EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE What Is Emotional Intelligence?Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to identify, assess, and control the emotions ofoneself, of others, and of groups. Various models and definitions have been proposed ofwhich the ability and trait EI models are the most widely accepted in the scientific literature.Ability EI is usually measured using maximum performance tests and has strongerrelationships with traditional intelligence, whereas trait EI is usually measured using self-report questionnaires and has stronger relationships with personality. Criticisms havecentered on whether the construct is a real intelligence and whether it has incrementalvalidity over IQ and the Big Five personality dimensions.Emotional Intelligence - EQ - is a relatively recent behavioural model, rising to prominencewith Daniel Golemans 1995 Book called Emotional Intelligence. The early EmotionalIntelligence theory was originally developed during the 1970s and 80s by the work andwritings of psychologists Howard Gardner (Harvard), Peter Salovey (Yale) and John JackMayer (New Hampshire). Emotional Intelligence is increasingly relevant to organizationaldevelopment and developing people, because the EQ principles provide a new way tounderstand and assess peoples behaviours, management styles, attitudes, interpersonalskills, and potential. Emotional Intelligence is an important consideration in humanresources planning, job profiling, recruitment interviewing and selection, managementdevelopment, customer relations and customer service, and more.Emotional Intelligence links strongly with concepts of love and spirituality: bringingcompassion and humanity to work, and also to Multiple Intelligence theory whichillustrates and measures the range of capabilities people possess, and the fact thateverybody has a value.The EQ concept argues that IQ, or conventional intelligence, is too narrow; that there arewider areas of Emotional Intelligence that dictate and enable how successful we are.Success requires more than IQ (Intelligence Quotient), which has tended to be thetraditional measure of intelligence, ignoring essential behavioural and character elements.Weve all met people who are academically brilliant and yet are socially and inter-personallyinept. And we know that despite possessing a high IQ rating, success does not automaticallyfollow.Different approaches and theoretical models have been developed for EmotionalIntelligence. This summary article focuses chiefly on the Goleman interpretation. The workof Mayer, Salovey and David Caruso (Yale) is also very significant in the field of EmotionalIntelligence, and will in due course be summarised here too.
Emotional intelligence - two aspectsThis is the essential premise of EQ: to be successful requires the effective awareness,control and management of ones own emotions, and those of other people. EQ embracestwo aspects of intelligence: • Understanding yourself, your goals, intentions, responses, behaviour and all. • Understanding others, and their feelings.Emotional intelligence - the five domainsGoleman identified the five domains of EQ as: 1. Knowing your emotions. 2. Managing your own emotions. 3. Motivating yourself. 4. Recognising and understanding other peoples emotions. 5. Managing relationships, i.e., managing the emotions of others.Emotional Intelligence embraces and draws from numerous other branches of behavioural,emotional and communications theories, such as NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming),Transactional Analysis, and empathy. By developing our Emotional Intelligence in theseareas and the five EQ domains we can become more productive and successful at what wedo, and help others to be more productive and successful too. The process and outcomes ofEmotional Intelligence development also contain many elements known to reduce stress forindividuals and organizations, by decreasing conflict, improving relationships andunderstanding, and increasing stability, continuity and harmony.Emotional intelligence competence framework, casestudies, examples, tools, tests, information and relatedtheory referencesThe Emotional Competence Framework - a generic EQ competence framework produced byDaniel Goleman and CREI covering in summary: • personal competence - self-awareness, self-regulation, self-motivation • social competence - social awareness, social skillsThe Emotional Competence FrameworkSOURCES: This generic competence framework distils findings from: MOSAICcompetencies for professional and administrative occupations (U.S. Office of PersonnelManagement); Spencer and Spencer, Competence at Work; and top performance andleadership competence studies published in Richard H. Rosier (ed.), The Competency ModelHandbook, Volumes One and Two (Boston: Linkage, 1994 and 1995), especially those fromCigna, Sprint, American Express, Sandoz Pharmaceuticals; Wisconsin Power and Light; andBlue Cross and Blue Shield of Maryland. Much of the material that follows comes fromWorking with Emotional Intelligence by Daniel Goleman (Bantam, 1998).
