12- Phys. Ed. Organization & Administration of Physical Education: Athletics = Social Sciences - Recreation & Sports Health Sciences - Medicine - Sports Medicine Business & Economics - Management Styles & Communication, Management Theory Proquest; Academic Search; Business Source; Business & Industry; ERIC
Athletic or Physical Education Administration current issue / problems related to athletics or physical education.
These are the basic steps involved in conducting bibliographic research and which will be addressed in this presentation.
I’ve prepared several research guides that I believe will help you with your research and supplement this lecture. The Research Worksheet will walk you through the research process I describe in this lecture. You can access it on the library Web site by selecting Research Guides & Tutorials General Research Guides Research Worksheet. Along with that you will also find Evaluating Resources which is an important aspect of any kind of bibliographic research whether you are dealing with print or electronic resources. This research guide will help you make the best choices along the way. I’ve also prepared a research guide specifically for the field of Liberal Studies that gives you an overview of the resources the library has with instructions for finding them. In this lecture I’ll be demonstrating some of the instructions found on this research guide and then going beyond it to further your understanding of the research process. Also under Topical Research Guide, you will be able to find this slide presentation and view it anytime anywhere. I’ve also prepared information on Copyright that may help you to know what is probably OK and what is probably not OK when it comes to duplicating copyrighted materials. You can always see me if you have any concerns.
The key to efficient research is to plan your research strategy and move from the general to the specific. You don’t want to wander aimlessly through the stacks or spend hours searching with little or no direction. Rather you must be circumspect. Before beginning to look for information you should consider what it is you are looking for and how you are going to go about finding it and what tools you should use to get the needed information. You need to plan your strategy. In planning your strategy you must first... [click] Focus your Topic. Once you’ve selected a topic consider how you are going to approach your topic. Ask who, what, when, where and why questions of your topic to help you establish a research strategy. You must think in terms of both the secular version as well as the biblical understanding of your problem and this will play a significant part in determining what sources you’ll need to get the relevant information. [click] 2. Preparing a preliminary outline will help you to focus your thoughts in the direction you want to go. To help with this try writing the theme of your presentation in a few sentences in other words a thesis statement as well as a title for your presentation. More than likely this will not be the outline or even the title that you end up with but it will be helpful in getting your thoughts focused so you have a direction for beginning your research. 3. The key terms from these statements (your title, thesis statement and outline) can help with the next and essential part of the research process and that is [click] to Select appropriate Terminology to use in searching research tools like library catalogs, periodical indexes, online databases, and the Internet.
When selecting search terms consider alternative terminology and synonyms. A thesaurus can help with this. There are general thesauri and subject specific thesauri like the “Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors”. We have the 14 th edition published in 2001 and it’s available in the Reference collection. Make a list of some variations before you begin searching. You could use the Research Worksheet I’ve mentioned to help guide you along. [click] We have an online thesaurus called Visual Thesaurus that has a very unique way of visually representing synonymous terms. Using the Visual Thesaurus may also help you to focus in on the direction you think you want to take or not take as the case may be in your research. It will be to your advantage to identify appropriate LC Subject Headings since this is a standardized controlled vocabulary they can be used in searching just about every library catalog as well as other indexing tools. I’ve included some in the Liberal Studies Research Guide that may prove helpful in getting you started. [click] You might also try the OED Online for basic definitions and etymology you might even find related terminology. Take your list of terms with you when you go to the library or more likely logon to your computer to begin your search.
Think in both the broader and the narrower aspects of your topic. In the course of your reading look for, colloquialisms, professional jargon, Persons, Places and events. Consider variant endings and variations in spelling especially between British English and Colonial English. Some of your topics are in themselves Subject Headings. Some of them will take a bit more work. The Physical Education Research Guide gives you instructions for finding LC Subject Headings using our OPAC but let me give you a quick demonstration.
To find LC Subject Headings from the basic search screen type in your topic and select Subject Browse
The advantage of using the OPAC’s Subject Browse is that you get an alphabetic listing with your term in it. In addition to identifying the correct LC subject Heading you will also find additional terminology. [click] Scroll through the list to see the many narrower terms and related subject headings associated with this broad topic. [click] Be sure to always exam any Note or Info buttons as they will give you some very helpful information. For example, notice that “Physical education and training Medical aspects” indicates there are no titles attached to that heading. Does mean we don’t have anything on this topic? Does it sound reasonable that where there is a Physical Education major with a therapy emphasis being taught the library would not have books on this topic? No, what this zero means is that this subject heading is not used. However, by selecting the Info button associated with this heading …
You are shown that the term “Sports medicine” should be used instead. This is one very good example of how beneficial to your research it is for you to take the time to examine the information provided through these Note and Info leads. [click] To access the records under Sports medicine [click] simple select the hyperlinked record number. [click] But before you do that, you’ll want to select the info button with Sports Medicine because it will lead you to additional subject headings and another Info button which I recommend you take a look at because it will reveal some important related subject headings.
