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  1. 1. SCSC 311 Information Systems: hardware and software
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Three questions to be answered: </li></ul><ul><li>Why is technological knowledge important for information systems professionals? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of jobs will IS professionals take? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do IS professionals locate information sources? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Rapid Technology Developments <ul><li>Moore's Law is the empirical observation: </li></ul><ul><li>the number of transistors on an integrated circuit (for minimum component cost) doubles </li></ul><ul><li>every 24 months. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Gordon Moore, 1965 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Computing Devices are Everywhere <ul><li>Increasingly complex and powerful </li></ul><ul><li>And yet easier to use </li></ul>
  5. 5. Question 1: Why is technological knowledge important for information systems professionals?
  6. 6. Q1: Why is technological knowledge important for information systems professionals? <ul><li>Ans: IS professional is responsible of … </li></ul><ul><li>Acquiring and Configuring Technological Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Computer Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Information System </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1. Acquiring and Configuring Technological Devices <ul><li>Classroom discussion: </li></ul><ul><li>What type of knowledge do you need to know about a computer system to purchase a computer for your home use? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of knowledge do you need to know about a computer system to purchase one for your business use? </li></ul><ul><li>It requires more knowledge acquiring and configuring </li></ul><ul><li>devices than using devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges of an IS professional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuration choices </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 2. Managing Computer Resources <ul><li>Requires attention to compatibility and future trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compatibility: ensure that each new system operates correctly and operates smoothly with other systems; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future trends: ensure that software/hardware acquisitions provide a good foundation for current and future systems </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 3. Developing Information Systems <ul><li>Systems development life cycle (SDLC) : IS professionals follow a series of steps when developing an IS </li></ul><ul><li>Unified Process (UP) is a modern SDLC, includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Modeling and Requirements disciplines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation and Testing disciplines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deployment discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What’s next step? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Unified Process Iteration : Under the UP model, an IS is built in a series of 4-6 week repeated steps.
  11. 11. Business Modeling & Requirements Disciplines <ul><li>Purpose: to understand the system environment and tasks the system must perform </li></ul><ul><li>Technical knowledge required to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess degree to which users’ needs are being met </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate resources required to address unmet needs </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Design Discipline <ul><li>Purpose: to determine structure of a specific information system that fulfills system requirements (information architecture) </li></ul><ul><li>Technical knowledge required to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select hardware and network components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate compatibility </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Sets of Design Activities <ul><li>Architectural design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select and describe exact configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Detailed design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrower in scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constrained by information architecture </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Specific Systems Design Tasks Programming languages, component libraries, integrated development environments Application program development tools OS, database management system, network services, network protocols, security protocols and software Software Transmission lines, routers, firewalls Network hardware Processing, storage, I/O, and network components Computer hardware Examples Selection of…
  15. 16. Implementation and Testing Disciplines <ul><li>Purpose of implementation: to build, acquire, and integrate application software components </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of testing: to verify correct functioning of infrastructure and application software components and ensure they satisfy system requirements </li></ul>
  16. 17. Deployment Discipline <ul><li>Purpose: to install and configure infrastructure and application software components and bring them into operation </li></ul><ul><li>Technical knowledge required to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Format storage devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up system security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Install and configure network services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish accounting and auditing controls </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Systems Evaluation and Maintenance <ul><li>Systems Evaluation and Maintenance accounts for much of long range system cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although it is not a part of UP model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical knowledge required to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address maintenance changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classify a proposed change as major or minor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify an existing system </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Question 2: </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of jobs will IS professionals take ? </li></ul>
  19. 20. Q2: What kind of jobs will IS professionals take ? <ul><li>Job classification of IS professionals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems programmer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application developer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer operations manager </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network administrator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Database administrator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chief information officer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer hardware and software knowledge are essential to each group, with different emphasis . </li></ul>
  20. 21. Hardware Personnel (self-study) <ul><li>Design, install, and maintain hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical degree and/or vendor-specific training (lower level) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree in computer science or computer engineering (higher level) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Require extensive knowledge of computer hardware (processing, data storage, input/output, and networking devices) </li></ul>
  21. 22. Systems Programmers (self-study) <ul><li>Develop system software (operating systems, compilers, database management systems, network security monitors) </li></ul><ul><li>Perform hardware troubleshooting and software installation and configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Have degrees in computer science or computer engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Need in-depth knowledge of system software, computer hardware, and networks </li></ul>
  22. 23. Application Developers (self-study) <ul><li>Contribute to different part of SDLC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems analyst (business modeling and requirements) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems designer (design discipline, sometimes deployment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application programmer (builds and tests software) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need in-depth hardware and system software knowledge </li></ul>
  23. 24. Systems Managers (self-study) <ul><li>Common job titles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer operations manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network administrator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database administrator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief information officer </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Computer Operations Manager (self-study) <ul><li>Oversees operation of a large information–processing facility (scheduling, staffing, security, system backups, maintenance, upgrades) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad base of technical knowledge to understand organization’s information systems and infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capability of understanding advice of technical staff </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Network Administrator (self-study) <ul><li>Responsible for network infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires technical expertise in computer hardware, telecommunications, and system software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on network and data communication technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responsible for local area network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates and maintains network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Installs and maintains end-user software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Installs and configures hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trains users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assists management in selecting and acquiring software and hardware </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Database Administrator (self-study) <ul><li>Responsible for management of large collections of data </li></ul><ul><li>Requires technical expertise and ability to help the organization exploit its data resources </li></ul>
  27. 28. Chief Information Officer (self-study) <ul><li>Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization’s computers, networks, software, and data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective use of information and computing technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad base of technical knowledge to interact effectively with all technical specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision of how technology is changing and how best to respond to changes to support organizational objectives </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Question 3: </li></ul><ul><li>Where do IS professionals locate information sources? </li></ul>
  29. 30. Q3: Where do IS professionals locate information sources? <ul><li>Ans: </li></ul><ul><li>Periodical literature (most important) </li></ul><ul><li>Web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Training courses offered by hardware and software vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Professional societies: IEEE, ACM, etc. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Periodical Literature <ul><li>Examples of available literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE Journals and magazines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ACM Journals and magazines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computerworld, Computer, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web-based periodicals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide content from back issues, additional content, a search engine, other links </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Web Sites <ul><li>Technology-Oriented Web Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a common interface to publication families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable publisher to provide additional content and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can generate revenue in several ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May have biased content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vendor and Manufacturer Web Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily marketing and customer support tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide current detailed technical product information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often biased in favor of vendor’s products </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Summary <ul><li>Technical knowledge of computers are essential to </li></ul><ul><li>IS professionals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required to develop information systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required to manage an organization’s information systems and infrastructure (compatibility, future trends) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge must be constantly updated </li></ul></ul>

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