Emotional Intelligence Training Emotional intelligence is a synthesis of business and psychology focused on achieving peaklevels of performance. Effectively applying this multidisciplinary tool requires the ability totrain adult learners in both areas. This begins with an effective working knowledge ofemotional intelligence. One size does not fit all. To generate peak performance, expertise isrequired in a repertoire of assessment tools, training design, results evaluation and coachingskills.With a mastery of EI core skills, the needs of the organization and individual need to becarefully assessed. Professionalism must be exercised in the selection, application andevaluation of tools and test results. With this information in hand, needs and wants can beappropriately matched with objectives, learning styles and training design.Participative, active learning is crucial. Development is based on a partnership where theorganization, facilitator, and learner are all engaged to promote a set of targeted goals.When everyone is involved, there is a sense of enthusiasm and energy that generates self-fulfilling positive expectations. Learner readiness creates motivation and an excitement togrow.Training itself demands emotional intelligence. It is a dynamic relationship that focusescommunication on SMART (specific; measurable; achievable, relevant, time-based)objectives. With a pre-determined, well developed course, active participation is structuredinto well ordered, manageable steps. As the training continues, feedback needs to beconsistent with an on-going emphasis on positive growth. Support systems should engagelearning in visual, auditory and kinaesthetic modes. Realistic expectations should bedeveloped for practical application of materials to real life situations.Once the training experience is completed, commit to active assessment. Capitalize on whatwent right and correct the areas that can be improved. Be certain to foster a professionalenvironment that contributes to and reinforces emotional intelligence. Positive change issustained when the improvements are supported and encouraged.The final elements lie in continuity. Learning needs to be a constant. Development is not aone-time event. Coaching, on the job application and reinforcement set the tone for long-term, sustainable success.The Empathy PrincipleEmpathya deep appreciation for anothers situation and point of viewEmpathy—a deep appreciation for anothers situation and point of view—is the basis for thegolden rule, and our intrinsic sense of justice. Having empathy but not acting from empathyleads to guilt.Definitions: • A respectful understanding of what others are experiencing.
• Judging others by their own standards. • Sensing others’ feelings and perspective, and taking an active interest in their concerns. • Wanting the best for all others, unconditionally, • Sharing anothers perspective and specific distress. • Entering the private perceptual world of another and becoming thoroughly at home in it. • The capacity to think and feel oneself into the inner life of another person. • Having a similar emotional state to another as a result of the accurate perception of the others situation or predicament. • Understanding and entering into another person’s feelings. • Understanding and concern. • Changing places in fancy with the sufferer. • feeling into • I feel you in me • A point of view that emphasizes the symmetry between you and the other. • Empathy is other-awareness, symmetrical with self-awareness. True empathy requires us to care about the person in pain.Origins of EmpathyThe ability to sense another’s distress is an important survival skill. The danger distressingyour companion may also be a threat to you. It is wise to heed the others early warning ordanger. As a result, it is human nature to dislike seeing or hearing anothers distress. Thisbasic skill of sensing how another feels is generalized into a broader sense of empathy.Studies show that empathy develops very early in human children, even before theydevelop language skills. Empathy also contributes to our ability to recognize the mentalstate of others, and to take on their perspective. Knowing what others know is a distinctadvantage.The warmth of empathy balances the safety of distrust and xenophobia; the origin of hate.Forms of EmpathyEmpathy can be experienced in a variety of forms, such as [Ekm]:cognitive empathy—we recognize what another person is feeling,emotional empathy—we actually feel what the person is feeling,compassionate empathy—we want to help the person deal with their situation andemotions.Related TermsSympathy, rapport, caring, compassion, and concern are similar, but not identical toempathy. Apathy and egocentricity are opposites of empathy. Apathy describes not caringand egocentricity describes caring only about you.Empathy is ActionEmpathy begins with awareness, understanding, feeling, caring, perceiving a similarity ofexperience, and compassion. But the difficult part of empathy is taking action that trulyhelps another.
Increasing EmpathyEmpathy is inherent in most people, and certain activities can increase empathy, or at leastcooperation, between people. One key to empathy is to understand suffering, first in you,then in others. In the well documented “Robbers Cave” experiment two groups of 11-12year old boys were formed. Planned activities created cohesiveness within each group andcompetition between the two groups. What was later found to promote cooperationbetween the groups was to engage in activities that required them to work together toserve their own interests. This included working together to unblock a water line and fix abroken truck.Feeling Empathy for a JerkWe all know people who are: annoying, disagreeable, selfish, bigoted, irresponsible,deceitful, untrustworthy, arrogant, stubborn, ignorant, spiteful, mean spirited, boisterous,crude, boring, needy, intrusive, embarrassing to be around, and generally difficult to like.How can you have empathy for such people? The answer is that you dont have to likesomeone to want the best for them. You may feel sad they are so anguished and you canwant them to: become more aware of how they annoy others, take steps to improvethemselves, become more responsible, care more for others, and take other steps tobecome more satisfied and peaceful.Empathy and ResponsibilityWhen someone falls on hard times, our response often depends on a judgment about theirown responsibility for the problems they are facing. If we believe their difficulties are theirown fault, we typically regard them with contempt. If we believe the problems wereunavoidable, then we regard them with compassion and empathy. This judgment is difficultto make accurately. Work to consider all the evidence, from their point of view whileavoiding distortions, before making a judgment.Acting with empathy can be very difficult. Here is an example of a situation where it may bedifficult to know what is the right thing to do:Bill receives a modest check each Friday. He quickly spends it on tobacco, alcohol, andgambling. By Monday he is getting hungry and asks you to lend him $50 for food. What isthe empathic response?Follow these general steps for acting with empathy: • Preserve dignity and avoid humiliation. • Engage in a dialogue to understand his point of view and to determine his specific needs. Throughout the dialogue keep in mind: • You can change some things but not others, • What he asks for may not be what he needs. Continue the dialogue until you both understand his needs. • Help to balance his impulses for immediate pleasures with opportunities for longer term gratification and authentic happiness.Every person always has needs for autonomy, competency, and relatedness but is unlikelyto express these. This may lead to ambivalence about change.Provide assistance to meet his needs to the extent you are willing and able to. Keep in mind:
• You are responsible for your choices and actions. • He is responsible for his choices and actions. • You can change some things but not others.After dialoguing with Bill, you understand his most urgent need is for food. You alsounderstand his needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, although these were notdiscussed in depth in these terms. You agree to go shopping and buy him a loaf of bread anda jar of peanut butter. He declines your offer to buy him a bottle of carrot juice and youdecline his request to buy him a six-pack of beer. This meets his need for food, and balanceshis needs for autonomy and relatedness.Next week follows the same pattern and on Monday Bill again approaches you to ask forfood. You consider several alternative responses: • Refuse to help, explaining that you helped him last week and if he didnt learn his lesson, youre not going to continue, • Lecture him on the virtues of temperance, • Sever the relationship by blaming him and shunning him, • Buy him a loaf of bread and jar of peanut butter, the same as last week, • Agree to buy him food this week if he promises to pay you back on Friday. • Agree to buy him food this week if he promises to let you to manage half of his income each week for him. Under this agreement you hold money for him and release it for specific purchases you both agree are beneficial.After an extended and sometimes tense dialogue the two of you agree that the plan to helpBill manage his money provides the best balance between his needs for food, autonomy,competence, and relatedness. After several months, Bill is now eating better and drinking abit less. He seems more open to getting counselling.The Golden Rule – Secular EthicsThe Golden Rule “Treat others as you want to be treated” paraphrased from a wide varietyof sources begins to provide a model for acting with empathy. Perhaps a more accuratemodel is given by the “platinum rule”: Treat others as they want to be treated. The principleof empathy may be sufficient to develop a complete and socially valuable code of ethics.Various organizations have developed codes of ethics based primarily on the principle ofempathy. Here are some examples: • The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights • Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social WorkersQuotations: • “Dont just do something, stand there.” • “It is more important to define yourself by who you include than by who you exclude.” ~ from the movie Chocolate • “It is more considerate to interrupt the speaker than to pretend to listen.” • “See yourself in others, then who can you hurt? What harm can you do?” ~ The Buddha
EIQ Emotional IntelligenceFor many years, we have been led to believe that a persons intellectual intelligence(Measured as IQ, or intelligence quotient) is the greatest predictor of success.Society assumes that people with high IQs will naturally accomplish more in life.Schools often use IQ test results to choose children for gifted programs and advancedplacement courses. Some companies even use the results as a criterion for hiringemployees.We have been conditioned to judge intelligence with these numbers. In the past 10 years,however, researchers have found that this isnt necessarily the case -- that in actuality, apersons emotional intelligence (EQ) might be a greater predictor of success than his or herIQ.What is emotional intelligence? In the early 1990s, Dr John Mayer, Ph.D., and Dr PeterSalovey, Ph.D., introduced the term "emotional intelligence" in the Journal of PersonalityAssessment. They used this term to describe a persons ability to understand his or her ownemotions and the emotions of others and to act appropriately based on this understanding.Then in 1995, psychologist Daniel Goleman popularized this term with his book EmotionalIntelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. Emotional Intelligence is about havingempathy for others. It is about standing up for what you believe in a tactful and respectfulway. It is about not jumping to conclusions, but getting the whole picture before you react.The key to emotional intelligence is an understanding of your emotions and the emotions ofothers and acting in the most appropriate way based on that understanding.Having a healthy emotional intelligence is very important in order for human beings to livehappy and successful lives. Healthy emotional intelligence helps us set our personalboundaries, make decisions about our lives, and communicate with the people we love.Keep in mind that your emotional intelligence can change. People are always evolving. Youcan increase your EQ at any point in your life by learning to identify your emotions andtaking responsibility for those emotions. And just as easily as you can increase your EQ, youcan also decrease it. You must continue to identify and work on areas within yourself thatneed work.Regardless of your emotional intelligence level, you could benefit from some of these tips toincrease emotional intelligence: • Go to the gym, take an exercise class or participate in activities that reduce your stress level. • Take up a new hobby or sport that involves interacting with other people. • Take a class at your local community college. • Join a support group. • Keep a feelings journal. • See a counsellor to help you deal with your emotions. • Take an anger management course. • Enrol in a communication skills course.