The next three steps in research are to get an overview of your topic, identify available research tools and most important of all the heart of the whole research process: Use every source you find to find other sources. Lets talk about getting an overview of your topic.
Once you have some idea of what you want, you need to start finding information on the topic. The best strategy for going about this is to start with background information on your topic. It will be beneficial to find resources the will give you an overview of your topic because They will give you a handle on your subject right away; and answer the who, what, when, where, and why They will tell you the areas your subject covers and what its major divisions are; what approaches are commonly taken, what the boundaries are on the topic. You will discover how your topic fits into the larger discipline and you will be able to better define the parameters of your topic. Knowing what discipline your topic belongs and the parameters of the topic will help you to focus your topic and enable you to make better choices when selecting vital information. These “overview or background” resources can provide you with a list of some of the standard works on your topic as well as recognized authorities on the topic. The bibliography from an encyclopedic work is just such a list. The author of the reference article is a recognized authority in the field who may very well have written books or articles on the subject. These resources may also give you a ready made outline of your topic; this may be a big help in getting you started with or refocusing your research. And later when reading specialized monographs and periodical articles your comprehension and understanding will be greater.
The best place to go to get an overview is from encyclopedias/dictionaries. Don’t let the word “dictionary” predispose you for or against a title with either dictionary or encyclopedia in it. In library and publishing terminology “dictionary” can refer simply to the alphabetical arrangement of articles without regard to their length, so it is often synonymous with “encyclopedia”. The most efficient method you can use to find encyclopedias is to use the OPAC. You could simply browse the reference collection but the downside of doing so is that some of the books may not be on the shelf; they might be in use or waiting to be reshelved - you could miss something very valuable if this is the only method of research you use. Instructions for finding reference resources are given in the Liberals Studies Research Guide – let me just quickly demonstrate it here for you. From the OPAC main page select Search Limits
Using the Location limit scroll down and select Reference then “Set Limits”; wait for the page to refresh and then select Search. You’ll know the page has refreshed because “Search limits are in effect” will appear.
When you get to your search screen, the system will default to Basic Search but you want to select Advanced Search because the limiting feature does not function within Basic search. Your Limits will stay in effect until you turn them off by selecting [click] “Clear Limits”. By the way you can also set limits anytime during the course of searching the OPAC without having to go back to the main page by selecting [click] the Set Limits button at the bottom right of the search screen. Now your ready to search your broad subject field. There might be a whole encyclopedia on your specific topic or in an area a little broader like. If you’ve already taken the time to identify LC Subject headings as I’ve described you can use those to find appropriate reference resources. [click] But because you’ve already limited your search to only the reference collection, I suggest searching using the Keyword field from the “Search in:” drop down menu instead of Subject field. You also don’t want to be too narrow in your choice of terminology here. There may be a reference book that contains information on your narrow topic but the bibliographic record may not contain those terms. You may have to think of the topic in it’s broader context. Try the narrow aspect, if you don’t retrieve anything choose a broader search term. The beauty of an online environment is that it only takes a few seconds to do the search again. Also, don’t assume that because you didn’t retrieve any records that there isn’t anything there on your topic. You may just have to play around with your search terms and your search query to get at what you want. This is one of the reasons why bibliographic research is called a “skill”. It takes practice to get to know just what will work in a given situation. Again the Physical Education Research Guide lists for you a few encyclopedias and dictionaries to help you get started. Some of our Reference books are electronic books.
As a matter of fact, in addition to the physical books in the library’s collection, there are over 6,000 electronic books in our collection many of which are reference resources. To access an eBook from the OPAC click on the link at the Online Resource: field. Most of these will say “Connect to book” but not all of them. The textual content of this link is not so important to remember as the field that it is in and that is “Online Resource”
There are three possible means of accessing our e-books depending on their respective sources. If they are part of a publisher’s collection (xrefer, Oxford Reference Online) you’ll get a pop-up box asking for your MasterNet id/password. If they are part of our NetLibrary collections you must first create your own account and password from a computer on campus. I’ll show you how to do this this in just a second and the brochure you have will help explain it further. And then there are some individual titles that have been purchased and loaded into our collection which require a special password: “TMC” all caps.