Personal CompetenceSELF - AWARENESSEmotional awareness: Recognising one’s emotions and their effects. People with thiscompetence: • Know which emotions they are feeling and why • Realize the links between their feelings and what they think, do, and say • Recognize how their feelings affect their performance • Have a guiding awareness of their values and goalsAccurate self-assessment: Knowing one’s strengths and limits. People with this competenceare: • Aware of their strengths and weaknesses • Reflective, learning from experience • Open to candid feedback, new perspectives, continuous learning, and self- development • Able to show a sense of humour and perspective about themselvesSelf-confidence: Sureness about one’s self-worth and capabilities. People with thiscompetence: • Present themselves with self-assurance; have .presence. • Can voice views that are unpopular and go out on a limb for what is right • Are decisive, able to make sound decisions despite uncertainties and pressuresSELF - REGULATION Self-control: Managing disruptive emotions and impulses. People with this competence: • Manage their impulsive feelings and distressing emotions well • Stay composed, positive, and unflappable even in trying moments • Think clearly and stay focused under pressureTrustworthiness: Maintaining standards of honesty and integrity. People with thiscompetence: • Act ethically and are above reproach • Build trust through their reliability and authenticity • Admit their own mistakes and confront unethical actions in others • Take tough, principled stands even if they are unpopularConscientiousness: Taking responsibility for personal performance. People with thiscompetence: • Meet commitments and keep promises • Hold themselves accountable for meeting their objectives • Are organized and careful in their workAdaptability: Flexibility in handling change. People with this competence: • Smoothly handle multiple demands, shifting priorities, and rapid change • Adapt their responses and tactics to fit fluid circumstances • Are flexible in how they see events
Innovativeness: Being comfortable with and open to novel ideas and new information.People with this competence: • Seek out fresh ideas from a wide variety of sources • Entertain original solutions to problems • Generate new ideas • Take fresh perspectives and risks in their thinkingSELF - MOTIVATIONAchievement drive: Striving to improve or meet a standard of excellence. People with thiscompetence: • Are results-oriented, with a high drive to meet their objectives and standards • Set challenging goals and take calculated risks • Pursue information to reduce uncertainty and find ways to do better • Learn how to improve their performanceCommitment: Aligning with the goals of the group or organization. People with thiscompetence: • Readily make personal or group sacrifices to meet a larger organizational goal • Find a sense of purpose in the larger mission • Use the group’s core values in making decisions and clarifying choices • Actively seek out opportunities to fulfil the group’s missionInitiative: Readiness to act on opportunities. People with this competence: • Are ready to seize opportunities • Pursue goals beyond what’s required or expected of them • Cut through red tape and bend the rules when necessary to get the job done • Mobilize others through unusual, enterprising effortsOptimism: Persistence in pursuing goals despite obstacles and setbacks. People with thiscompetence: • Persist in seeking goals despite obstacles and setbacks • Operate from hope of success rather than fear of failure • See setbacks as due to manageable circumstance rather than a personal flawSocial CompetenceSOCIAL AWARENESSEmpathy: Sensing others. Feelings and perspective, and taking an active interest in theirconcerns. People with this competence: • Are attentive to emotional cues and listen well • Show sensitivity and understand others. perspectives • Help out based on understanding other people’s needs and feelingsService orientation: Anticipating, recognizing, and meeting customers. Needs. People withthis competence: • Understand customers. needs and match them to services or products • Seek ways to increase customers. satisfaction and loyalty • Gladly offer appropriate assistance
• Grasp a customer’s perspective, acting as a trusted advisor •Developing others: Sensing what others need in order to develop, and bolstering theirabilities. People with this competence: • Acknowledge and reward people’s strengths, accomplishments, and development • Offer useful feedback and identify people’s needs for development • Mentor, give timely coaching, and offer assignments that challenge and grow a person’s skills.Leveraging diversity: Cultivating opportunities through diverse people. People with thiscompetence: • Respect and relate well to people from varied backgrounds • Understand diverse worldviews and are sensitive to group differences • See diversity as opportunity, creating an environment where diverse people can thrive • Challenge bias and intolerancePolitical awareness: Reading a group’s emotional currents and power relationships.People with this competence: • Accurately read key power relationships • Detect crucial social networks • Understand the forces that shape views and actions of clients, customers, or competitors • Accurately