Dell™ PowerVault™ 75xN NAS Systems

Using Oracle 9i With NAS
Systems




                      w w w. d e l l . c o m | s ...
Notes, Notices, and Cautions
      NOTE: A NOTE indicates important information that helps you make better use of your com...
Contents


     Requirements   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     1-1

     Preparing the NAS Syste...
4   Conte n ts
By storing data files on a Dell™ PowerVault™ NAS system, you can improve the reliability
and performance of an Oracle 9i d...
Preparing the NAS System and the Oracle Server
w w w. d e l l . c o m | s u p p o r t . d e l l . c o m




              ...
Creating the Share(s) on the NAS System
Using the NAS Manager, create the shares to host the web content by performing the...
3   Create a user for the apache web server as follows:
w w w. d e l l . c o m | s u p p o r t . d e l l . c o m




     ...
Creating the Explicit User Map
To map the user "oracle" from the server to the user "oracle" on the NAS system, perform
th...
9   In the Unix groups box, click a user from each group, and then click Add.
w w w. d e l l . c o m | s u p p o r t . d e...
Table 1-1 explains the NFS mount options:

Ta b l e 1 - 1 .   NFS Mount Options
Option                       Definition
nf...
Installing Oracle and Creating Databases
w w w. d e l l . c o m | s u p p o r t . d e l l . c o m




                    ...
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
     PATH=$POSTFIX/bin:$POSTFIX/sbin:$POSTFIX/sendmail
     PATH=...
SQL> select * from v$thread;
w w w. d e l l . c o m | s u p p o r t . d e l l . c o m




                                ...
Performing a Cold Backup
 1   Shutdown the database normally using the following command:
     [oraclenas@RAC1 local]$ sql...
3   Verify the names of all tablespaces.
w w w. d e l l . c o m | s u p p o r t . d e l l . c o m




                    ...
Restoring the Database
     NOTE: If you restore the database from a hot backup, make sure that the archive log
     files...
4   In the Resource type field, select NFS File Share.
w w w. d e l l . c o m | s u p p o r t . d e l l . c o m




      ...
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Using Oracle 9i With NAS Systems

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Using Oracle 9i With NAS Systems