To create your own account with NetLibrary go to www.netlibrary.com while logged onto your computer on campus. [click] Then select “Create a Free Account” and simply follow the instructions fro creating your own id/password to use with NetLibrary. “ And that’s all I have to say about that”
In identifying appropriate resources to use in your research it is to your advantage to examine the TMC library’s Web site and peruse each menu option carefully to learn about the resources the library has, the services we provide and the policies and procedures involved with using the library. [click] The pages under Library Services have more to do with policies and procedures whereas those pages under “About the Library” are more informational. You ought to read the entire contents of these two pages very carefully as well as each of the menu options associated with each of these pages as the information here will answer many questions you didn’t even think to ask and will improve your skill in using this library. [click] I’ve created a Web Resources section so that you can easily identify reputable, scholarly Web sites that have been evaluated by librarians, scholars and other experts in the field. I suggest that you merely scan this page so that you’ll be able to use it when you need it. If you want help working your way through this page, please stop by my desk and let me show you how to make the most of it. [click] There are a number of Research Guides available designed to provide basic research skills. Many libraries have similar aides and these can be very instructional and will serve to make your research more efficient and effective in the long run. This page includes a list of General Research Guides, Topical Research Guides and information on Copyright Law particularly as it relates to higher education. I strongly suggest that you read the General Research Guides. They will provide you with valuable insight into doing research and could end up saving you a great deal of time in the long run. [click] You’ll certainly want to take a closer look at “Databases/Indexes” and “Periodical Holdings” as you will be needing them for this class and any other class that requires a research paper. These pages will help you discover the areas of concentration in the library’s collection. You’ll have a better understanding of just how useful the library is or is not for your particular research need. It will be especially advantageous to you if you identify those databases that are peculiar to your field of study and become thoroughly familiar with how they work. [click] And of course you will also need to examine the library’s Online Public Access Catalog that is OPAC. The library catalog is the index to the entire contents of the library. I strongly recommend that you read the OPAC Help so that you have a better understanding of how this particular search engine functions. It will make your searching more efficient and more effective.
OPAC Help is at the bottom of the OPAC Main page.
Now let’s take a closer look at the Databases/Indexes page. This page will give you access to all of the databases and indexes the library has and in addition to the OPAC it is the most important source of research tools available to you. The databases and indexes are what you will need to use to find journal articles, books, theses, dissertations, conference reports, organizational proceedings, encyclopedias, dictionaries, and other electronic reference books. In other words the vast majority of your research will be done with the OPAC and these databases and indexes. Here’s how this page works. [click] If you already know the name of the database or index that you want to search simply type it in the free text box. Whenever I can I’ve created a short cut to the database or the index by including an acronym with the title. So as long as you leave the search set to Keyword you only have to type in the related acronym. [click] or you can browse the entire list of available database/indexes alphabetically or [click] you can use the Topic/Type matrix to discover what is available for a particular field of study. Examining this list for Physical Education will again give you an idea as to the library’s collection strengths. [click] be sure to read the explanation of the Types so you will know what’s included in each. If you were to select the Main Topic “Physical Education” and the Type “Articles” …
… this is the list of databases/indexes you will receive. [click] The legend at the top explains the meaning of the icons. [click] Notice that some of our indexes are still available in print. This is particularly important for Physical Education. And I’ll explain why in a minute. [click] Each title has a very brief statement of explanation about the database or index but if additional information is needed simply [click] on the ellipses and a pop-up box will appear with a bit more information. This is only enough to help you decided if this particular database/or index is likely to give you the information you need.
You will still need to more carefully examine the database itself once you get there. Which involves examining the information icons, Help menus, About links and experimenting with all the various drop down menus, search options and limiting features available on each page. They will probably also have a Topic guide or a Browse Index as well as Publications list or Source List. All of which should be examined to give you a better understanding of the content of the databases as well as improve your skill with using the database. Resist the urge to just jump right in and start searching the database without first examining what it is and how it functions. Especially for those databases that are peculiar to your field. You really want to get to know them as thoroughly as you can. You will be amazed at all the services they have to offer you and how much more efficient your research will be because you know how to make the most out of it. Your brain power is considerably more sophisticated than any computer. All you have to do is apply it. You do the work you’ve been designed to do and let the computer do the work it has been designed to do.
You will gain a more thorough understanding of your topic by reading more than one explanation. You must have a sufficient breadth and depth of knowledge in order to write a research paper. So part of the research process involves using more than one source and more than one of the same kind of source. In addition to the Reference resources needed for background information you will also need to look for Anthologies or Multi-Author works, Monographs, essays and even Web sites. You might also need to use Audio/video materials. You will find these in the library’s OPAC and in some databases and indexes and a particularly helpful tool is the WorldCat database, which I will explain in a little bit. You’ll also of course need Journal articles and you might find that Theses & Dissertations very helpful; You may even benefit from Conference Proceedings or Organizational Proceedings and even personal interview. These you also will find through the indexes and databases and WorldCat Although there may not be a whole book dealing exclusively with your topic, you can use books that address you topic in general. Use the OPAC to find books in our library. The same technique I’ve just described to you for finding your Overview Reference Materials can be employed to identify all of the other resources in the library, just don’t Limit the Location to Reference.