read situations and organizational and external realitiesSOCIAL SKILLSInfluence: Wielding effective tactics for persuasion. People with this competence: • Are skilled at persuasion • Fine-tune presentations to appeal to the listener • Use complex strategies like indirect influence to build consensus and support • Orchestrate dramatic events to effectively make a pointCommunication: Sending clear and convincing messages. People with this competence: • Are effective in give-and-take, registering emotional cues in attuning their • message • Deal with difficult issues straightforwardly • Listen well, seek mutual understanding, and welcome sharing of information fully • Foster open communication and stay receptive to bad news as well as goodLeadership: Inspiring and guiding groups and people. People with this competence: • Articulate and arouse enthusiasm for a shared vision and mission • Step forward to lead as needed, regardless of position • Guide the performance of others while holding them accountable • Lead by exampleChange catalyst: Initiating or managing change. People with this competence: • Recognize the need for change and remove barriers • Challenge the status quo to acknowledge the need for change • Champion the change and enlist others in its pursuit • Model the change expected of othersConflict management: Negotiating and resolving disagreements. People with thiscompetence:
• Handle difficult people and tense situations with diplomacy and tact • Spot potential conflict, bring disagreements into the open, and help deescalate • Encourage debate and open discussion • Orchestrate win-win solutionsBuilding bonds: Nurturing instrumental relationships. People with this competence: • Cultivate and maintain extensive informal networks • Seek out relationships that are mutually beneficial • Build rapport and keep others in the loop • Make and maintain personal friendships among work associatesCollaboration and cooperation: Working with others toward shared goals. People with thiscompetence: • Balance a focus on task with attention to relationships • Collaborate, sharing plans, information, and resources • Promote a friendly, cooperative climate • Spot and nurture opportunities for collaborationTeam capabilities: Creating group synergy in pursuing collective goals. People with thiscompetence: • Model team qualities like respect, helpfulness, and cooperation • Draw all members into active and enthusiastic participation • Build team identity, esprit de corps, and commitment • Protect the group and its reputation; share creditEmotional Intelligence: what is it and why it matters.An excellent information paper by Dr Cary Cherniss originally presented at the annualmeeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, in New Orleans, April2000. This is a detailed history and explanation of Emotional Intelligence.The Business Case for Emotional Intelligence –A paper by Dr Cary Cherniss featuring 19 referenced business and organizational casestudies demonstrating how Emotional Intelligence contributes to corporate profitperformance. The paper is an excellent tool which trainers, HR professionals and visionariescan use to help justify focus, development, assessment, etc., of EQ in organizations.The following 19 points build a case for how emotional intelligence contributes to thebottom line in any work organization. Based on data from a variety of sources, it can be avaluable tool for HR practitioners and managers who need to make the case in their ownorganizations. The Consortium also invites submissions of other research for the BusinessCase. All submissions will be reviewed to determine their suitability. If you have researchfindings that you think might help build the business case, submit them to Rob Emmerling atEmerling@eden.rutgers.edu. 1. The US Air Force used the EQ-I to select recruiters (the Air Force’s front-line HR personnel) and found that the most successful recruiters scored significantly higher in the emotional intelligence competencies of Assertiveness, Empathy, Happiness,
and Emotional Self Awareness. The Air Force also found that by using emotional intelligence to select recruiters, they increased their ability to predict successful recruiters by nearly three-fold. The immediate gain was a saving of $3 million annually. These gains resulted in the Government Accounting Office submitting a report to Congress, which led to a request that the Secretary of Defence order all branches of the armed forces to adopt this procedure in recruitment and selection. (The GAO report is titled, “Military Recruiting: The Department of Defence Could Improve Its Recruiter Selection and Incentive Systems,” and it was submitted to Congress January 30, 1998. Richard Handley and Reuven Bar-On provided this information.)2. Experienced partners in a multinational consulting firm were assessed on the EI competencies plus three others. Partners who scored above the median on 9 or more of the 20 competencies delivered $1.2 million more profit from their accounts than did other partners – a 139 percent incremental gain (Boyatzis, 1999).3. An analysis of more than 300 top-level executives from fifteen global companies showed that six emotional competencies distinguished stars from the average: Influence, Team Leadership, Organizational Awareness, self-confidence, Achievement