• Read books about emotional intelligence and social skills. • Do emotional intelligence workbooks. • Ask your friends and family to help you recognize the things about yourself that may need correcting.Self-awarenessA philosophical view • "I think, therefore I exist, as a thing that thinks." • "...And as I observed that this truth I think, therefore I am (Cogito ergo sum) was so certain and of such evidence ...I concluded that I might, without scruple, accept it as the first principle of the Philosophy I was in search." • "...In the statement I think, therefore I am ... I see very clearly that to think it is necessary to be, I concluded that I might take, as a general rule, the principle, that all the things which we very clearly and distinctly conceive are true..." • While reading Descartes, Locke began to relish the great ideas of philosophy and the scientific method. On one occasion, while in a meeting with friends, the question of the "limits of human understanding" arose. He spent almost twenty years of his life on the subject until the publication of An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, a great chapter in the History of Philosophy.John Lockes chapter XXVII "On Identity and Diversity" in An Essay Concerning HumanUnderstanding (1689) has been said to be one of the first modern conceptualizations ofconsciousness as the repeated self-identification of oneself, through which moralresponsibility could be attributed to the subject—and therefore punishment and guiltinessjustified, as critics such as Nietzsche would point out, affirming "...the psychology ofconscience is not the voice of God in man; it is the instinct of cruelty ... expressed, for thefirst time, as one of the oldest and most indispensable elements in the foundation ofculture." John Locke does not use the terms self-awareness or self-consciousness though.According to Locke, personal identity (the self) "depends on consciousness, not onsubstance" nor on the soul. We are the same person to the extent that we are conscious ofour past and future thoughts and actions in the same way as we are conscious of ourpresent thoughts and actions. If consciousness is this "thought" which doubles all thoughts,then personal identity is only founded on the repeated act of consciousness: "This mayshow us wherein personal identity consists: not in the identity of substance, but ... in theidentity of consciousness". For example, one may claim to be a reincarnation of Plato,therefore having the same soul. However, one would be the same person as Plato only ifone had the same consciousness of Platos thoughts and actions that he himself did.Therefore, self-identity is not based on the soul. One soul may have various personalities.Self-identity is not founded either on the body or the substance, argues Locke, as thesubstance may change while the person remains the same: "animal identity is preserved inidentity of life, and not of substance", as the body of the animal grows and changes duringits life. Take for example a princes soul which enters the body of a cobbler: to all exterioreyes, the cobbler would remain a cobbler. But to the prince himself, the cobbler would be
himself, as he would be conscious of the princes thoughts and acts, and not of the cobblerslife. A princes consciousness in a cobbler body: thus the cobbler is, in fact, a prince. But thisinteresting border-case leads to this problematic thought that since personal identity isbased on consciousness, and that only oneself can be aware of his consciousness, exteriorhuman judges may never know if they really are judging—and punishing—the same person,or simply the same body. In other words, Locke argues that you may be judged only for theacts of your body, as this is what is apparent to all but God; however, you are in truth onlyresponsible for the acts for which you are conscious. This forms the basis of the insanitydefence: one cant be held accountable for acts in which one was unconsciously irrational,mentally ill—and therefore leads to interesting philosophical questions:"Personal identity consists [not in the identity of substance] but in the identity ofconsciousness, wherein if Socrates and the present mayor of Queenborough agree, they arethe same person: if the same Socrates waking and sleeping do not partake of the sameconsciousness, Socrates waking and sleeping is not the same person. And to punish Socrateswaking for what sleeping Socrates thought, and waking Socrates was never conscious of,would be no more right, than to punish one twin for what his brother-twin did, whereof heknew nothing, because their outsides were so like, that they could not be distinguished; forsuch twins have been seen."Or again:"PERSON, as I take it, is the name for this self. Wherever a man finds what he calls himself,there, I think, another may say is the same person. It is a forensic term, appropriatingactions and their merit; and so belongs only to intelligent agents, capable of a law, andhappiness, and misery. This personality extends itself beyond present existence to what ispast, only by consciousness, --whereby it becomes concerned and accountable; owns andimputes to itself past actions, just upon the same ground and for the same reason as it doesthe present. All which is founded in a concern for happiness, the unavoidable concomitantof consciousness; that which is conscious of pleasure and pain, desiring that that self that isconscious should be happy. And therefore whatever past actions it cannot reconcile orAPPROPRIATE to that present self by consciousness, it can be no more concerned in it thanif they had never been done: and to receive pleasure or pain, i.e. reward or punishment, onthe account of any such action, is all one as to be made happy or miserable in its first being,without any demerit at all. For, supposing a MAN punished now for what he had done inanother life, whereof he could be made to have no consciousness at all, and what differenceis there between that punishments and being CREATED miserable? And therefore,conformable to this, the apostle tells us, that, at the great day, when everyone shall receiveaccording to his doings, the secrets of all hearts shall be laid open. The sentence shall bejustified by the consciousness all person shall have, that THEY THEMSELVES, in what bodiesso ever they appear, or what substances so ever that consciousness adheres to, are theSAME that committed those actions, and deserve that punishment for them."Henceforth, Lockes conception of personal identity found it not on the substance or thebody, but in the "same continued consciousness", which is also distinct from the soul. Hecreates a third term between the soul and the body—and Lockes thought may certainly bemeditated by those who, following a scientist ideology, would identify too quickly the brainto consciousness. For the brain, as the body and as any substance, may change, whileconsciousness remains the same. Therefore personal identity is not in the brain, but inconsciousness. However, Lockes theory also reveals his debt to theology and to Apocalyptic
"great day", which by advance excuse any failings of human justice and thereforehumanitys miserable state.Emotional Intelligence has six main competencies:Self-Awareness TheorySelf-Awareness Theory states that when we focus our attention on ourselves, we evaluateand compare our current behaviour to our internal standards and values. We become self-conscious as objective evaluators of ourselves. However self-awareness is not to beconfused with self-consciousness. Various emotional states are intensified by self-awareness. However, some people may seek to increase their self-awareness through theseoutlets. People are more likely to align their behaviour with their standards when made self-aware. People will be negatively affected if they dont live up to their personal standards.Various environmental cues and situations induce awareness of the self, such as mirrors, anaudience, or being videotaped or recorded. These cues also increase accuracy of personalmemory. In Demetrious theory, one of the neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development,self-awareness develops systematically from birth through the life span and it is a majorfactor for the development of general inferential processes. Moreover, a series of recentstudies showed that self-awareness about cognitive processes participates in generalintelligence on a par with processing efficiency functions, such as working memory,processing speed, and reasoning.Self-managementSelf-management means different things in different fields:In business, education, and psychology, self-management refers to methods, skills, andstrategies by which individuals can effectively direct their own activities toward theachievement of objectives, and includes goal setting, decision making, focusing, planning,scheduling, task tracking, self-evaluation, self-intervention, self-development, etc. Alsoknown as executive processes (in the context of the processes of execution).In the field of computer science, self-management refers to the process by which computersystems will (one day) manage their own operation without human intervention. Self-Management technologies are expected to pervade the next generation of networkmanagement systems.In political economy, economics and sociology, self-management may refer to a Self-managed economy, a type of socialist economic system that is based on various forms ofcollaborative, decentralized, inclusive decision-making and relative workplace autonomy ineconomic enterprises and the government.Worker self-management (sometimes called workers control or autogestion) is a form ofworkplace decision-making in which the workers themselves agree on choices (for issuessuch as customer care, general production methods, scheduling, division of labour) insteadof an owner or traditional supervisor telling workers what to do, how to do it and where todo it. Examples of such self-management allegedly include the Paris Commune, the RussianRevolution, the German Revolution, the Spanish Revolution, Titoist Yugoslavia, Algeriaunder Ahmed Ben Bella, the fábricas recuperadas movement in Argentina, the LIP factory in