I want to draw your attention to Physical Education Index. This is the only subject specific index available for the field of Physical Education. It is also one of the few remaining indexes that we continue to receive in print form. It is located in the Indexes section of the Periodicals Section of the library. However, I have arranged with CSA to get a 30 day trial access to the Online version of this Index for you. And since CSA uses the Journal Linker program you will be a able to easily determine which articles we have and which ones you will have to get via ILL. I will be explaining how Journal Linker and ILL work a little later in this presentation. If at the end of the 30 days I discover usage of this online index is worth the expense I will attempt to acquire it. The cost for the online version is twice that of the print and I can’t justify the expense if it’s not used sufficiently. So to help you make the most of it let me help you get started with it.
To access the online index go to Library Databases/Indexes and since Physical Education Index is only one of two indexes that we subscribe through CSA you only need to type CSA in the free text box.
Select the link to Physical Education Index
When you do you’ll get this search screen. I have the system default to the Advanced search page so that you can more easily devise a search query that will be focused specifically to your information need. Remember I said to examine carefully the About, Help, Search tips and various drop down menus so that you can discover what this database can do for you. [click] Here’s “Search Tips” [click] and here is the Help & Support link which will provide you with valuable information about how this search engine works and the various operations it can perform as well as the search tools available. [click] Examine each of the tabs and each of the links at the top of the screen again to familiarize yourself with what’s here and how to make the most use it. [click] For example selecting Search Tools reveals another page with more search services. Notice particularly the Thesaurus. Remember I mentioned earlier that using a subject specific thesaurus can help you identify appropriate search terms and here CSA provides one for you with this database and since it is an online database it will link you directly to articles with those descriptors. [click] History is also beneficial as it keeps track of the search queries you’ve performed.
Look at the drop down menus and especially look over the various field options available. Pay particular attention to the set up of these free text boxes. Notice there are three boxes in each row [click] enclosed in parenthesis and with “OR” between them. This arrangement is unique to CSA and will affect your results if you don’t consider what it is communicating to the search engine. In order to understand what this represents you need to understand the basic principles of Boolean Logic. Fortunately, there is a very easy to understand explanation of Boolean [click] under the Help & Support link for the Advanced Search screen. In the mean time let me give you a quick explanation
When AND is employed the computer retrieves documents that contain both terms. It is in effect the intersection of records containing these terms. As a logical operator it functions to narrow your search by selecting only those documents that contain both terms. Documents which do not contain both terms are left out of the results list. What portion of this diagram represents the intersection of these two sets of records? [click]
Or, on the other hand broadens your search. When using the OR operator the computer is commanded to find records which contain either term. It is in effect the union of the set of records that has either term in them. It is used for finding records that contain concepts which are related but use differing terminology; it is commonly used to find records containing synonymous terms. What portion of this diagram would you color in to represent the Union of these two sets? [click]
NOT is the null set. It can be useful when searching online but you must be very very careful when using it. I generally use it when I want to eliminate a particular type of document like Book Reviews. Although I recently noticed that Proquest has a separate option to exclude Book Reviews. So from now on I can just check that box. What part of this diagram would you mark to indicate the set of records containing the word Physical but NOT the word Education? [click] What’s the danger with using NOT with these two terms?
Phrasing is a narrower form of AND indicating the terms must appear exactly as indicated between the double quotes which is the typical command used to indicate a phrase.
Proximity operators are another way to narrow AND. They allow you to designate how close each term is to another within each document.
Many databases allow you to specify the number; some are preset and only allow you to turn the operation on or off. Some will even be so precise as to allow you to select within the same paragraph or the same sentence. There is sometimes the option to designate that one word must precede the other word. All of these options can be used to make your searching very very precise.
Synonyms and Truncating or Stemming are applications of the Boolean OR and most databases provide some form of these options either by default or by command. Not only do databases employ synonyms and stemming but so do public search engines like Google. But of course since it is a computer program making the determination it may or may not include terms that you would think of. And of course the rules for how this works with each database and each search engine will vary.
Now let’s get back to our look at the Research Process. We’ve already seen how and why you need to get an overview of your topic; [click] we will be looking at how to use sources to find other sources in just a few minutes [click] but let us continue with Identifying Available Research Tools by taking a look at some additional databases/indexes that will be useful to you for research in the field of Physical education.
Here are some other indexing tools that should prove useful to your research for this class. ERIC is a very large Educational Database and you should find it helpful for many of your topics. A number or ERIC documents are becoming full-text. Essay and General Literature indexes a variety of essays and multi-author works and other types of literature that you won’t find in other periodical indexing tools. Arts & Humanities Citation Index is a unique indexing tool in that it provides indexing to the bibliographies within each article. Essay & Gen’l Lit and Arts & Humanities Index are indexing tools only and by themselves do not provide full-text. However, because they are in FirstSearch, the technology will allow the system to identify the full-text if it is available in any of the other FirstSearch databases to which we subscribe. [click] All of these databases make use of the Journal Linker program which I will discuss and demonstrate for you in a little bit.