Drive, and Leadership (Spencer, L. M., Jr., 1997).4. In jobs of medium complexity (sales clerks, mechanics), a top performer is 12 times more productive than those at the bottom and 85% more productive than an average performer. In the most complex jobs (insurance salespeople, account managers), a top performer is 127% more productive than an average performer (Hunter, Schmidt, & Judiesch, 1990). Competency research in over 200 companies and organizations worldwide suggests that about one-third of this difference is due to technical skill and cognitive ability while two-thirds is due to emotional competence (Goleman, 1998). (In top leadership positions, over four-fifths of the difference is due to emotional competence.)5. At L’Oreal, sales agents selected on the basis of certain emotional competencies significantly outsold salespeople selected using the company’s old selection procedure. On an annual basis, salespeople selected on the basis of emotional competence sold $91,370 more than other salespeople did, for a net revenue increase of $2,558,360. Salespeople selected on the basis of emotional competence also had 63% fewer turnovers during the first year than those selected in the typical way (Spencer & Spencer, 1993; Spencer, McClelland, & Kelner, 1997).6. In a national insurance company, insurance sales agents who were weak in emotional competencies such as self-confidence, initiative, and empathy sold policies with an average premium of $54,000. Those who were very strong in at least 5 of 8 key emotional competencies sold policies worth $114,000 (Hay/McBer Research and Innovation Group, 1997).7. In a large beverage firm, using standard methods to hire division presidents, 50% left within two years, mostly because of poor performance. When they started selecting based on emotional competencies such as initiative, self-confidence, and leadership, only 6% left in two years. Furthermore, the executives selected based on emotional competence were far more likely to perform in the top third based on salary bonuses for performance of the divisions they led: 87% were in the top third. In addition, division leaders with these competencies outperformed their targets by 15 to 20%. Those who lacked them under-performed by almost 20% (McClelland, 1999).
8. Research by the Centre for Creative Leadership has found that the primary causes of derailment in executives involve deficits in emotional competence. The three primary ones are difficulty in handling change, not being able to work well in a team, and poor interpersonal relations.9. After supervisors in a manufacturing plant received training in emotional competencies such as how to listen better and help employees resolve problems on their own, lost-time accidents were reduced by 50%, formal grievances were reduced from an average of 15 per year to 3 per year, and the plant exceeded productivity goals by $250,000 (Pesuric & Byham, 1996). In another manufacturing plant where supervisors received similar training, production increased 17%t. There was no such increase in production for a group of matched supervisors who were not trained (Porras & Anderson, 1981).10. One of the foundations of emotional competence -- accurate self-assessment – was associated with superior performance among several hundred managers from 12 different organizations (Boyatzis, 1982).11. Another emotional competence, the ability to handle stress, was linked to success as a store manager in a retail chain. The most successful store managers were those best able to handle stress. Success was based on net profits, sales per square foot, sales per employee, and per dollar inventory investment (Lusch & Serpkeuci, 1990).12. Optimism is another emotional competence that leads to increased productivity. New salesmen at Met Life who scored high on a test of “learned optimism” sold 37% more life insurance in their first two years than pessimists (Seligman, 1990).13. A study of 130 executives found that how well people handled their own emotions determined how much people around them preferred to deal with them (Walter V. Clarke Associates, 1997).14. For sales reps at a computer company, those hired based on their emotional competence were 90% more likely to finish their training than those hired on other criteria (Hay/McBer Research and Innovation Group, 1997).15. At a national furniture retailer, sales people hired based on emotional competence had half the dropout rate during their first year (Hay/McBer Research and Innovation Group, 1997).16. For 515 senior executives analyzed by the search firm Egon Zehnder International, those who were primarily strong in emotional intelligence were more likely to succeed than those who were strongest in either relevant previous experience or IQ. In other words, emotional intelligence was a better predictor of success than either relevant previous experience or high IQ. More specifically, the executive was high in emotional intelligence in 74% of the successes and only in 24% of the failures. The study included executives in Latin America, Germany, and Japan, and the results were almost identical in all three cultures.17. The following description of a “star” performer reveals how several emotional competencies (noted in italics) were critical in his success: Michael Iem worked at Tandem Computers. Shortly after joining the company as a junior staff analyst, he became aware of the market trend away from mainframe computers to networks that linked workstations and personal computers (Service Orientation). Iem realized that unless Tandem responded to the trend, its products would become obsolete (Initiative and Innovation). He had to convince Tandem’s managers that their old emphasis on mainframes was no longer appropriate (Influence) and then develop a