France in the 1970s, the Mondragón Cooperative Corporation which is the Basque Countryslargest corporation, AK Press in the United States, etc.Argentinas fábricas recuperadas movement, which emerged in response to Argentines2001 economic crisis, is the current most significant workers self-managementphenomenon in the world.English-language discussions of this phenomenon may employ several different translationsof the original Spanish expression other than recovered factory. For example, recuperatedfactory/business, reclaimed factory, and worker-run factory have been noted. Thephenomenon is also known as "autogestion," which comes from the French word for self-management (applied to factories, popular education systems, and other uses). Worker self-management may coincide with employee ownership.Workers self-management is often the decision-making model used in co-operativeeconomic arrangements such as worker cooperatives, workers councils, participatoryeconomics, and similar arrangements where the workplace operates without a boss. Thismodel of decision making does not involve consulting all employees for every tiny issue in atime-consuming, inefficient and ineffective manner. Real-world examples show that onlylarge-scale decisions are made by all employees during council meetings and small decisionsare made by those implementing them while coordinating with the rest and following moregeneral agreements.Autogestion was first theorized by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon during the first part of the 19thcentury. It then became a primary component of some trade union organizations, inparticular revolutionary syndicalism which was introduced in late 19th century France andguild socialism in early 20th century Britain, although both movements collapsed in the early1920s. French trade-union CFDT ("Confédération Française Démocratique du Travail")included worker self-management in its 1970 program, before later abandoning it. Thephilosophy of workers self-management has been promoted by the Industrial Workers ofthe World (IWW) since its founding in the United States in 1905.Critics of workers self-management from the left, such as Gilles Dauvé and JacquesCamatte, do not admonish the model as reactionary but simply as not progressive in thecontext of developed capitalism. Such critics suggest that capitalism is more than arelationship of management. Rather, they suggest capitalism should be considered as asocial totality which workers self-management in and of itself only perpetuates and doesnot challenge - despite its seemingly radical content and activity. This theory is used toexplain why self-management in Yugoslavia never advanced beyond the confines of thelarger state monopoly economy, or why many modern worker-owned facilities tend toreturn to hiring managers and accountants after only a few years of operation.Self-motivationMotivation is the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desiredgoal and elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal directed behaviours. For instance: Anindividual has not eaten, he or she feels hungry, and as a response he or she eats anddiminishes feelings of hunger. There are many approaches to motivation: physiological,
behavioural, cognitive, and social. It is the crucial element in setting and attaining goals—and research shows that subjects can influence their own levels of motivation and self-control. According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in a basic need tominimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such aseating and resting, or a desired object, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed toless-apparent reasons such as altruism, selfishness, morality, or avoiding mortality.Conceptually, motivation is distinct from volition and optimism. Motivation is related to, butdistinct from, emotion.Intrinsic and extrinsic motivationIntrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in thetask itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on any external pressure.Intrinsic motivation is based on taking pleasure in an activity rather than working towardsan external reward. Intrinsic motivation has been studied by social and educationalpsychologists since the early 1970s. Students who are intrinsically motivated are more likelyto engage in the task willingly as well as work to improve their skills, which will increasetheir capabilities. Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they: • attribute their educational results to factors under their own control, also known as autonomy, • believe they have the skill that will allow them to be effective agents in reaching desired goals (i.e. the results are not determined by luck), • are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote-learning to achieve good grades.Extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of an activity in order to attain an outcome,which then contradicts intrinsic motivation. It is widely believed that motivation performstwo functions. The first is often referred as to the energetic activation component of themotivation construct. The second is directed at a specific behaviour and makes reference tothe orientation directional component. Motives can be divided into two types: external andinternal. Internal motives are considered as the needs that every human being experience,while external indicate the presence of specific situations where these needs arise.Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to overjustification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation. In one study demonstratingthis effect, children who expected to be (and were) rewarded with a ribbon and a gold starfor drawing pictures spent less time playing with the drawing materials in subsequentobservations than children who were assigned to an unexpected reward condition. Forthose children who received no extrinsic reward, self-determination theory proposes thatextrinsic motivation can be internalised by the individual if the task fits with their values andbeliefs and therefore helps to fulfil their basic psychological needs.Push and PullThis model is usually used when discussing motivation within tourism context, so the mostattention in gastronomic tourism research should be dedicated to this theory. Pull factorsillustrate the choices of destinations by tourists, whereas push factors determine the desireto go on holiday. Moreover, push motives are connected with internal forces for example
need for relaxation or escapism and pull factors in turn induce a traveller to visit certainlocation by external forces such as landscape, culture image or climate of a destination.Dann also highlights the fact that push factors can be stimulated by external and situationalaspects of motivation in shape of pull factors. Then again pull factors are issues that canarise from a location itself and therefore ‘push’ an individual to choose to experience it.Since, a huge number of theories have been developed over the years in many studies thereis no single theory that illustrates all motivational aspects of travelling. Many researchershighlighted that because motives may occur at the same time it should not be assumed thatonly one motive drives an individual to perform an action as it was presumed in previousstudies. On the other hand, since people are not able to satisfy all their needs at once theyusually seek to satisfy some or a few of them.Self-controlThe self-control of motivation is increasingly understood as a subset of emotionalintelligence; a person may be highly intelligent according to a more conservative definition(as measured by many intelligence tests), yet unmotivated to dedicate this intelligence tocertain tasks. Yale School of Management Professor Victor Vrooms "expectancy theory"provides an account of when people will decide whether to exert self-control to pursue aparticular goal.Drives and desires can be described as a deficiency or need that activates behaviour that isaimed at a goal or an incentive. These are thought to originate within the individual andmay not require external stimuli to encourage the behaviour. Basic drives could be sparkedby deficiencies such as hunger, which motivates a person to seek food; whereas more subtledrives might be the desire for praise and approval, which motivates a person to behave in amanner pleasing to others.By contrast, the role of extrinsic rewards and stimuli can be seen in the example of traininganimals by giving them treats when they perform a trick correctly. The treat motivates theanimals to perform the trick consistently, even later when the treat is removed from theprocess.Motivational theoriesMotivation is the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goaland elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal directed behaviours. For instance: An individual hasnot eaten, he or she feels hungry, and as a response he or she eats and diminishes feelings ofhunger.There are many approaches to motivation: physiological, behavioural, cognitive, and social. It is thecrucial element in setting and attaining goals—and research shows that subjects can influence theirown levels of motivation and self-control. According to various theories, motivation may be rootedin a basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needssuch as eating and resting, or a desired object, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed toless-apparent reasons such as altruism, selfishness, morality, or avoiding mortality. Conceptually,motivation is distinct from volition and optimism. Motivation is related to, but distinct from,emotion.
Incentive theoryA reward, tangible or intangible, is presented after the occurrence of an action (i.e.behaviour) with the intent to cause the behaviour to occur again. This is done by associatingpositive meaning to the behaviour. Studies show that if the person receives the rewardimmediately, the effect is greater, and decreases as duration lengthens. Repetitive action-reward combination can cause the action to become habit. Motivation comes from twosources: oneself, and other people. These two sources are called intrinsic motivation andextrinsic motivation, respectively.Reinforces and reinforcement principles of behaviour differ from the hypothetical constructof reward. A reinforce is any stimulus change following a response that increases the futurefrequency or magnitude of that response, therefore the cognitive approach is certainly theway forward as in 1973 Maslow described it as being the golden pineapple. Positivereinforcement is demonstrated by an increase in the future frequency or magnitude of aresponse due to in the past being followed contingently by a reinforcing stimulus. Negativereinforcement involves stimulus change consisting of the removal of an aversive stimulusfollowing a response. Positive reinforcement involves a stimulus change consisting of thepresentation or magnification of an appetitive stimulus following a response. From thisperspective, motivation is mediated by environmental events, and the concept ofdistinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic forces is irrelevant.Applying proper motivational techniques can be much harder than it seems. Steven Kerrnotes that when creating a reward system, it can be easy to reward A, while hoping for B,and in the process, reap harmful effects that can jeopardize your goals.Incentive theory in psychology treats motivation and behaviour of the individual as they areinfluenced by beliefs, such as engaging in activities that are expected to be profitable.Incentive theory is promoted by behavioural psychologists, such as B.F. Skinner andliteralized by behaviourists, especially by Skinner in his philosophy of Radical behaviourism,to mean that a persons actions always have social ramifications: and if actions are positivelyreceived people are more likely to act in this manner, or if negatively received people areless likely to act in this manner.Incentive theory distinguishes itself from other motivation theories, such as drive theory, inthe direction of the motivation. In incentive theory, stimuli "attract", to use the term above,a person towards them. As opposed to the body seeking to re-establish homeostasispushing it towards the stimulus. In terms of behaviourism, incentive theory involves positivereinforcement: the stimulus has been conditioned to make the person happier. For instance,a person knows that eating food, drinking water, or gaining social capital will make themhappier. As opposed to in drive theory, which involves negative reinforcement: a stimulushas been associated with the removal of the punishment-- the lack of homeostasis in thebody. For example, a person has come to know that if they eat when hungry, it willeliminate that negative feeling of hunger, or if they drink when thirsty, it will eliminate thatnegative feeling of thirst.