For example, I noticed when I searched Art & Humanities index for Physical Education that a number of the articles there are from ECO and some records [click] provide multiple links to the full-text. There are no differences in the text between these links; you only have to decide which format you prefer PDF or HTML. [click] Some records indicate that The Master’s College has the journal. FirstSearch knows we have the journal but it doesn’t know if we have the volume and issue. If there were no full-text link but the record indicates TMC has the journal you can use Journal Linker to see if in fact we the issue you need, which I’ll explain a little later along with Periodical Holdings and Interlibrary Loan. [click] But I’d like to take this opportunity to instruct you about ECO. Electronic Collections Online is a pay per view full-text index available through FirstSearch. ECO indexes thousands of highly scholarly journals most of which cost upwards of $1,000 a year to subscribe. Some of them are as much as $10,000 or more per year. We can’t afford those kinds of prices. However, through ECO we can make the articles in these journal available to you because we only pay for the full-text articles you actually view. [click] Notice the record with ECO and the price. When you click on this link the full-text will open and we will get charged the amount indicated. So, what I need you to do is please, exercise some caution before opening an ECO full-text article. [click] Open the detailed record first by selecting the title link. Most databases default to a brief record in the hit list and then have an option for viewing the detailed or full record.
Examine the information in the detailed record. Carefully read the abstract, look at the subject headings and descriptors the journal title, publisher and the author and whatever information is here that can help you make the determination that this article will probably or probably not be advantageous to your research. If it looks like a good fit near as you can tell, then go ahead and [click] select the full-text. I don’t want to discourage you from using ECO articles, I just ask that you take extra care before viewing them so that we are not paying needlessly. [click] Now since we’re here in Arts & Humanities Citation Index, I’ll go ahead and point out how this is different than any other periodical indexing tool that we have. Notice the Cited References. These are the references that the author of this article used. You now have the option of taking note of these sources and attempting to find them to further your research. A really skilled researcher will take note of how often the same author or the same journal is cited. If the same folks are being cited over and over again it’s a good indication that they are an authority on the subject. The same is true of Journals. If the same journal is frequently cited for the same topic, you can conclude that that particular journal must be an important one for the topic. [click] Now I’d like to direct your attention to the Journal Linker icon. You will find this on every record in every First Search database. It’s really tiny and a little difficult to see so I want to make sure your realize where it is in FirstSearch. The icon is much more obvious in the other databases that use Journal Linker. And as promised I will explain what this is and how to use it but first let me continue with a look at some of the other database that will help you with your research.
Proquest and Academic Search full-text periodical indexes may also give you some useful information since they are interdisciplinary and index both magazines and journals leaning heavily toward undergraduate academia. SIRS and Opposing viewpoints scour the literature and pull together articles on specific contemporary cultural issues. The difference being OVRC intentionally presents the opposing viewpoints. These are both entirely full text. However, you should be aware that their audience is upper level high school and lower level undergrad. These will be great starting points in your research for getting the basics and leading you to other possible sources but you probably won’t want to rely too heavily on them as supporting documentation for your paper since this is a senior level course.
In addition to the indexes mentioned and since this class not only has to do with education it also has to do with administration you will probably find articles in these business indexes and databases.
A few more online research tools that should be helpful to you are Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, Philosopher’s Index and WorldCat. Britannica Online is a highly reputable Encyclopedia and being online provides additional sources of information than a print encyclopedia can. For instance it provides links to Web sites related to many of the topics and being Britannica you can rest assured those sites will be reputable. Philosopher’s Index by CSA just like Physical Education Index. The literature covered goes back to 1940 and includes journal articles, books, book chapters, anthologies and book reviews. And like ERIC all major fields of study have a Philosophy component including Education and therefore you will find some very useful highly scholarly resources in this Index on Physical Education. If we do not have enough resources on your topic or you need to find extensive materials on a topic you can use WorldCat. WorldCat is a catalog of library catalogs and as such contains the catalogs of hundreds of thousands of libraries from all around the world. With it you can find books and other types of resources held in other libraries. Library’s catalog just about any source of information that exists not just books and journals. Many of them now are even including Web sites in their catalogs. So you can get a thorough search of all kinds of available resources all at once.
In addition to using WorldCat to identify reputable Web site you can also search the Internet using a variety of Search Engines, Subject directories and/or Web Portals Search Engines –utilize computer programs like web crawlers, spiders, etc. to search the public Internet by keyword Portals are gateways to a variety of selected Websites – some caution should be exercised as not all of the links are necessarily evaluated or recommended by the Portal compilers. And then there are Subject Directories which search the public Internet by subject category. Some Subject Directories are compiled by Spiders and Web Crawlers but some have been created and are maintained by scholars, librarians and specialists in their fields and the sites chosen for inclusion are hand selected and evaluated by human beings.