system using new technology (Leadership, Change Catalyst). He spent four years showing off his new system to customers and company sales personnel before the new network applications were fully accepted (Self-confidence, Self-Control, Achievement Drive) (from Richman, L. S., “How to get ahead in America,” Fortune, May 16, 1994, pp. 46-54). 18. Financial advisors at American Express whose managers completed the Emotional Competence training program were compared to an equal number whose managers had not. During the year following training, the advisors of trained managers grew their businesses by 18.1% compared to 16.2% for those whose managers were untrained. 19. The most successful debt collectors in a large collection agency had an average goal attainment of 163% over a three-month period. They were compared with a group of collectors who achieved an average of only 80% over the same time period. The most successful collectors scored significantly higher in the emotional intelligence competencies of self-actualization, independence, and optimism. (Selfactualization refers to a well-developed, inner knowledge of ones own goals and a sense of pride in ones work.) (Bachman et al., 2000).Guidelines for Promoting Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace - a paper chieflyconstructed by Cary Cherniss and Daniel Goleman featuring 22 guidelines which representthe best current knowledge relating to the promotion of EQ in the workplace, summarisedas:A paper chiefly constructed by Cary Cherniss and Daniel Goleman featuring 22 guidelineswhich represent the best current knowledge relating to the promotion of EQ in theworkplace, summarised as:paving the way • assess the organizations needs • assessing the individual • delivering assessments with care • maximising learning choice • encouraging participation • linking goals and personal values • adjusting individual expectations • assessing readiness and motivation for EQ developmentdoing the work of change • foster relationships between EQ trainers and learners • self-directed change and learning • setting goals • breaking goals down into achievable steps • providing opportunities for practice • give feedback • using experiential methods • build in support • use models and examples • encourage insight and self-awarenessencourage transfer and maintenance of change (sustainable change)
• encourage application of new learning in jobs • develop organizational culture that supports learningevaluating the change - did it work? • evaluate individual and organizational effectTips on how to explain emotional intelligence -perspectives and examplesAs mentioned above, Daniel Golemans approach to Emotional Intelligence is not the onlyone. The work of Mayer, Salovey and Caruso is also very significant in the field of EmotionalIntelligence and can be explored further on John Meyers Emotional Intelligence website.When teaching or explaining Emotional Intelligence it can be helpful to the teacher andlearners to look at other concepts and methodologies, many of which contain EQ elementsand examples.Emotional Intelligence tests/activities/exercises books - for young people ostensibly, but justas relevant to grown-ups - provide interesting and useful exercises, examples, theory, etc.,for presentations and participative experience if you are explaining EQ or teaching a group.For example 50 Activities For Teaching Emotional Intelligence by Dianne Schilling - my copywas published by Innerchoice Publishing - ISBN 1-56499-37-0, if you can find it. Otherwiselook at Amazon and search for activities for teaching emotional intelligence).Theres a very strong link between EQ and TA (Transactional Analysis). To understand andexplain EQ you can refer to the adult aspect of the TA model (for example, we are lessemotional intelligent/mature when slipping into negative child or parent modes). In this waywe can see that ones strength in EQ is certainly linked to personal experience, especiallyformative years.NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming) is very relevant to EQ, as is Multiple IntelligencesTheory.Ethical business and socially responsible leadership are strongly connected to EQ.So is the concept of love and spirituality in organisations. Compassion and humanity arefundamental life-forces; our Emotional Intelligence enables us to appreciate and developthese vital connections between self, others, purpose, meaning, existence, life and theworld as a whole, and to help others do the same.People with strong EQ have less emotional baggage, and conversely people with low EQtend to have personal unresolved issues which either act as triggers (see Freud/Penfield TAroots explanation) or are constants in personality make-up.Cherie Carter-Scotts If Life Is Game and Don Miguel Ruizs The Four Agreements alsoprovide excellent additional EQ reference perspectives.