  1. 1. Dell™ PowerVault™ 75xN NAS Systems Using Oracle 9i With NAS Systems w w w. d e l l . c o m | s u p p o r t . d e l l . c o m
  2. 2. Notes, Notices, and Cautions NOTE: A NOTE indicates important information that helps you make better use of your computer. NOTICE: A NOTICE indicates either potential damage to hardware or loss of data and tells you how to avoid the problem. CAUTION: A CAUTION indicates a potential for property damage, personal injury, or death. ____________________ Information in this document is subject to change without notice. © 2001 Dell Computer Corporation. All rights reserved. Reproduction in any manner whatsoever without the written permission of Dell Computer Corporation is strictly forbidden. Trademarks used in this text: Dell, the DELL logo, PowerVault, and Dell ActiveArchive are trademarks of Dell Computer Corporation. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries; Microsoft is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Other trademarks and trade names may be used in this document to refer to either the entities claiming the marks and names or their products. Dell Computer Corporation disclaims any proprietary interest in trademarks and trade names other than its own. November 2001 Rev. A00
  3. 3. Contents Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 Preparing the NAS System and the Oracle Server . . . . . . . . 1-2 Configuring the Private and Public Network on the NAS System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 Configuring the Private and Public Network on the Oracle Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 Creating the Share(s) on the NAS System . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 Creating the User and Group on Oracle Server . . . . . . . . 1-3 Creating the Users and Groups on the NAS System . . . . . . 1-4 Mapping the NAS System and Oracle Users and Groups . . . . 1-4 Mounting the NAS Share on the Oracle Server . . . . . . . . 1-6 Installing Oracle and Creating Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8 Installing Oracle on the Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8 Verifying That the Database Is Running . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9 Managing the Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10 Using Dell ActiveArchive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10 Performing a Cold Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11 Performing a Hot Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11 Restoring the Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13 Using a NAS Cluster as the Data Store . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13 Contents 3
  4. 4. 4 Conte n ts
  5. 5. By storing data files on a Dell™ PowerVault™ NAS system, you can improve the reliability and performance of an Oracle 9i database and simplify database administration. This document explains how to install Oracle 9i for use with your NAS system. It also discusses how to use NAS clusters and Dell ActiveArchive™ with Oracle 9i. NOTE: This document is intended to be a basic overview of using Oracle 9i with a NAS system. It assumes that you have a basic knowledge of procedures for Oracle and the NAS system. Using a NAS system in conjunction with a server to run Oracle allows each of these components to focus on what they do best, which is optimizing the performance of the database. By implementing RAID 1, 5, 10, or 50 on the NAS system and its subsystem, you offload the database system management responsibilities to a dedicated server. Therefore, losing a hard drive on the NAS system does not adversely affect the operation of the database. Also, placing the database files on a NAS system frees up the database server because the server does not have to use microprocessor and memory resources to manage file systems or RAID storage on the NAS system. Using a NAS system for your data files simplifies administration by using web-based tools that enable you to perform tasks such as organizing data files, adding storage, or providing e-mail alerts to system administrators in case of a disk or volume failure on the NAS system. Also, the NAS system enables you to use Dell ActiveArchive to automatically take snapshots — point-in-time images — of the data files and back up the snapshots to an offline storage location. The use of snapshots takes advantage of Oracle's cold and hot backup capabilities. Requirements To install Oracle database files on your NAS system, your configuration must have the following components: • A server running Red Hat Linux 7.1 to host the Oracle application files (This server will be called the Oracle server in this document.) • A private gigabit network between the Oracle server and the NAS system • A public 10/100 network between the server and its clients U si ng Orac le 9i W ith N AS Sy s te m s 1-1