These Subject directories are among those that have identified the most valuable online resources by academics and professionals in their fields. BUBL link, Digital Librarian and Scout Report are produced by and intended for the scholar whereas Librarian’s Index to the Internet is produced by and for public libraries so the content will not be quite the academic level as the others. You can save yourself a great deal of hard work by using the work of experts – us subject directories that are compiled and maintained by human brain power instead of the limited discerning capabilities of a Web crawler.
Google Scholar is more of a search engine than a subject directory yet it provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. From one place, you can search across many disciplines and sources for peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, abstracts and articles. These scholarly resources are culled from academic publishers, professional societies, preprint repositories, universities and other scholarly organizations. And so is another useful research tool to have in your arsenal.
The next step in the research process is not really a step at all but permeates the entire process and that is to use every source you find to lead you to other sources. You’ve already seen this in action when we talked about finding Subject Headings: following the “Info” and “Note” buttons. There are other ways to implement this principle. [click] The bibliographic Record will provide you with Authors, Call Numbers, Subject Headings, Series Titles often times even a table of contents from which you can glean additional terminology. I’ve actually used the TOC to find the search term I was looking for but couldn’t think of. You can also use the Bibliographies in the Books and articles you discover along the way and search for them in the OPAC and in Periodical indexes. [click] You can also look for subject headings and descriptors assigned by databases and indexing tools to the records you find to use as additional search terms. Authors of articles may also have written books and vice versa. Outline = yours, the ones you find in encyclopedias and the ones you find in monographs can be turned into searchable terminology. [click] From the text you read identify additional terminology that you can use for continuing your research. Persons, Places, Events and jargon gleaned from encyclopedia articles, dictionaries, handbooks, monographs and periodical articles can be turned into searchable keywords. All of these are the means by which you can identify additional, more focused search terms as well as additional resources.
Here’s an example of how to apply this concept of using sources to find sources. The bibliographic record is a major source of information that can lead you to more sources. [click] The call number can be searched or the shelves in that area browsed, [click] there may be additional authors who will probably have written books or articles on the same subject and they can be searched either in the OPAC or other databases and indexes, [click] the table of contents may provide additional terminology [click] and of course be sure to look at whatever subject headings have been assigned. [click] look for potential series – often this is merely a publishers marketing tool but sometimes can yield very good sources. If there were a series it would appear below the Description:
And finally evaluate your resources. You need to examine the authority of the authors to speak on the topic. And especially important if the authenticity of the work itself particularly online Web sites. Does is contain accurate information? And is it applicable to your particular research need? All of this and more is easily managed with the Research Guide Evaluating Resources which is a list of question you should consider to help you select the best resources for your research. This is especially important when using Public Internet Web sites. The Evaluating Resources guide will help you analyze both print and online sources but if you need more help with Web sources you can use the Web Page Evaluation Worksheet that is also found under General Research Guides. But remember much of this evaluation process for online Web sites has already been done for you if you use Subject Directories created by specialists.
So then, to summarize the research process you first Focus your topic, list terminology to be used in searching library catalogs, online databases and indexes and the Internet; Find Encyclopedias and Dictionaries to get an overview of your topic; examine the library’s web site to discover what research tools are available to you and learn how to use the ones that are peculiar to your field. Remembering all the while to apply the principle of “Using sources to find other sources”. And finally evaluate each research tool and each resource to be sure it is authoritative, accurate and applicable to your research.
All of this happens while you are searching the OPAC to find books, audio-visual materials and the like; Using Indexes to find periodical articles and databases to find other types of resources like theses, dissertations, conference proceedings, multi-author works, etc. And making use of scholars in the field by using Subject Directories to find Reputable Web sites. And overall remembering to Use each source you find to find other sources. In the process of searching these tools you will want to know if and how can the library provide you with the actual text of the articles or books or whatever. A very important aspect of research is getting your hands on the sources you find.
In a nutshell here’s how you can find the full-text of articles and other resources that you come across in the course of your research. You can use the Periodical Holdings list to find journals held by the library You can use the Journal Linker program to identify articles that are either full-text in another database or held by the library and if worse comes to worst You can make use of the Interlibrary Loan program to get what you need from another library. Here’s how all three of these work.
So let’s take a look at the Periodical Holdings list first. Periodical Holdings is where you will find every journal we have whether on the shelf or online. From the Library menu on the left or the main page center select Periodical Holdings
Periodical Holdings is also what you will use for those databases that do not utilize the Journal Linker program. [click] Type in the journal title from the citation and Search. We’ll use “Journal of Physical Education”.