Escape-seeking dichotomy modelEscapism and seeking are major factors influencing decision making. Escapism is a need tobreak away from a daily life routine whereas seeking is described as the desire to learn, gainsome inner benefits through travelling. Both motivations have some interpersonal andpersonal facets for example individuals would like to escape from family problems(personal) or from problems with work colleagues (interpersonal). This model can also beeasily adapted with regard to different studies.Drive-reduction theoryThere are a number of drive theories. The Drive Reduction Theory grows out of the conceptthat we have certain biological drives, such as hunger. As time passes the strength of thedrive increases if it is not satisfied (in this case by eating). Upon satisfying a drive the drivesstrength is reduced. The theory is based on diverse ideas from the theories of Freud to theideas of feedback control systems, such as a thermostat.Drive theory has some intuitive or folk validity. For instance when preparing food, the drivemodel appears to be compatible with sensations of rising hunger as the food is prepared,and, after the food has been consumed, a decrease in subjective hunger. There are severalproblems, however, that leave the validity of drive reduction open for debate. The firstproblem is that it does not explain how secondary reinforces reduce drive. For example,money satisfies no biological or psychological needs, but a pay check appears to reducedrive through second-order conditioning. Secondly, a drive, such as hunger, is viewed ashaving a "desire" to eat, making the drive a homunculi being—a feature criticized as simplymoving the fundamental problem behind this "small man" and his desires.In addition, it is clear that drive reduction theory cannot be a complete theory of behaviour,or a hungry human could not prepare a meal without eating the food before he finishedcooking it. The ability of drive theory to cope with all kinds of behaviour, from not satisfyinga drive (by adding on other traits such as restraint), or adding additional drives for "tasty"food, which combine with drives for "food" in order to explain cooking render it hard totest.Cognitive dissonance theorySuggested by Leon Festinger, cognitive dissonance occurs when an individual experiencessome degree of discomfort resulting from an inconsistency between two cognitions: theirviews on the world around them, and their own personal feelings and actions. For example,a consumer may seek to reassure himself regarding a purchase, feeling, in retrospect, thatanother decision may have been preferable. His feeling that another purchase would havebeen preferable is inconsistent with his action of purchasing the item. The differencebetween his feelings and beliefs causes dissonance, so he seeks to reassure himself.While not a theory of motivation, per se, the theory of cognitive dissonance proposes thatpeople have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance. The cognitive miser perspectivemakes people want to justify things in a simple way in order to reduce the effort they putinto cognition. They do this by changing their attitudes, beliefs, or actions, rather than facingthe inconsistencies, because dissonance is a mental strain. Dissonance is also reduced by
justifying, blaming, and denying. It is one of the most influential and extensively studiedtheories in social psychology.Need theoriesMotivation, as defined by Pritchard and Ashwood, is the process used to allocate energy tomaximize the satisfaction of needs.Need hierarchy theoryThe content theory includes the hierarchy of needs from Abraham Maslow and the two-factor theory from Herzberg. Maslows theory is one of the most widely discussed theoriesof motivation.The American motivation psychologist Abraham H. Maslow developed the Hierarchy ofneeds consistent of five hierarchic classes. It shows the complexity of human requirements.According to him, people are motivated by unsatisfied needs. The lower level needs such asPhysiological and Safety needs will have to be satisfied before higher level needs are to beaddressed. We can relate Maslows Hierarchy of Needs theory with employee motivation.For example, if a manager is trying to motivate his employees by satisfying their needs;according to Maslow, he should try to satisfy the lower level needs before he tries to satisfythe upper level needs or the employees will not be motivated. Also he has to rememberthat not everyone will be satisfied by the same needs. A good manager will try to figure outwhich levels of needs are active for a certain individual or employee. The basic requirementsbuild the first step in his pyramid. If there is any deficit on this level, the whole behaviour ofa human will be oriented to satisfy this deficit. Subsequently we do have the second level,which awake a need for security. Basically it is oriented on a future need for security. Aftersecuring those two levels, the motives shift in the social sphere, which form the third stage.Psychological requirements consist in the fourth level, while the top of the hierarchycomprise the self- realization So theory can be summarized as follows: • Human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. Only unsatisfied needs influence behaviour, satisfied needs do not. • Since needs are many, they are arranged in order of importance, from the basic to the complex. • The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. • The further the progress up the hierarchy, the more individuality, humanness and psychological health a person will show.The needs, listed from basic (lowest-earliest) to most complexes (highest-latest) are asfollows: • Physiology (hunger, thirst, sleep, etc.) • Safety/Security/Shelter/Health • Belongingness/Love/Friendship • Self-esteem/Recognition/Achievement • Self-actualisation
Herzbergs two-factor theoryFrederick Herzbergs two-factor theory, a.k.a. intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, concludes thatcertain factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction, but if absent, they dont lead todissatisfaction but no satisfaction. The factors that motivate people can change over theirlifetime, but "respect for me as a person" is one of the top motivating factors at any stage oflife.He distinguished between:Motivators; (e.g. challenging work, recognition, responsibility) which give positivesatisfaction, andHygiene factors; (e.g. status, job security, salary and fringe benefits) that do not motivate ifpresent, but, if absent, result in demotivation.The name Hygiene factors is used because, like hygiene, the presence will not make youhealthier, but absence can cause health deterioration.The theory is sometimes called the "Motivator-Hygiene Theory" and/or "The Dual StructureTheory."Herzbergs theory has found application in such occupational fields as information systemsand in studies of user satisfaction.Alderfers ERG theoryAlderfer, expanding on Maslows hierarchy of needs, created the ERG theory. This theoryposits that there are three groups of core need — existence, relatedness, and growth, hencethe label: ERG theory. The existence group is concerned with providing our basic materialexistence requirements. They include the items that Maslow considered to be physiologicaland safety needs. The second group of needs are those of relatedness- the desire we havefor maintaining important interpersonal relationships. These social and status desiresrequire interaction with others if they are to be satisfied, and they align with Maslows socialneed and the external component of Maslows esteem classification. Finally, Alderferisolates growth needs an intrinsic desire for personal development. These include theintrinsic component from Maslows esteem category and the characteristics included underself-actualization.Self-determination theorySelf-determination theory (SDT), developed by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan, focuses onthe importance of intrinsic motivation in driving human behaviour. Like Maslowshierarchical theory and others that built on it, SDT posits a natural tendency toward growthand development. Unlike these other theories, however, SDT does not include any sort of"autopilot" for achievement, but instead requires active encouragement from theenvironment. The primary factors that encourage motivation and development areautonomy, competence feedback, and relatedness.Broad theoriesThe latest approach in developing a broad, integrative theory of motivation is TemporalMotivation Theory(TMT). Introduced in a 2007 Academy of Management Review article, itsynthesizes into a single formulation the primary aspects (including time as a fundamentalterm) of several other major motivational theories, including Incentive Theory, DriveTheory, Need Theory, Self-Efficacy and Goal Setting. The original researchers note that, in aneffort to keep the theory simple, existing theories to integrate were selected based on their
shared attributes, and that these theories are still of value, as TMT does not contain thesame depth of detail as each individual theory. However, it still simplifies the field ofmotivation and allows findings from one theory to be translated into terms of another.Achievement Motivation is an integrative perspective based on the premise thatperformance motivation results from the way broad components of personality are directedtowards performance. As a result, it includes a range of dimensions that are relevant tosuccess at work but which are not conventionally regarded as being part of performancemotivation. Especially it integrates formerly separated approaches as Need for Achievementwith, for example, social motives like dominance. The Achievement Motivation Inventory isbased on this theory and assesses three factors (in 17 separated scales) relevant tovocational and professional success.Cognitive theoriesPiagets theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature anddevelopment of human intelligence first developed by Jean Piaget. It is primarily known as adevelopmental stage theory, but in fact, it deals with the nature of knowledge itself andhow humans come gradually to acquire, construct, and use it. Moreover, Piaget claims theidea that cognitive development is at the center of human organism and language iscontingent on cognitive development. Below, there is first a short description of Piagetsviews about the nature of intelligence and then a description of the stages through which itdevelops until maturity.Nature of intelligence: operative and figurative intelligencePiaget believed that reality is a dynamic system of continuous change, and as such is definedin reference to the two conditions that define dynamic systems. Specifically, he argued thatreality involves transformations and states. Transformations refer to all manners of changesthat a thing or person can undergo. States refer to the conditions or the appearances inwhich things or persons can be found between transformations. For example, there mightbe changes in shape or form (for instance, liquids are reshaped as they are transferred fromone vessel to another, humans change in their characteristics as they grow older), in size(e.g., a series of coins on a table might be placed close to each other or far apart) inplacement or location in space and time (e.g., various objects or persons might be found atone place at one time and at a different place at another time). Thus, Piaget argued, that ifhuman intelligence is to be adaptive, it must have functions to represent both thetransformational and the static aspects of reality. He proposed that operative intelligence isresponsible for the representation and manipulation of the dynamic or transformationalaspects of reality and that figurative intelligence is responsible for the representation of thestatic aspects of reality.Operative intelligence is the active aspect of intelligence. It involves all actions, overt orcovert, undertaken in order to follow, recover, or anticipate the transformations of theobjects or persons of interest. Figurative intelligence is the more or less static aspect ofintelligence, involving all means of representation used to retain in mind the states (i.e.,successive forms, shapes, or locations) that intervene between transformations. That is, itinvolves perception, imitation, mental imagery, drawing, and language. Therefore, thefigurative aspects of intelligence derive their meaning from the operative aspects ofintelligence, because states cannot exist independently of the transformations that