  6. 6. Preparing the NAS System and the Oracle Server w w w. d e l l . c o m | s u p p o r t . d e l l . c o m Preparation for installing the database on your NAS system consists of the following procedures: • Configuring the private and public network on the NAS system • Configuring the private and public network on the Oracle server • Creating the share(s) on the NAS system • Creating the users and groups on the Oracle server • Creating the users and groups on the NAS system • Mapping the NAS system and Oracle users (UID) and groups (GID) • Mounting the NAS system share on the Oracle server and testing permissions Configuring the Private and Public Network on the NAS System After cabling and powering on the NAS system, use the NAS Manager configure the network adapters on the NAS system by performing the following steps: 1 On the NAS Manager primary menu, click Network. 2 On the Network page, click Interfaces. 3 Click the network connection you want to modify. 4 In the Tasks list, click IP. 5 Select whether to obtain the configuration automatically from the DHCP server or to statically configure the IP addresses. 6 If you choose to obtain the configuration from the DHCP server, click OK. 7 If you have chosen to use static IP settings, enter the IP address, Subnet mask, and Default gateway in the boxes provided, and then click OK. Configuring the Private and Public Network on the Oracle Server See your Oracle documentation for information on this procedure. 1-2 Us ing Orac le 9i W ith NA S Sy s te m s
  7. 7. Creating the Share(s) on the NAS System Using the NAS Manager, create the shares to host the web content by performing the following steps: 1 On the NAS manager primary menu, click Shares. 2 On the Shares page, click Shares. 3 In the Tasks list, click New. 4 Type u00 for Share name and E:u00 for Share path. 5 Click Unix (NFS) to enable the Network File System (NFS) protocol on the share. 6 Disable all other protocols by clearing their check boxes. 7 Click NFS Sharing. 8 Click Type of access and select No Access from the drop-down menu. 9 Enter the remaining properties for the share, and then click OK. 10 On the primary menu bar, click Maintenance. 11 Click Terminal Services and log on to the NAS system. 12 Right-click the share you created, and then click Sharing. 13 Click the NFS Share tab, clear the Allow Anonymous Access checkbox, and click OK. Creating the User and Group on Oracle Server 1 Use the groupadd utility to create the required OSDBA, OSOPER and APACHE groups on the Oracle server. For the purposes of this example, these groups are named "oinstall," "dba," and "apache," respectively: Groupadd oinstall Groupadd dba Groupadd apache 2 Create the required Oracle user account on the server. For example, if you name the account "oracle," create an account as follows: Useradd -g oinstall -G dba -n oracle Passwd oracle (to assign a password to the user "oracle") U si ng Orac le 9i W ith N AS Sy s te m s 1-3
  8. 8. 3 Create a user for the apache web server as follows: w w w. d e l l . c o m | s u p p o r t . d e l l . c o m Useradd -g apache -n apache Passwd apache (to assign a password to the user "apache") Creating the Users and Groups on the NAS System For the Oracle application on the server to use the data files on the NAS system, you must create users and groups on the NAS system so that you can map them to the Oracle server. To create users and groups, click Users on the primary menu bar of the NAS Manager. If necessary, you can click the help icon in the upper-right corner of the NAS Manager to display help for creating users and groups. 1 Create the user "oracle." 2 Create the group "oinstall" and make the user "oracle" a member. 3 Create the user "root." 4 Create the group "root," and make the user "root" a member. 5 Copy the files /etc/password and /etc/group from the Oracle server to the root directory (C:) of the NAS system. Mapping the NAS System and Oracle Users and Groups 1 On the primary menu bar, click Shares. 2 Click Sharing Protocols. 3 Click NFS Protocol, and then click Properties. 4 Click User and Group Mappings. NOTE: Before performing the following steps, copy the password and group files to the root directory of the NAS system. Mount the previously created share and copy the files there. Then use a Terminal Service session to log in to the NAS system and copy the files from the share to the root directory (C:). 5 Click Use password and group files. 6 In the Password text box, type the name of the UNIX® password file to use. NOTE: The password file is a passwd format file from a UNIX system that contains all of the UNIX user accounts that can be mapped. 7 In the Group file text box, type the name of the group file you want to use and click OK. 1-4 Us ing Orac le 9i W ith NA S Sy s te m s
