Consumer Mobile 38 million teachers, parents and students, $10 million invested 46 million teachers, students, parents $88 million invested 400 million active users $58 million invested, $19 billion acquisition 100 million active users $648 million invested, $10 billion valuation 300 million active users $57 million invested, $1 billion acquisition Teacher User Student Users Parent Users Education With each signup, a teacher offers a built-in community of potential users 36 Source: Publicly disclosed data, Note: Snapchat figure based on industry estimates that vary between 100M - 200M, one-of-educations-most-valuable-opportunities-parent-teacher-m #ReimaginED2015
  37. 37. Evolution of teacher professional development 37 #ReimaginED2015
  38. 38. Re-imagination of teacher professional development One size fits all static content → peer-led, personalized, and simulation-based instruction Static, undifferentiated Collaborative teacher-driven PD Source: EdCamp “The best PD has been when a teacher shows me what has revolutionized their classroom.” – A US teacher 38 Source: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Teachers Know Best: Teachers’ Views on Professional Development #ReimaginED2015
  39. 39. 29% 51% Few teachers are highly satisfied with current professional development offerings. 51% of educators do not engage in any formal professional learning Landscape of teacher professional development Communities have formed both online and in person to advance teacher development WHY IT MATTERS Offline Communities Online Communities Educator Focused Content Opportunities for Simulation Unstructured Educator Forums 39 Source: Brightbytes, NewSchools Venture Fund #ReimaginED2015
  40. 40. Emerging Evolutions 40 #ReimaginED2015
  41. 41. Re-imagination of teacher spending Out-of-pocket expense, slow reimbursement time → Crowdfunded, easy approval and tracking Paper-based, manual entry expensing Streamlined discovery and purchasingOut-of-pocket spending The average teacher spends $480 out-of-pocket on classroom supplies Can take 2-3 months for reimbursement 41 #ReimaginED2015
  42. 42. Other re-imaginations that excite us There has never been a better time in education to be a technology entrepreneur Project Based Learning Peer to Peer Learning Data Literacy Kinesthetic Engagement 42 #ReimaginED2015
  43. 43. There’s more work to do ELA, science, and cross-disciplinary education still necessitate better tools 43 TEACHER VOICES: AREAS THAT LACK USABLE DIGITAL TOOLS • High School Math and ELA tools • Grades 3-8 cross- disciplinary products • Grade 3-8 science products • Project based learning workflow tools Source: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation #ReimaginED2015
  44. 44. So, you want to re-imagine education? #ReimaginED2015
  45. 45. QUESTIONS? Contact JOIN IN 45 #ReimaginED2015 JOIN OUR COMMUNITY WORK FOR A START UP ATTEND AN EVENT START A COMPANY community entrepreneurs/submit
  46. 46. Appendix #ReimaginED2015
  47. 47. A sampling of student data laws enacted LIMITING DATA COLLECTION • Florida prohibits school districts from collecting unique biological data – called biometrics – including students fingerprints or scans of the vein patterns in their palms. • Kansas forbids districts from collecting biometric details on minors, and from surveying them about religious, moral or sexual beliefs, without parental consent. • Louisiana prohibits public school employees from collecting information about students political or religious beliefs, family income, relationships with ministers of doctors and gun ownership. • Louisiana, Rhode Island and Maine protect students or prospective students from having to give school officials access to their personal social media accounts or email addresses. • New Hampshire prohibits students email addresses, Social Security Numbers, biometric data, criminal records and information about family members from being stored in a state-run educational database. • Virginia prohibits ‘public institutions of higher education’ from selling information about students, including thair named, addresses and email addresses, to marketers. INCREASING TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY • Laws in Colorado, Idaho and West Virginia require the publication of lists of data points collected about students, such as race, ethnicity, disability status, disciplinary record, family financial status and medical conditions like asthma. Colorado’s list includes a category for ‘dietary supplements for weight control.’ • Colorado must also list the names of third-party data warehouse, cloud service, learning apps and educational sites under contract with the education department that hold student data. REGULATING THE HANDLING OF DATA • Noth Carolina requires the states board of education to develop a plan for securing student information. State officials must also develop rules to comply with a federal student privacy law, called the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, or Ferpa. • Wyoming directs the state’s departments of education and enterprise technology to create a data security plan for students information. Among other steps, state officials are required to develop procedures for data breach prevention and notification. 47 Source:, #ReimaginED2015
  48. 48. Expectations of educational achievement vary with household income 86% of high income parents expect children to go to college vs. 50% of low income parents PARENTAL EXPECTATIONS FOR ACADEMIC ATTAINMENT FOR CHILDREN IN GRADES 6-12, PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION BY HOUSEHOLD INCOME LEVEL (2007) High School or Less Some Postsecondary Education Bachelor’s Degree or Higher 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% $25.000 or less 19.3 11.4 28.4 59.8 6.2 23.9 70.7 2.2 11.2 86.5 30.8 49.9 $25.001 - 50.000 $50.001 - $75.000 More than $75.000 48 *Some postsecondary education include attending a vocational or technical school after high school, or attending two or more years of college but finishing with less than a four-or five- year college degree. Source: Child Trends’ original analyses of National Household Education Survey data. #ReimaginED2015
  49. 49. National spotlight starts to look at diversity and accessibility in higher ed New York Times pilots college access index as department of education develops new ranking system College Vassar Grinnell U.N.C. - Chapel Hill Smith Amherst Harvard Pomona St. Mary’s (ind.) Susquehanna Columbia Rice Kalamazoo Wesleyan Denison Pell (2012-2014) 23 24 21 23 20 17 18 24 25 16 18 21 18 20 Pell (2008) 12 14 13 16 16 13 12 14 17 12 15 13 12 11 Net price, low- to middles-income $5.600 $10.400 $7.600 $11.600 $8.400 $3.000 $5.200 $15.900 $18.000 $3.500 $8.100 $13.900 $8.700 $11.800 College Access Index 3.1 2.7 2.3 2.2 2.0 2.0 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 Endowment per students $340.000 $880.000 n/a $440.000 $940.000 $1.520.000 $1.170.000 $80.000 $50.000 $320.000 $810.000 $190.000 $200.000 $330.000 49 Source: #ReimaginED2015
  50. 50. In 40 years, spending has doubled while achievement has not With spending levelling off, schools must be smarter about the resources they do have 200 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 250 300 350 400 450 500 $4.000 $6.000 $8.000 $10.000 $12.000 YEAR Per-student Expenditures Mathematics: Age 17 Reading: Age 17 Mathematics: Age 13 Reading: Age 13 Mathematics: Age 9 Reading: Age 9 $11.184 $4.529 AVERAGE US PER-PUPIL EXPENDITURES AVERAGE SCALE SCORES ON NATIONAL ASESSMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS (NAEP). SPENDING DATA IN CONSTANT 2011-12 US DOLLARS. 50 Source: National Center for Education Statistics #ReimaginED2015
  51. 51. Native American, Black, and Hispanic students overrepresented in dropouts Minority students make up 59% of 9-12 dropouts but 38% of the population PUBLIC HIGHT SCHOOL EVENT DROPOUT RATE FOR GRADES 9-12, BY RACE/ETHNICITY: SCHOOL YEAR 2009-10 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% White Black Hispanic Asian / Pacific Islander American Indian / Alaska Native 2.3 5.5 5.0 1.9 6.7 51 Source: U.S. Departement of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), ‘NCES Common Core of Data State Dropout and Completion Data File,’ School Year 2009-10, Version 1a.,, #ReimaginED2015