interconnect them. Piaget believed that the figurative or the representational aspects ofintelligence are subservient to its operative and dynamic aspects, and therefore, thatunderstanding essentially derives from the operative aspect of intelligence.At any time, operative intelligence frames how the world is understood and it changes ifunderstanding is not successful. Piaget believed that this process of understanding andchange involves two basic functions: Assimilation and accommodation.Assimilation and accommodationThrough studying the field of education Piaget focused on accommodation and assimilation.Assimilation, one of two processes coined by Jean Piaget, describes how humans perceiveand adapt to new information. It is the process of taking one’s environment and newinformation and fitting it into pre-existing cognitive schemas. Assimilation occurs whenhumans are faced with new or unfamiliar information and refer to previously learnedinformation in order to make sense of it. Accommodation, unlike assimilation is the processof taking ones environment and new information, and altering ones pre-existing schemasin order to fit in the new information.Through a series of stages, Piaget explains the ways in which characteristics are constructedthat lead to specific types of thinking; this chart is called Cognitive Development. To Piaget,assimilation is integrating external elements into structures of lives or environments orthose we could have through experience. It is through assimilation that accommodation isderived. Accommodation is imperative because it is how people will continue to interpretnew concepts, schemas, frameworks, etc. Assimilation is different from accommodationbecause of how it relates to the inner organism due to the environment. Piaget believes thatthe human brain has been programmed through evolution to bring equilibrium, and tomove upwards in a process to equilibrate what is not. The equilibrium is what Piagetbelieves ultimately influences structures because of the internal and external processesthrough assimilation and accommodation.Piagets understanding is that these two functions cannot exist without the other. Toassimilate an object into an existing mental schema, one first needs to take into account oraccommodate to the particularities of this object to a certain extent; for instance, torecognize (assimilate) an apple as an apple one needs first to focus (accommodate) on thecontour of this object. To do this one needs to roughly recognize the size of the object.Development increases the balance or equilibration between these two functions. When inbalance with each other, assimilation and accommodation generate mental schemas of theoperative intelligence. When one function dominates over the other, they generaterepresentations which belong to figurative intelligence.Sensorimotor stageThe sensorimotor stage is the first of the four stages in cognitive development which"extends from birth to the acquisition of language". "In this stage, infants construct anunderstanding of the world by coordinating experiences (such as seeing and hearing) withphysical, motoric actions. Infants gain knowledge of the world from the physical actions theyperform on it. An infant progresses from reflexive, instinctual action at birth to thebeginning of symbolic thought toward the end of the stage. Piaget divided the sensorimotor
stage into six sub-stages":0–2 years, Infants just have senses-vision, hearing, and motorskills, such as grasping, sucking, and stepping.---from Psychology Study Guide by Bernstein,Penner, Clarke-Stewart, RoyThe first stage is called the Sensorimotor stage (birth to about age 2). In this stageknowledge of the world is limited (but developing) because it’s based on physicalinteractions/experiences. The child learns that he is separate from his environment and thataspects of his environment continue to exist even though they may be outside the reach ofhis senses. Behaviors are limited to simple motor responses caused by sensory stimuli. Inthis stage according to Piaget, the development of object permanence is one of the mostimportant accomplishments at the sensorimotor stage. (Object permanence is a childunderstands that objects continue to exist even though they cannot be seen or heard). Sub-Stage Age Description "Coordination of sensation and action through reflexive behaviours". Three primary reflexes are described by Piaget: sucking of objects in the mouth, following moving or Birth-6 interesting objects with the eyes, and closing of the hand1 Simple Reflexes weeks when an object makes contact with the palm (palmar grasp). Over the first six weeks of life, these reflexes begin to become voluntary actions; for example, the palmar reflex becomes intentional grasping.). "Coordination of sensation and two types of schemes: habits (reflex) and primary circular reactions (reproduction of an2 First habits and 6 weeks- event that initially occurred by chance). Main focus is still onprimary circular 4 the infants body." As an example of this type of reaction, anreactions phase months infant might repeat the motion of passing their hand before their face. Also at this phase, passive reactions, caused by classical or operant conditioning, can begin. Development of habits. "Infants become more object- oriented, moving beyond self-preoccupation; repeat actions that bring interesting or pleasurable results." This stage is associated primarily with the development of coordination between vision and prehension. Three new abilities occur at this stage: intentional grasping for a desired object,3 Secondary secondary circular reactions, and differentiations between 4–8circular reactions ends and means. At this stage, infants will intentionally grasp monthsphase the air in the direction of a desired object, often to the amusement of friends and family. Secondary circular reactions, or the repetition of an action involving an external object begin; for example, moving a switch to turn on a light repeatedly. The differentiation between means and ends also occurs. This is perhaps one of the most important stages of a childs growth as it signifies the dawn of logic.4 Coordination of 8–12 "Coordination of vision and touch--hand-eye coordination;secondary circular months coordination of schemes and intentionality." This stage is
reactions stages associated primarily with the development of logic and the coordination between means and ends. This is an extremely important stage of development, holding what Piaget calls the "first proper intelligence." Also, this stage marks the beginning of goal orientation, the deliberate planning of steps to meet an objective. "Infants become intrigued by the many properties of objects and by the many things they can make happen to objects;5 Tertiary circular they experiment with new behaviour." This stage is 12–18reactions, novelty, associated primarily with the discovery of new means to monthsand curiosity meet goals. Piaget describes the child at this juncture as the "young scientist," conducting pseudo-experiments to discover new methods of meeting challenges. "Infants develop the ability to use primitive symbols and form enduring mental representations." This stage is6 Internalization of 18–24 associated primarily with the beginnings of insight, or trueSchemes months creativity. This marks the passage into the preoperational stage.By the end of the sensorimotor period, objects are both separate from the self andpermanent. Object permanence is the understanding that objects continue to exist evenwhen they cannot be seen, heard, or touched. Acquiring the sense of object permanence isone of the infants most important accomplishments, according to Piaget.Preoperational stageThe Cognitive Development Approaches. By observing sequences of play, Jean Piaget wasable to demonstrate that towards the end of the second year, a qualitatively new kind ofpsychological functioning occurs.(Pre)Operatory Thought is any procedure for mentally acting on objects. The hallmark ofthe preoperational stage is sparse and logically inadequate mental operations. During thisstage, the child learns to use and to represent objects by images, words, and drawings. Thechild is able to form stable concepts as well as mental reasoning and magical beliefs. Thechild however is still not able to perform operations; tasks that the child can do mentallyrather than physically. Thinking is still egocentric. The child has difficulty taking theviewpoint of others. Two sub stages can be formed from preoperative thought. • The Symbolic Function Sub stage Occurs between about the ages of 2 and 7. At 2-4 years of age, kids cannot yet manipulate and transform information in logical ways, but they now can think in images and symbols. The child is able to formulate designs of objects that are not present. Other examples of mental abilities are language and pretend play. Although there is an advance in progress, there are still limitations such as egocentrism and animism. Egocentrism occurs when a child is unable to distinguish between their own perspective and that of another persons. Children tend to pick their own view of what they see rather than the actual view shown to others. An example is an experiment performed by Piaget and Barbel Inhelder. Three views of a mountain are
shown and the child is asked what a traveling doll would see at the various angles; the child picks their own view compared to the actual view of the doll. Animism is the belief that inanimate objects are capable of actions and have lifelike qualities. An example is a child believing that the sidewalk was mad and made them fall down. • The Intuitive Thought Sub stage Occurs between about the ages of 4 and 7. Children tend to become very curious and ask many questions; begin the use of primitive reasoning. There is an emergence in the interest of reasoning and wanting to know why things are the way they are. Piaget called it the intuitive sub stage because children realize they have a vast amount of knowledge but they are unaware of how they know it. Centration and conservation are both involved in preoperative thought. Centration is the act of focusing all attention on one characteristic compared to the others. Centration is noticed in conservation; the awareness that altering a substances appearance does not change its basic properties. Children at this stage are unaware of conservation. Example, In Piagets most famous task, a child is presented with two identical beakers containing the same amount of liquid. The child usually notes that the beakers have the same amount of liquid. When one of the beakers is poured into a taller and thinner container, children who are younger than 7 or 8 years old typically say that the two beakers no longer contain the same amount of liquid, and the taller container holds the larger quantity. The child simply focuses on the height and width of the container compared to the general concept.The second stage is called Pre-operational stage (begins about the time the child starts totalk at about the age of 2). Intelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols,language use matures, and memory and imaginations are developed. The child’s thinking isinfluenced by fantasy (the way the child would like things to be) and the child assumes thatothers see situations from his viewpoint. The child takes in information’s and then changesit in his mind to fit his idea. Piaget noted that children in this stage do not yet understandconcrete logic, cannot mentally manipulate information. Children’s increase in playing andpretending takes place in the pre-operational stage.Concrete operational stageThe concrete operational stage is the third of four stages of cognitive development inPiagets theory. This stage, which follows the preoperational stage, occurs between the agesof 7 and 11 years and is characterized by the appropriate use of logic. Important processesduring this stage are:Serration—the ability to sort objects in an order according to size, shape, or any othercharacteristic. For example, if given different-shaded objects they may make a colorgradient.Transitivity- Transitivity, which refers to the ability to recognize relationships among variousthings in a serial order. For example, when told to put away his books according to height,the child recognizes that he starts with placing the tallest one on one end of the bookshelfand the shortest one ends up at the other end.Classification—the ability to name and identify sets of objects according to appearance, sizeor other characteristic, including the idea that one set of objects can include another.
