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  1. 1. Database Development Cycle Track 3: Managing Information Using Database
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><ul><li>Database planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System Definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements collection and analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototyping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Conversion and loading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational Maintenance </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Life Cycle Source: http://www.cs/ Database Planning Systems Definition Requirements Collection and analysis Database Design DBMS Selection Application Design Implementation Data Conversion and loading Testing Evaluation & Maintenance Prototyping
  4. 4. Database Planning Current systems evaluation Development of Standards Technological feasability Operational feasability Economical feasability
  5. 5. Requirements Collection and Analysis <ul><li>identifying management information requirements, </li></ul><ul><li>determining information requirements by functional area, </li></ul><ul><li>and establishing hardware and software requirements </li></ul>Systems definition Data dictionary Metadata
  6. 6. Database Design Conceptual design Logical design Physical design
  7. 7. DBMS Selection <ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Features and Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlying model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS hardware requirements </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Application design <ul><li>Application program design </li></ul><ul><li>User Interface design </li></ul>
  9. 9. Prototyping Develop the working model Build the prototype Use and Test the prototype Review the prototype Decision Abandon application Implement Application Redevelop Application Begin new prototype
  10. 10. Implementation <ul><li>The physical realisation of the database and application designs </li></ul><ul><li>the detailed model is converted to the appropriate implementation model, the data dictionary is built, the database is populated, application programs are developed and users are trained </li></ul>
  11. 11. Data Conversion and Loading & Testing <ul><li>Transferring any existing data into the new database and converting any existing applications to run on the new database </li></ul><ul><li>Finding errors </li></ul>
  12. 12. Database Evaluation <ul><li>Interviewing and polling users to determine whether any data needs are unmet. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Operational maintenance <ul><li>preventive maintenance (backup) </li></ul><ul><li>corrective maintenance (recovery)1 </li></ul><ul><li>adaptive maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>assignment of access </li></ul><ul><li>regular monitoring & periodical check up </li></ul>
  14. 14. Data & Database administration <ul><li>Data administration is the management of the data resources </li></ul><ul><li>Database administration is the management of physical realisation of the database application </li></ul>
  15. 15. Database design methodology <ul><li>A structured approach that uses procedures, techniques, tools, and documentation aids to support and facilitate the process of design. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptual database design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical database design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical database design </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Entity, Attribute, Relationship Entity Attribute Relationship Client Name Address Postcode Passport Passport No Exp.Data Itinerary Date City Contact
  17. 17. Conceptual Design Phase
  18. 18. Basic relationships <ul><li>One-to-One </li></ul><ul><li>One-to-many </li></ul><ul><li>Many to many </li></ul>Track is helds in holds Trainer HUSBAND WIFE is married to is married to TRACK PARTICIPANTS belongs to has
  19. 19. Logical design phase 1. REFINE THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL Conceptual E.A.R Model Refined Conceptual Model 2.APPLY THE RULES OF NORMALIZATION Logical Data Model
  20. 20. Refining the Conceptual model <ul><li>Refine the attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synonyms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hononyms </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Physical Database Design Logical Data Model Logical Process Model TR Track 01 Country Database creation CREATE DATABASE CREATE TABLE LOAD Physical Implementation Process
  22. 22. Critical Success Factors in Database Design <ul><li>Work interactively with the users as much as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow a structured methodology throughout the data modelling process. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate structural and integrity considerations into the data models. </li></ul><ul><li>Combine conceptualisation, normalisation, and transaction validation techniques into the data modelling methodology. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Exercise (Conceptual design) List 1 List 2 Track No: 1 Track name: Managing information using Database Participant code Participant name Age Position Country Address Country code Country name Participant code Participant name Track name Create a conceptual E.A.R model of the database for the following lists. (List up the necessary DATA ITEMS, set up ENTITIES and their ATTRIBUTES, and identify the relationship among the entities ) List 1 is the list of participants’ information by track List 2 is the list of participants’ information by countries
  24. 24. Answer Zero one or many Just one One or many Just one
  25. 25. Exercise: Primary and Foreign Key Participant code Participant name Age Position Address Country code Country name Country code Track name Track code Participant code Please identify primary and foreign key. Primary key Foreign key
  26. 26. Answer Participant code Participant name Age Position Address Country code Country name Country code Track name Track code Participant code