  9. 9. Creating the Explicit User Map To map the user "oracle" from the server to the user "oracle" on the NAS system, perform the following steps: 1 On the primary menu bar, click Shares. 2 Click Sharing Protocols. 3 Click NFS Protocol, and then click Properties. 4 Click User and Group Mappings. 5 Complete the information on Network Information Service (NIS) or password file information. 6 Click the Explicit User Mapping tab. 7 Optionally, enter the name of the NIS server to map to in the NIS domain text box. 8 Click List UNIX Users. 9 In the Unix users box, click a user from each group, and then click Add. NOTE: The mapped users appear in the Explicitly mapped users box. To map to a DOMAIN user, enter the DOMAINuser name, select a UNIX user, and then click the add button next to the DOMAINuser text box. Creating Explicit Group Maps To map the group "oinstall" from the server to the group "oinstall" on the NAS system, perform the following steps: 1 On the primary menu bar, click Shares. 2 Click Sharing Protocols. 3 Click NFS Protocol, and then click Properties. 4 Click User and Group Mappings. 5 Complete the information on NIS or password file information. 6 Click Explicit Group Maps. 7 Optionally, enter the name of the NIS server to map to in the NIS domain field. 8 Click List UNIX Users. U si ng Orac le 9i W ith N AS Sy s te m s 1-5
  10. 10. 9 In the Unix groups box, click a user from each group, and then click Add. w w w. d e l l . c o m | s u p p o r t . d e l l . c o m NOTE: The mapped groups appear in the Explicitly mapped groups box. To map to a DOMAIN group, enter the DOMAINgroup name, select a UNIX group, and then click the add button next to the DOMAINgroup text box. Enabling the Changes For the new changes to take effect, you must restart the NFS protocol by performing the following steps: 1 On the primary menu, click Shares. 2 Click Sharing Protocols. 3 Click NFS protocol. 4 In the Tasks list, click Disable. 5 Click the NFS protocol. 6 In the Tasks list, click Enable. Mounting the NAS Share on the Oracle Server 1 Verify that the NAS system has an NFS share available for mounting by entering the following command on the Oracle server: [oraclenas@RAC1 oraclenas]$ showmount -e 172.16.10.10 Export list for 172.16.10.10: /u00 172.16.10.20 [oraclenas@RAC1 oraclenas]$ The resulting output shows that there is an NFS share called /u00 available for the Red Hat Linux 7.1 server 172.16.10.20 to mount. 2 Enter the following text into the /etc/fstab file on the server. 172.16.10.10:/u00/u00nfsnfsvers=3,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,tcp 3 Mount the share(s) by entering the following command: [oraclenas@RAC1 oraclenas]$ mount -a 1-6 Us ing Orac le 9i W ith NA S Sy s te m s
  11. 11. Table 1-1 explains the NFS mount options: Ta b l e 1 - 1 . NFS Mount Options Option Definition nfsvers This option specifies the NFS version you should use. NFS version 3 performs 70 to 80 percent better than NFS version 2. rsize, wsize The rsize and wsize mount options specify the size of the chunks of data that the client and server pass back and forth to each other. Red Hat Linux 7.1 with 2.4.3-12 kernel performs best with NFS version 3 with an rsize and wsize both set to 32,768 bytes. In general, you should create a file that is at least twice the size of the RAM on the server running Linux, but make sure that the server has enough disk space. If you do not specify rsize or wsize options, NFS will use a default. However, the defaults may be too small for optimal database operation. tcp or udp The tcp or udp entry specifies which protocol to use. For NFS over local area networks, user datagram protocol (UDP) has slightly less overhead and performs better than transmission control protocol (TCP). However, with Linux 7.1, udp protocol may have reliability problems when working with Oracle data files. If your network connection path between the NAS system and the Oracle server is prone to losing packets, dropping frames, or introducing checksum errors, TCP can provide better performance than UDP. U si ng Orac le 9i W ith N AS Sy s te m s 1-7
  12. 12. Installing Oracle and Creating Databases w w w. d e l l . c o m | s u p p o r t . d e l l . c o m This section provides the procedure for installing the Oracle application on the system and creating the databases. This procedure will set up the database based on the following sample information. Substitute the variables as appropriate for your configuration. • Private IP address of the NAS system: 172.16.10.10 • Source location of Oracle Home on local disk: /ora2/oracle/product/9.0.1 • Source location of database files on local disk: ${ORACLE_HOME}/SID/oradata (SID is the instance name.) • Target location of Oracle database files on the NAS system: 172.16.10.10:/u00. • Mount point of the 172.16.10.10:/u00 directory on the Oracle9i Red Hat 7.1 Server system: /u00 • Name of the Oracle instance: NAS • Name of the administrative user account within Oracle: sys • Password for administrative user account: change_on_install • Name of the Oracle user account on the server: oracle • Password for Oracle user account: oracle Installing Oracle on the Server On the Oracle server, perform the following steps: 1 Download Java Developer’s Toolkit (JDK) 1.1.8 from www.blackdown.org and install JDK in the /usr/local directory. Oracle Universal Installer requires the location of the JDK during installation. 2 Add the following to the Oracle user's .bash_profile before starting the installation: ORACLE_HOME=/ora2/oracle/product/9.0.1; export ORACLE_HOME ORACLE_SID=NAS; export ORACLE_SID ORACLE_TERM=xterm; export ORACLE_TERM TNS_ADMIN=/home/oracle/config/9.0.1; export TNS_ADMIN NLS_LANG=American_America.UTF8; export NLS_LANG ORA_NLS33=$ORACLE_HOME/ocommon/nls/admin/data; export ORA_NLS33 CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/jdbc/lib/classes111.zip 1-8 Us ing Orac le 9i W ith NA S Sy s te m s