Decentering—where the child takes into account multiple aspects of a problem to solve it.For example, the child will no longer perceive an exceptionally wide but short cup to containless than a normally wide, taller cup.Reversibility—the child understands that numbers or objects can be changed, thenreturned to their original state. For example, during this stage, a child understands that afavorite ball that deflates is not gone but can be filled with air again and put back into play.Conservation—understanding that quantity, length or number of items is unrelated to thearrangement or appearance of the object or items.Elimination of Egocentrism—the ability to view things from anothers perspective (even ifthey think incorrectly). For instance, show a child a comic in which Jane puts a doll under abox, leaves the room, and then Melissa moves the doll to a drawer, and Jane comes back. Achild in the concrete operations stage will say that Jane will still think its under the box eventhough the child knows it is in the drawer. (See also False-belief task).Children in this stage can, however, only solve problems that apply to actual (concrete)objects or events, and not abstract concepts or hypothetical tasks.The third stage is known as Concrete operational stage (First grade to early adolescence):Intelligence is demonstrated through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols relatedto concrete objects. The child develops an ability to think abstractly and to make rationaljudgments about concrete or observable phenomena, which in the past he needed tomanipulate physically to understand. Logic: Piaget determined that children in the concreteoperational stage were able to incorporate inductive logic. On the other hand, children atthis age have difficulty using deductive logic, which involves using a general principle topredict the outcome of a specific event. Reversibility: An example of this is being able toreverse the order of relationships between mental categories. For example, a child might beable to recognize that his or her dog is a Labrador, that a Labrador is a dog, and that a dog isan animal, and draw conclusions from the information available, as well as apply all theseprocesses to hypothetical situations. The abstract quality of the adolescents thought at theformal operational level is evident in the adolescents verbal problem solving ability. Thelogical quality of the adolescents thought is when children are more likely to solve problemsin a trial-and-error fashion. Adolescents begin to think more as a scientist thinks, devisingplans to solve problems and systematically testing solutions. They use hypothetical-deductive reasoning, which means that they develop hypotheses or best guesses, andsystematically deduce, or conclude, which is the best path to follow in solving the problem.During this stage the adolescent is able to understand such things as love, "shades of gray",logical proofs and values. During this stage the young person begins to entertain possibilitiesfor the future and is fascinated with what they can be. Adolescents are changing cognitivelyalso by the way that they think about social matters. Adolescent Egocentrism governs theway that adolescents think about social matters and is the heightened self-consciousness inthem as they are which is reflected in their sense of personal uniqueness and invincibility.Adolescent egocentrism can be dissected into two types of social thinking, imaginaryaudience that involves attention getting behavior, and personal fable which involves anadolescents sense of personal uniqueness and invincibility.
Formal operational stageThe final stage is known as Formal operational stage (adolescence and into adulthood):Intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts.At this point, the person is capable of hypothetical and deductive reasoning. During thistime, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts. Logic: Piaget believed thatdeductive logic becomes important during the formal operational stage. This type ofthinking involves hypothetical situations and is often required in science and mathematics.Abstract thought emerges during the formal operational stage. Children tend to think veryconcretely and specifically in earlier stages. Children begin to consider possible outcomesand consequences of actions. Problem-Solving is when children use trial-and-error to solveproblems. The ability to systematically solve a problem in a logical and methodical wayemerges.The stages and causationPiaget sees children’s conception of causation as a march from "primitive" conceptions ofcause to those of a more scientific, rigorous, and mechanical nature. These primitiveconcepts are characterized as magical, with a decidedly non-natural or non-mechanicaltone. Piaget attributes this to his most basic assumption: those babies are phenomenists.That is, their knowledge "consists of assimilating things to schemas" from their own actionsuch that they appear, from the child’s point of view, "to have qualities which in fact stemfrom the organism." Consequently, these "subjective conceptions," so prevalent duringPiaget’s first stage of development, are dashed upon discovering deeper empirical truths.Piaget gives the example of a child believing the moon and stars follow him on a night walk;upon learning that such is the case for his friends, he must separate his self from the object,resulting in a theory that the moon is immobile, or moves independently of other agents.The second stage, from around three to eight years of age, is characterized by a mix of thistype of magical, animistic, or “non-natural” conceptions of causation and mechanical or"naturalistic" causation. This conjunction of natural and non-natural causal explanationssupposedly stems from experience itself, though Piaget does not make much of an attemptto describe the nature of the differences in conception; in his interviews with children, heasked specifically about natural phenomena: what makes clouds move? What makes thestars move? Why do rivers flow? The nature of all the answers given, Piaget says, are suchthat these objects must perform their actions to "fulfill their obligations towards men." Hecalls this "moral explanation."Challenges to Piagetian stage theoryPiagetians accounts of development have been challenged on several grounds. First, asPiaget himself noted, development does not always progress in the smooth manner histheory seems to predict. Decalage, or unpredicted gaps in the developmental progression,suggest that the stage model is at best a useful approximation. Furthermore, studies havefound that children may be able to learn concepts supposedly represented in moreadvanced stages with relative ease. More broadly, Piagets theory is domain general,
predicting that cognitive maturation occurs concurrently across different domains ofknowledge (such as mathematics, logic, understanding of physics, of language, etc.). Duringthe 1980s and 1990s, cognitive developmentalists were influenced by "neo-nativist" andevolutionary psychology ideas. These ideas de-emphasized domain general theories andemphasized domain specificity or modularity of mind. Modularity implies that differentcognitive faculties may be largely independent of one another and thus develop accordingto quite different time-tables. In this vein, some cognitive developmentalists argued thatrather than being domain general learners, children come equipped with domain specifictheories, sometimes referred to as core knowledge, which allows them to break intolearning within that domain. For example, even young infants appear to be sensitive tosome predictable regularities in the movement and interactions of objects (e.g. that oneobject cannot pass through another), or in human behavior (e.g. that a hand repeatedlyreaching for an object has that object, not just a particular path of motion), as its be thebuilding block out of which more elaborate knowledge is constructed. More recent work hasstrongly challenged some of the basic presumptions of the core knowledge school, andrevised ideas of domain generality—but from a newer dynamic systems approach, not froma revised Piagetian perspective. Dynamic systems approaches harken to modern neuro-scientific research that was not available to Piaget when he was constructing his theory. Oneimportant finding is that domain-specific knowledge is constructed as children develop andintegrate knowledge. This suggests more of a "smooth integration" of learning anddevelopment than either Piaget, or his neo-nativist critics, had envisioned. Additionally,some psychologists, such as Vygotsky and Jerome Bruner, thought differently from Piaget,suggesting that language was more important than Piaget implied.Post Piagetian and Neo-Piagetian stagesIn the recent years, several scholars attempted to ameliorate the problems of Piagetstheory by developing new theories and models that can accommodate evidence thatviolates Piagetian predictions and postulates. These models are summarized below. • The neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development, advanced by Case, Demetriou, Halford, Fischer, and Pascual-Leone, attempted to integrate Piagets theory with cognitive and differential theories of cognitive organization and development. Their aim was to better account for the cognitive factors of development and for intra-individual and inter-individual differences in cognitive development. They suggested that development along Piagets stages is due to increasing working memory capacity and processing efficiency. Moreover, Demetrious’s theory ascribes an important role to hyper cognitive processes of self- recording, self-monitoring, and self-regulation and it recognizes the operation of several relatively autonomous domains of thought (Demetriou, 1998; Demetrious, Mouyi, Spanoudis, 2010). • Post formal stages have been proposed. Kurt Fischer suggested two, Michael Commons presents evidence for four post formal stages: the systematic, metasystematic, and paradigmatic and cross paradigmatic. (Commons & Richards, 2003; Oliver, 2004). • A "sentential" stage has been proposed, said to occur before the early preoperational stage. Proposed by Fischer, Biggs and Biggs, Commons, and Richards. • Searching for a micro-physiological basis for human mental capacity, Traill (1978, Section C5.4 ; - 1999, Section 8.4 ) proposed that there may be "pre-
