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General Structure of a Robot - V2


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This document is an introduction to robotics.
It describes the general structure of a robot by giving informations about hardware, software and mechanics.

These are introductions, very useful if you don't know much about robotics.

If you need any details, send a message or a mail at

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General Structure of a Robot - V2

  1. 1. Hardware Software Mechanics
  2. 2. • Low Voltage/Current • Analyse data and drives actuators • Logic circuits and sensors • Higher Voltage/Current • Supply power to the system and the actuators • Transistors and relays
  3. 3. Accelerometer, gyrometer, magnetometer Micro Strength sensor Light (Photo Resistor) Ultrasonic sensor
  4. 4. FilterSamplingAcquisition FilterSamplingAcquisition Sensor 1 Sensor 2 ExploitationData fusion
  5. 5. Accelerometer Magnetometer Gyroscope
  6. 6. Electromechanical device that converts the angular position or axle to an analog or digital code. 2 types : Absolute // Incremental (most used) Provides information processed elsewhere into speed, distance or position. Used in many applications that require precise shaft unlimited
  7. 7. Provides location and time information in all weather conditions Anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites
  8. 8. Allows to measure altitude Measures pression
  9. 9. Used to track colors or collect basic image statistics
  10. 10. Transformed energy Orders Energy Actuator His function is to convert an input energy available in some form of usable energy output for a given effect.
  11. 11. Rotor • Permanent magnets Stator • Windings Advantages • Simple • Economic • No rotor/stator contact • Speed rotation control Cons • Overheating • Poor torque at start and at low speed • PWM
  12. 12. • Windings with brushes Rotor • Permanent magnets Stator • Simple • Economic • More torque at start and at low speed • Lower heating • Easier to control (PWM) • No rotor/stator contact • Speed rotation control Advantages • Lower efficiency (brushes) Cons
  13. 13. • Reduction of rotation speed • Increase of torque • No rotor/stator contact • Speed rotation control Why ? • Gears • Chains & sprockets • Epicyclic … How ?
  14. 14. • Permanent magnets • Step depends on magnets number Rotor • Electromagnets Stator • Precise • Fast acceleration • Easy to keep a position Advantages • Jerky at low speed • Can’t hold a high torque Cons
  15. 15. • Permanent magnets Rotor • Electromagnets Stator • Precise • Fast acceleration • Easy to keep a position Advantages • Jerky at low speed • Can’t hold a high torque Cons
  16. 16. Price Size Input Output Computing power
  17. 17. Integration Electric consumption Cost
  18. 18. Create Evaluate Reproduce Stop ? Mutate No A genetic algorithm (GA) is a search heuristic that mimics the process of natural selection
  19. 19. Neural networks are models inspired by animals' central nervous systems that are capable of machine learning and pattern recognition
  20. 20. SecurityDebit Laws Protocols DatasRange Multi-users
  21. 21. Keyboards Buttons Joysticks Screens Sounds Virtual reality Augmented reality
  22. 22. Spin around q1, q3 and q5 Move q2, q4, q6 and q7
  23. 23. In this convention, each homogeneous transformation Ai is represented as a product of four basic transformations 𝜃𝑖, 𝑎𝑖, 𝑑𝑖, ∝𝑖 are parameters associated with link i and joint i. The four parameters are given the names link length, link twist, link offset, and joint angle
  24. 24. Determined by the Jacobian of this function. Jacobian is encountered in many aspects of robotic manipulation: in the planning and execution of robot trajectories, in the derivation of the dynamic equations of motion
  25. 25. A PID controller calculates an "error" value as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired setpoint. The controller attempts to minimize the error in outputs by adjusting the process control inputs.
  26. 26. Precision Stability Rapidity P I D
  27. 27. Duct tape Plastic PLA Carbon Fiber Wood Aluminium