  13. 13. LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH PATH=$POSTFIX/bin:$POSTFIX/sbin:$POSTFIX/sendmail PATH= $PATH:/usr/local/jre/bin:/usr/local/jdk/bin:/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/u sr/sbin PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/bin:$ORACLE_HOME/bin:/usr/local/jsdk/bin PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/bin/X11:/usr/X11R6/bin:/root/bin PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/samba/bin export PATH 3 Start X Windows and login as "oracle." 4 Run the ./runInstaller script on the Oracle software CD. 5 Follow the prompts and choose not to create a starter database. 6 When the installation is complete, open a terminal window and enter dbca to display the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant window. 7 Select the type of database that you want to create. You can select a preconfigured database, or you can select to create a custom database. 8 Specify the name of the global database name and system identifier (SID). 9 Specify the location of your Oracle database files. You must specify the NFS mount point for the NAS system. 10 Follow the prompts to finish creating the database. Verifying That the Database Is Running 1 After you create the database, open a terminal window and enter the following command: [oraclenas@RAC1 local]$ lsnrctl A message is displayed stating that Oracle listener is listening for client database connections. NOTE: If there are errors, you must restart the listener. To start the Oracle listener, type LSNRCTL> start. 2 Enter the following command: [oraclenas@RAC1 local]$ sqlplus "/as sysdba" U si ng Orac le 9i W ith N AS Sy s te m s 1-9
  14. 14. SQL> select * from v$thread; w w w. d e l l . c o m | s u p p o r t . d e l l . c o m The command should return an SID name of NAS and a status of OPEN. You can also run a a simple query such as SQL> select * from hr.employees; to verify that the database is running. Managing the Database You can use Oracle Enterprise Manager or dbastudio to manage the databases on the server running Linux. To start dbastudio, enter the following command in a terminal window on the server running Linux: [oraclenas@RAC1 local]$ oemapp dbastudio Using Dell ActiveArchive Dell ActiveArchive is a utility that enables you to create and preserve persistent images of PowerVault system data volumes. The utility manages up to 250 concurrent persistent images, which are online "point-in-time" copies, or snapshots, of a disk data volume. A persistent image survives the loss of system power or a system reboot. You can manage the image from any networked computer by using the NAS Manager. Dell ActiveArchive enables you to back up your system from an existing snapshot of the data, which does not affect the server. You can schedule snapshots and specify how many copies of the data to keep. NOTE: Using persistent images may degrade performance. The amount of degradation depends upon the rate that the data is changing and the number of persistent images kept for each volume. However, the volume’s read-write performance remains constant, regardless of persistent images. You can use Dell ActiveArchive in two ways to perform a full Oracle operating system backup—cold backups and hot backups. Cold backups require you to shut down the database, while hot backups do not require you to shut down the database. 1-10 Us ing Orac le 9i W ith NA S Sy s te m s
  15. 15. Performing a Cold Backup 1 Shutdown the database normally using the following command: [oraclenas@RAC1 local]$ sqlplus "/as sysdba" SQL> shutdown normal; 2 Use the NAS Manager to connect to the NAS system. 3 Create a new persistent image of the volume that contains all of your database files. 4 On the Oracle server, enter the following command to back up all control files and redo log files to a backup location: [oraclenas@RAC1 local]$ cp $ORACLE_HOME/oradata/SID/oradata/* /backup/oradata/ 5 Enter the following command on the Oracle server to restart the database. [oraclenas@RAC1 local]$ sqlplus "/as sysdba" SQL> startup; Performing a Hot Backup 1 Enter the following command on the Oracle server to verify that the database is running in archivelog mode: [oraclenas@RAC1 local]$ sqlplus "/as sysdba" SQL> archive log list; Database log mode Archive Mode Automatic archival enabled Archive destination /ora2/oracle/product/9.0.1/dbs/arch Oldest online log sequence 14 Current log sequence 16 SQL> 2 Enter the following command to connect to the database and put all of your tablespaces in backup mode. [oraclenas@RAC1 local]$ sqlplus "/as sysdba" U si ng Orac le 9i W ith N AS Sy s te m s 1-11