sensorimotor" stages ("M−1L", "M−2L", … … ) — developed in the womb and/or transmitted genetically.Postulated physical mechanisms underlying "schemes" and stagesPiaget (1967) considered the possibility of RNA molecules as likely embodiments of his still-abstract "schemes" (which he promoted as units of action) — though he did not come toany firm conclusion. At that time, due to work such as that of Holger Hydén, RNAconcentrations had indeed been shown to correlate with learning, so the idea was quiteplausible.However, by the time of Piagets death in 1980, this notion had lost favour. One mainproblem was over the protein which (it was assumed) such RNA would necessarily produce,and that did not fit in with observation. It then turned out, surprisingly, that only about 3%of RNA does code for protein (Mattick, 2001, 2003, 2004). Hence most of the remaining 97%(the "ncRNA") could now theoretically be available to serve as Piagetian schemes (or otherregulatory roles now under investigation). The issue has not yet been resolvedexperimentally, but its theoretical aspects have been reviewed; (Traill 2005 / 2008).Relation to psychometric theories of intelligencePiaget designed a number of tasks to verify hypotheses arising from his theory. The taskswere not intended to measure individual differences, and they have no equivalent inpsychometric intelligence tests. Notwithstanding the different research traditions in whichpsychometric tests and Piagetian tasks were developed, the correlations between the twotypes of measures have been found to be consistently positive and generally moderate inmagnitude. A common general factor underlies them. It has been shown that it is possible toconstruct a battery consisting of Piagetian tasks that is as good a measure of generalintelligence as standard IQ tests.Goal-setting theoryGoal-setting theory is based on the notion that individuals sometimes have a drive to reacha clearly defined end state. Often, this end state is a reward in itself. A goals efficiency isaffected by three features: proximity, difficulty and specificity. Good goal settingincorporates the SMART criteria, in which goals are: specific, measurable, accurate, realistic,and timely. An ideal goal should present a situation where the time between the initiationof behaviour and the end state is close. This explains why some children are more motivatedto learn how to ride a bike than to master algebra. A goal should be moderate, not too hardor too easy to complete. In both cases, most people are not optimally motivated, as manywant a challenge (which assumes some kind of insecurity of success). At the same timepeople want to feel that there is a substantial probability that they will succeed. Specificityconcerns the description of the goal in their class. The goal should be objectively definedand intelligible for the individual. A classic example of a poorly specified goal is to get thehighest possible grade. Most children have no idea how much effort they need to reach thatgoal.Models of behaviour changeSocial-cognitive models of behaviour change include the constructs of motivation andvolition. Motivation is seen as a process that leads to the forming of behavioural intentions.Volition is seen as a process that leads from intention to actual behaviour. In other words,
motivation and volition refer to goal setting and goal pursuit, respectively. Both processesrequire self-regulatory efforts. Several self-regulatory constructs are needed to operate inorchestration to attain goals. An example of such a motivational and volitional construct isperceived self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is supposed to facilitate the forming of behaviouralintentions, the development of action plans, and the initiation of action. It can support thetranslation of intentions into action.Unconscious motivationSome psychologists believe that a significant portion of human behaviour is energized anddirected by unconscious motives. According to Maslow, "Psychoanalysis has oftendemonstrated that the relationship between a conscious desire and the ultimateunconscious aim that underlies it need not be at all direct."Intrinsic motivation and the 16 basic desires theoryStarting from studies involving more than 6,000 people, Professor Steven Reiss hasproposed a theory that found 16 basic desires that guide nearly all human behaviour. The 16basic desires that motivate our actions and define our personalities as: • Acceptance, the need for approval • Curiosity, the need to learn • Eating, the need for food • Family, the need to raise children • Honour, the need to be loyal to the traditional values of ones clan/ethnic group • Idealism, the need for social justice • Independence, the need for individuality • Order, the need for organized, stable, predictable environments • Physical activity, the need for exercise • Power, the need for influence of will • Romance, the need for sex • Saving, the need to collect • Social contact, the need for friends (peer relationships) • Social status, the need for social standing/importance • Tranquillity, the need to be safe • Vengeance, the need to strike back/to winIn this model, people differ in these basic desires. These basic desires represent intrinsicdesires that directly motivate a persons behaviour, and not aimed at indirectly satisfyingother desires. People may also be motivated by non-basic desires, but in this case this doesnot relate to deep motivation, or only as a means to achieve other basic desires.Controlling motivationThe control of motivation is only understood to a limited extent. There are many differentapproaches of motivation training, but many of these are considered pseudoscientific bycritics. To understand how to control motivation it is first necessary to understand whymany people lack motivation.Employee motivationWorkers in any organization need something to keep them working. Most of the time, thesalary of the employee is enough to keep him or her working for an organization. An
employee must be motivated to work for a company or organization. If no motivation ispresent in an employee, then that employee’s quality of work or all work in general willdeteriorate.When motivating an audience, you can use general motivational strategies or specificmotivational appeals. General motivational strategies include soft sell versus hard sell andpersonality type. Soft sell strategies have logical appeals, emotional appeals, advice andpraise. Hard sell strategies have barter, outnumbering, pressure and rank. Also, you canconsider basing your strategy on your audience personality. Specific motivational appealsfocus on provable facts, feelings, right and wrong, audience rewards and audience threats.Job Characteristics ModelThe Job Characteristics Model (JCM), as designed by Hackman and Oldham attempts to usejob design to improve employee motivation. They have identified that any job can bedescribed in terms of five key job characteristics; 1. Skill Variety - the degree to which a job requires different skills and talents to complete a number of different activities 2. Task Identity - this dimension refers to the completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work versus a partial task as part of a larger piece of work 3. Task Significance - is the impact of the task upon the lives or work of others 4. Autonomy - is the degree of independence or freedom allowed to complete a job 5. Task Feedback - individually obtaining direct and clear feedback about the effectiveness of the individual carrying out the work activitiesThe JCM links these core job dimensions listed above to critical psychological states whichresults in desired personal and work outcomes. This forms the basis of this employeegrowth-need strength." The core dimensions listed above can be combined into a singlepredictive index, called the Motivating Potential Score.Motivating Potential ScoreThe motivating potential score (MPS) can be calculated, using the core dimensions discussedabove, as follows;Jobs that are high in motivating potential must be high on at least one of the three factorsthat lead to experienced meaningfulness, and also must be high on both Autonomy andFeedback. If a job has a high MPS, the job characteristics model predicts that motivation,performance and job satisfaction will be positively affected and the likelihood of negativeoutcomes, such as absenteeism and turnover, will be reduced.EducationMotivation is of particular interest to educational psychologists because of the crucial role itplays in student learning. However, the specific kind of motivation that is studied in thespecialized setting of education differs qualitatively from the more general forms ofmotivation studied by psychologists in other fields.Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and how theybehave towards subject matter. It can: • Direct behaviour toward particular goals • Lead to increased effort and energy
• Increase initiation of, and persistence in, activities • Enhance cognitive processing • Determine what consequences are reinforcing • Lead to improved performance.Because students are not always internally motivated, they sometimes need situatedmotivation, which is found in environmental conditions that the teacher creates.If teachers decided to extrinsically reward productive student behaviours, they may find itdifficult to extricate themselves from that path. Consequently student dependency onextrinsic rewards represents one of the greatest detractors from their use in the classroom.The majority of new student orientation leaders at colleges and universities recognize thatdistinctive needs of students should be considered in regard to orientation informationprovided at the beginning of the higher education experience. Research done by Whyte in1986 raised the awareness of counsellors and educators in this regard. In 2007, the NationalOrientation Directors Association reprinted Cassandra B. Whytes research report allowingreaders to ascertain improvements made in addressing specific needs of students over aquarter of a century later to help with academic success.Generally, motivation is conceptualized as either intrinsic or extrinsic. Classically, thesecategories are regarded as distinct. Today, these concepts are less likely to be used asdistinct categories, but instead as two ideal types that define a continuum:Intrinsic motivation occurs when people are internally motivated to do something becauseit either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they arelearning is significant. It has been shown that intrinsic motivation for education drops fromgrades 3-9 though the exact cause cannot be ascertained. Also, in younger students it hasbeen shown that contextualizing material that would otherwise be presented in an abstractmanner increases the intrinsic motivation of these students.Extrinsic motivation comes into play when a student is compelled to do something or act acertain way because of factors external to him or her (like money or good grades).Cassandra B. Whyte researched and reported about the importance of locus of control andacademic achievement. Students tending toward a more internal locus of control are moreacademically successful, thus encouraging curriculum and activity development withconsideration of motivation theories.Motivation has been found to be an important element in the concept of Andragogy (whatmotivates the adult learner), and in treating Autism Spectrum Disorders, as in PivotalResponse Therapy.Doyle and Moeyn have noted that traditional methods tended to use anxiety as negativemotivation (e.g. use of bad grades by teachers) as a method of getting students to work.However, they have found that progressive approaches with focus on positive motivationover punishment has produced greater effectiveness with learning, since anxiety interfereswith performance of complex tasks.Sudbury Model schools adduce that the cure to the problem of procrastination, of learningin general, and particularly of scientific illiteracy is to remove once and for all what they call