Empathy and active interpretive modes of listening are also very relevant to EQ.Ingham and Lufts Johari Window and associated exercises on the free team building gamessection also help explain another perspective. That is, as a rule, the higher a persons EQ,the less insecurity is likely to be present, and the more openness will be tolerated.High EQ = low insecurity = more openness.A persons preparedness to expose their feelings, vulnerabilities, thoughts, etc., is a featureof EQ. Again the converse applies. Johari illustrates this very well (see the Johari Windowdiagram pdf also).Maslow theory is also relevant to Emotional Intelligence. Self-actualizers naturally havestronger EQ. People struggling to meet lower order needs - and arguably even middle orderneeds such as esteem needs - tend to have lower EQ than self-actualizers. The original 5stage Hierarchy of Needs explains that all needs other than self-actualization are deficiencydrivers, which suggest, in other words, some EQ development potential or weakness.There is a strong thread of EQ running through Stephen Coveys 7 Habits.In fact, most theories involving communications and behaviour become more powerful andmeaningful when related to Emotional Intelligence, for example: • Leadership • Buying Facilitation® • Benziger Thinking Styles and Assessment Model • McGregor XY TheoryWhat Is IQ?An intelligence quotient, or IQ, is a score derived from one of several standardized testsdesigned to assess intelligence. The abbreviation "IQ" comes from the German termIntelligenz-Quotient, originally coined by psychologist William Stern. When modern IQ testsare constructed, the mean (average) score within an age group is set to 100 and thestandard deviation (SD) almost always to 15, although this was not always so historically.Thus, by construction, approximately 95% of the population scores within two SDs of themean, i.e., have an IQ between 70 and 130.IQ scores have been shown to be associated with such factors as morbidity and mortality,parental social status, and, to a substantial degree, parental IQ. While the heritability of IQhas been investigated for nearly a century, there is still debate about the significance ofheritability estimates and the mechanisms of inheritance.IQ scores are used as predictors of educational achievement, special needs, jobperformance and income. They are also used for studying IQ distributions in populationsand the relationships between IQ and other variables. The average IQ scores for many
populations have been rising at an average rate of three points per decade since the early20th century, a phenomenon called the Flynn effect. It is disputed whether these changes inscores reflect real changes in intellectual abilities.Whether IQ tests are an accurate measure of intelligence is debated. It is difficult to definewhat constitutes intelligence; instead it may be the case that IQ represents a type ofintelligence.The Big Five Personality DimensionsIn contemporary psychology, the "Big Five" factors (or Five Factor Model; FFM) ofpersonality are five broad domains or dimensions of personality that are used to describehuman personality.The Big Five framework of personality traits from Costa & McCrae, 1992 has emerged as arobust model for understanding the relationship between personality and various academicbehaviors. The Big Five factors are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion,agreeableness, and neuroticism (common acronyms are OCEAN, NEOAC, or CANOE).Conscientiousness is exempliﬁed by being disciplined, organized, achievement-oriented, anddependable. Neuroticism refers to degree of emotional stability, impulse control,aggressiveness and anxiety. Extraversion is displayed through a higher degree of sociability,assertiveness, and talkativeness. Openness is reﬂected in a strong intellectual curiosity,creativity and a preference for novelty and variety. Finally, agreeableness refers to beinghelpful, cooperative, and sympathetic towards others. The neuroticism factor is sometimesreferred by its low pole – "emotional stability". Some disagreement remains about how tointerpret the openness factor, which is sometimes called "intellect" rather than openness toexperience. Beneath each factor, a cluster of correlated specific traits are found; forexample, extraversion includes such related qualities as gregariousness, assertiveness,excitement seeking, warmth, activity and positive emotions.