If we have the journal it will be listed along with holdings information [click] either our print holdings which takes you to the OPAC record or [click] links to whatever databases provide the full-text of the title. In this case TMC has the title in the collection. Click on the Print Holdings Link …
You will be taken to the OPAC where you will select the number of the correct title, which will open up the full record
Where you will be able to see the holdings information for this title. [click] In this case the Library has 1975-81 BD located in remote storage Since we’re here I’d like to point out to you something unique about journal titles particularly this journal title. [click] Notice this record contain the information Continues: and Continued by :. It is a very common practice for Journals to change their names. It is most annoying, never-the-less libraries do attempt to keep you informed of these changes by pointing you to the previous title as well as the new title. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance or JOPERD as it is commonly known used to be the Journal of Physical Education and Recreation which used to be Journal of Health, Physical Education and recreation. I’m fairly certain that there are other permutations of this title but these are the only ones we have and I think it is a useful piece of information for you to keep in mind since this is one of the key journals in your field.
Make use of the Subject listing to give you an idea of the journal titles and subject categories associated with the field of Physical Education There are three major fields related to your topic: business & Economics, Health Sciences and Social Sciences. These in turn have related subtopics for more specific journal titles.
Now for a look at Journal Linker. When you search one of the databases that utilize the Journal Linker program there will be a Journal Linker icon. Remember I pointed out the teeny tiny icon in FirstSearch. See, it is much more noticeable in EBSCO and in the other databases that utilize it. If the article you want is not available full-text in this database simply click on the icon.
You’ll get a pop-up browser that looks very much like this. [click] Or you’ll got one that looks like this. Either one will let you know if we have the journal on the shelf or in another database. If it were physically in the library there would be a link to The Master’s College OPAC. An example of which we just saw through Periodical Holdings. Then all you need do is compare the volume and issue from your citation to see if we actually have that particular issue. [click] If the article were available in another database or databases those databases would also be listed here much like this. Clicking on link “Journal” will take you to the journal within the database where you will then need to search for the article in question. Often though there is an Article link right in front of the Journal link which will take you directly to the article within the database.
But there are instances when an article (or a book or any other kind of resource that you might discover) is neither available full-text in one of our databases nor do we have it in print. In this case, if you want it, we can probably get it for you through the Interlibrary Loan Service. Most libraries in this country participate in this type of shared resources program. [click] To use it simply go to the library Web site and select Library Services and then select Interlibrary Loan.
Then select Books or Periodicals as needed and fill in the forms. Be sure to read the policy and procedural information on the ILL Web page. Make sure we do not have the item before you place an ILL order. Search the OPAC for books and search Periodical Holdings list for journals as I’ve just demonstrated.
You can also order ILL materials through FirstSearch and through CSA. When using any of the FirstSearch or CSA Databases, if the item you want is not available full-text or in our library. You’ll know this because you would have [click] first used Journal Linker to ascertain that we do not have the item in another database or on the shelf. If this is the case [click] select the ILL icon [click] then fill in the form with your personal information. The system will automatically attach all necessary bibliographic information and forward it to our ILL manager – Peg Westphalen. Please do not order something on ILL without first verifying that we do not have it. Use the OPAC or Journal Linker or the Periodical Holdings page as necessary. You can always come to me for help.
If you need additional help finding more information on how to write papers , manuals of style , citing sources , how to do research , plagiarism the Writing and Citing Research guide can help.
You are responsible to ensure that you are abiding by the copyright laws that affect duplication of copyrighted materials. You have a legitimate defense under the Educational Fair Use exemption to photocopy materials but it is not blanket permission. There are four factors that the courts have determined must be considered when determining what constitutes “Fair Use”. They are Purpose (what are you using it for), Nature of the work itself, Amount you are using in relation to the whole and the Effect the copying has on the market. You can use the Educational Fair Use exception to its fullest extent but you must also exercise reasonable good-faith in applying the four factors. I strongly urge you to apply these when making a decision about what materials you are going to use as handouts. The Fair Use Checklist will help.
In addition to the Copyright Information you can find on the library Web site under Research Guide & Tutorials, Here are some web sites that can help give you a better understanding of your rights and responsibilities. I can give you some guidance if you need help; I cannot give you legal advice; I’m a librarian not a copyright lawyer.
These have been created and maintained by scholars, librarians and specialists in their fields and the sites chosen for inclusion are hand selected and evaluated by human beings not machines. These all provide links to scholarly Web sites but Librarian’s Index to the Internet is produced by and for public libraries so the content will not be quite the academic level as the others.