  16. 16. 3 Verify the names of all tablespaces. w w w. d e l l . c o m | s u p p o r t . d e l l . c o m SQL> select tablespace_name from dba_tablespaces; TABLESPACE_NAME ---------------------------------------------------- SYSTEM UNDOTBS CWMLITE DRSYS EXAMPLE INDX TEMP TOOLS USERS SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE SYSTEM BEGIN BACKUP; SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE UNDOTBS BEGIN BACKUP; SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE CWMLITE BEGIN BACKUP; SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE DRSYS BEGIN BACKUP; 4 Use the NAS Manager to connect to the NAS system. 5 On the primary menu bar, click Disks and then click ActiveArchive. 6 Click Persistent Images and create a new persistent image of the volume that contains all of your database files. For more information about creating persistent images, click the ? in the window to display the help. 7 On the Oracle server, back up all of your control files, redo log files, and archive log files. 8 Connect to the database on the Oracle server and end the online backup by entering the following command: SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE SYSTEM END BACKUP; SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE UNDOTBS END BACKUP; SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE CWMLITE END BACKUP; SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE DRSYS END BACKUP; NOTE: During this process, the Oracle server still operates and responds to requests. 1-12 Us ing Orac le 9i W ith NA S Sy s te m s
  17. 17. Restoring the Database NOTE: If you restore the database from a hot backup, make sure that the archive log files are available at the archive_log_dest location specified in the init.ora parameter file. 1 Shut down the database normally. 2 Use the NAS Manager to connect to the NAS system. 3 On the primary navigation bar, click Disks. 4 Click ActiveArchive. 5 Click Restore Persistent Images. 6 In the Persistent Image column, click the persistent image you want to restore. 7 Click Restore, and then click OK on the next window that appears. 8 On the Oracle server, enter the following command to copy your control files and redo log files from the backup location to their original location: [oraclenas@RAC1 local]$ cp /backup/oradata/* $ORACLE_HOME/oradata/SID/oradata 9 Start the database again. Using a NAS Cluster as the Data Store You can use a NAS cluster as the data store, rather than creating a share on a single NAS system. NOTE: To create the cluster file share resources, you must use the Microsoft ® Cluster Administrator program. You can use the Cluster Administrator by connecting a keyboard and monitor to the NAS system, or through a Terminal Services session to the NAS system. You can also use Cluster Administrator to install a Cluster Administrator console on a Windows client on the network. Refer to your NAS Cluster Installation and Troubleshooting Guide for more information. Perform the following steps to use Microsoft Cluster Services to create a cluster-aware NFS file share resource: 1 Click the Start button, and then select Administrative Tools—>Cluster Administrator. 2 Click the File menu, and select New—>Resource to display the New Resource window. 3 Enter the Name and Description for the file share resource. U si ng Orac le 9i W ith N AS Sy s te m s 1-13
  18. 18. 4 In the Resource type field, select NFS File Share. w w w. d e l l . c o m | s u p p o r t . d e l l . c o m 5 Select an existing disk group from the Group drop-down menu. 6 Click Next to display the Possible Owners window. 7 Add or remove possible owners of the resource, and then click Next to display the Dependencies window. To add dependencies, click a resource under Available resources, and then click Add. To remove dependencies, click a resource under Resource dependencies, and then click Remove. 8 Click Next to display the File Share Parameters window. 9 In the Share name field, enter the share point name for the file share resource. 10 In the Path field, enter the complete path to the directory. 11 In the Comment field, enter a comment for the file share resource, if desired. 12 Select Permissions to set the share level securities. 13 Click Finish. NOTE: In a cluster configuration, you must configure the cache memory on your RAID controller to write-through instead of write-back. This configuration affects the write performance to the NFS share. For more information about NAS clusters, see your NAS Clusters Installation and Troubleshooting Guide. 1-14 Us ing Orac le 9i W ith NA S Sy s te m s

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