the underlying disease: compulsion in schools. They contend that human nature in a freesociety recoils from every attempt to force it into a mould; that the more requirements wepile onto children at school, the surer we are to drive them away from the material we aretrying to force down their throats; that after all the drive and motivation of infants tomaster the world around them is legendary. They assert that schools must keep that drivealive by doing what some of them do: nurturing it on the freedom it needs to thrive.Sudbury Model schools do not perform and do not offer evaluations, assessments,transcripts, or recommendations, asserting that they do not rate people, and that school isnot a judge; comparing students to each other, or to some standard that has been set is forthem a violation of the students right to privacy and to self-determination. Students decidefor themselves how to measure their progress as self-starting learners as a process of self-evaluation: real lifelong learning and the proper educational evaluation for the 21st century,they adduce. According to Sudbury Model schools, this policy does not cause harm to theirstudents as they move on to life outside the school. However, they admit it makes theprocess more difficult, but that such hardship is part of the students learning to make theirown way, set their own standards and meet their own goals. The no-grading and no-ratingpolicy helps to create an atmosphere free of competition among students or battles foradult approval, and encourages a positive cooperative environment amongst the studentbody.BusinessAt lower levels of Maslows hierarchy of needs, such as physiological needs, money is amotivator; however it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a shortperiod (in accordance with Herzbergs two-factor model of motivation). At higher levels ofthe hierarchy, praise, respect, recognition, empowerment and a sense of belonging are farmore powerful motivators than money, as both Abraham Maslows theory of motivationand Douglas McGregors theory X and theory Y (pertaining to the theory of leadership)demonstrate.According to Maslow, people are motivated by unsatisfied needs. The lower level needssuch as Physiological and Safety needs will have to be satisfied before higher level needs areto be addressed. We can relate Maslows Hierarchy of Needs theory with employeemotivation. For example, if a manager is trying to motivate his employees by satisfying theirneeds; according to Maslow, he should try to satisfy the lower level needs before he tries tosatisfy the upper level needs or the employees will not be motivated. Also he has toremember that not everyone will be satisfied by the same needs. A good manager will try tofigure out which levels of needs are active for a certain individual or employee.Maslow has money at the lowest level of the hierarchy and shows other needs are bettermotivators to staff. McGregor places money in his Theory X category and feels it is a poormotivator. Praise and recognition are placed in the Theory Y category and are consideredstronger motivators than money. • Motivated employees always look for better ways to do a job. • Motivated employees are more quality oriented. • Motivated workers are more productive.
The average workplace is about midway between the extremes of high threat and highopportunity. Motivation by threat is a dead-end strategy, and naturally staffs are moreattracted to the opportunity side of the motivation curve than the threat side. Motivation isa powerful tool in the work environment that can lead to employees working at their mostefficient levels of production.Nonetheless, Steinmetz also discusses three common character types of subordinates:ascendant, indifferent, and ambivalent that all react and interact uniquely, and must betreated, managed, and motivated accordingly. An effective leader must understand how tomanage all characters, and more importantly the manager must utilize avenues that allowroom for employees to work, grow, and find answers independently.The assumptions of Maslow and Herzberg were challenged by a classic study at VauxhallMotors UK manufacturing plant. This introduced the concept of orientation to work anddistinguished three main orientations: instrumental (where work is a means to an end),bureaucratic (where work is a source of status, security and immediate reward) andsolidaristic (which prioritises group loyalty).Other theories which expanded and extended those of Maslow and Herzberg included KurtLewins Force Field Theory, Edwin Lockes Goal Theory and Victor Vrooms Expectancytheory. These tend to stress cultural differences and the fact that individuals tend to bemotivated by different factors at different times.According to the system of scientific management developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor, aworkers motivation is solely determined by pay, and therefore management need notconsider psychological or social aspects of work. In essence, scientific management baseshuman motivation wholly on extrinsic rewards and discards the idea of intrinsic rewards.In contrast, David McClelland believed that workers could not be motivated by the mereneed for money—in fact, extrinsic motivation (e.g., money) could extinguish intrinsicmotivation such as achievement motivation, though money could be used as an indicator ofsuccess for various motives, e.g., keeping score. In keeping with this view, his consultingfirm, McBer & Company, had as its first motto "To make everyone productive, happy, andfree." For McClelland, satisfaction lay in aligning a persons life with their fundamentalmotivations.Elton Mayo found that the social contacts a worker has at the workplace are very importantand that boredom and repetitiveness of tasks lead to reduced motivation. Mayo believedthat workers could be motivated by acknowledging their social needs and making them feelimportant. As a result, employees were given freedom to make decisions on the job andgreater attention was paid to informal work groups. Mayo named the model the Hawthorneeffect. His model has been judged as placing undue reliance on social contacts at worksituations for motivating employees.William Ouchi introduced Theory Z, a hybrid management approach consisting of bothJapanese and American philosophies and cultures. Its Japanese segment is much like theclan culture where organizations focus on a standardized structure with heavy emphasis on
socialization of its members. All underlying goals are consistent across the organization. ItsAmerican segment retains formality and authority amongst members and the organization.Ultimately, Theory Z promotes common structure and commitment to the organization, aswell as constant improvement of work efficacy.In Essentials of Organizational Behaviour, Robbins and Judge examine recognition programsas motivators, and identify five principles that contribute to the success of an employeeincentive program: • Recognition of employees individual differences and clear identification of behaviour deemed worthy of recognition • Allowing employees to participate • Linking rewards to performance • Rewarding of nominators • Visibility of the recognition processSocial-awarenessSocial consciousness is consciousness shared within a society. It can also be defined associal awareness; to be aware of the problems that different societies and communities faceon a day-to-day basis; to be conscious of the difficulties and hardships of society.AcquiredA subject with an acquired social consciousness derives his or her viewpoint from themainstream culture.AwakenedA subject with an awakened social consciousness explores alternatives to the dominantcultural viewpoint.ExpandedA subject with an expanded social consciousness strongly identifies with their marginalizedgroup.In the past, Social Awareness has always been about finding a non-profit that fits with yourown personal values and then designing some kind of communication to highlight theirplight. This is fine but it does not require you to look deeper into social issues and also thinkabout how YOU can make a real change, not just a cursory rendition of manufacturedmeaning.Therefore, this year we are going to look at manufacturing real social change. The surestway to end inequality is education and, to this end, it is your task to develop, design, makeand then market/sell/get funding for an educational game or toy.This can be as simple as you want, allowing young children to learn about colour, textureand shape through wooden blocks, to an online game etc. Remember, the simpler and morerudimentary the product, the more chance it has of really becoming a tool of change.Outcome:NEEDS TO BE PRESENTED IN AN ONLINE SPACE – YOUTUBE ETC, this is up to you. Slideshare,Youtube, however you choose. You basically need to put together a presentation to getfunding/help/sales of the toy or game.