Q: How does the Internet compare with using the Library to do research? Can't I use it and skip the Library? A: The Library (and libraries in general) and the Internet serve complementary functions. You may want to use them both: The Internet, the World Wide Web, and the many databases and full-texts available through the Internet are becoming an increasingly rich information resource on many kinds of topics. For current or recent news, events, local information, government, business, and policy topics, and for many publications and text and image archives the Internet can be very valuable. However, it is often not easy to find the information you want on the Internet, nor to authenticate its source if you find it (anyone can &quot;publish&quot; via the Internet). If you are skilled at Internet searching, it is very often worth consulting the Internet on most topics. Libraries are organized and standardized for access to information in ways the Internet is not. Libraries organize information in ways the Internet cannot yet do, which results in more reliable retrievals. Libraries preserve and provide access to many millions of documents that pre-date the Internet and may never be available online with their full texts and images. Access to journals, newspapers, books, and other published material is often easiest and most reliable by using reference research tools and libraries. Our reference staff can assist you in getting the most out of both the Library and the Internet. These Web sites can help you learn more about how to search the Internet
Speaking of analyzing…the next most important aspect of doing research is to .. Evaluate every resource that you find for its appropriateness to your research project and its veracity or accuracy and its authoritativeness. You have a yellow handout that will help you with this analysis. This is especially important when you use the public Internet. If you choose to use an internet Public Web site you MUST evaluate it and fill out the evaluation worksheet that is enclosed in your packet of materials for EACH Web site that you include in your bibliography. The completed worksheet MUST be handed in along with your paper. 1. You are instructed to identify electronic resources. Some very good information can be found on the Internet; so can some very bad information. It is essential that you recognize the difference between authoritative scholarly Web sites and those that are spoofs, parodies or simply misinformation. These two Web sites can give you more help in learning how to evaluate Internet sites.
Here are some tips to help you conduct your searching intelligently.
If the site is not registered think twice about using it. If it is registered, finding out who is responsible for it can tell you whether it’s propaganda, what the bias will likely be, if its reliable.
In an effort to create quality standards for health-related internet sites, the nonprofit Health on the Net Foundation (HON) developed a code of conduct. Internet sites are allowed to display the HON logo by voluntarily complying with the principles in the code.
Organization & Administration of Physical Education By Miss T.
Research Project <ul><li>Current Issue in Athletics or Physical Education Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Problem related to Athletics or Physical Education </li></ul>
Research Process <ul><li>Select & Focus your Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a preliminary Outline </li></ul><ul><li>Select Search Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Get an Overview of our Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Identify appropriate Research Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Use Sources to Find more Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Sources </li></ul>
Research Guides <ul><li>Research Guides & Tutorials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Research Guides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research Worksheet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating Resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topical Research Guides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liberal Studies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Education (to view this slide presentation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright for Higher Education </li></ul></ul></ul>
Strategic Planning General Specific Focus your Topic Prepare an outline Select Search Terms Ephesians 5:15-16
Selecting Search Terms <ul><li>Synonyms – Thesaurus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Thesaurus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LC Subject headings, descriptors, keywords </li></ul><ul><li>OED Online – definitions, etymology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Oxford English Dictionary) </li></ul></ul>
Access E-Books <ul><li>MasterNet id/password </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Xrefer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxford Reference Online </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NetLibrary (while on campus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.netlibrary.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Create a free account” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Special password: (See John Stone or Miss T.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puritan Bookshelf </li></ul></ul>
Examine Database/Index <ul><li>Information icons, Help menus, “About” links </li></ul><ul><li>Drop down menus </li></ul><ul><li>Search Options, Limiting Features </li></ul><ul><li>Topic Guide, Browse Index </li></ul><ul><li>Publications/Source List </li></ul>
Other Sources <ul><li>Anthologies, Multi-author works, Monographs, Essays, Audio-Video materials, Web sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OPAC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Databases, Indexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WorldCat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Periodical Articles, Theses, Dissertations, Professional Conference Proceedings, Organizational Proceedings, Personal Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indexes, Database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WorldCat </li></ul></ul>
Databases/ Indexes <ul><li>Physical Education Index </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Print available in library’s Periodical Indexes Section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online Trial access available until March (CSA) </li></ul></ul>
BOOLEAN OPERATORS <ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Narrows the search </li></ul></ul>- Can be thought of as BOTH <ul><ul><li>- Requires that both terms be in the results </li></ul></ul>- Used for combining differing concepts Physical AND Education <ul><li>the INTERSECTION of two sets </li></ul>-Sometimes referred to as “All of these” Physical Education
BOOLEAN OPERATORS <ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Broadens the search </li></ul></ul>- Used to find one term OR another - Can be thought of as EITHER - Used to search synonymous/closely related terms Physical OR Education <ul><li>the UNION of two sets </li></ul>-Sometimes referred to as “Any of these” Education Physical
BOOLEAN OPERATORS <ul><li>NOT </li></ul>Education Physical <ul><ul><li>-Narrows a search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Used to eliminate records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Exercise extreme caution; needed concepts may be eliminated unintentionally </li></ul></ul>Physical Physical NOT Education Null Set
Applied Boolean AND <ul><li>Phrases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow form of AND </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double quotes = Typical command used to indicate a phrase “” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ physical education” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ sports medicine” </li></ul></ul></ul>
Applied Boolean AND <ul><li>PROXIMITY: NEAR or WITHIN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NEAR / WITHIN is a restrictive AND </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>designates the closeness of terms within a source document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designates the number of words by which search terms can be separated </li></ul></ul>
Applied Boolean AND <ul><li>PROXIMITY: NEAR or WITHIN </li></ul>w/n: within the same document where n = the maximum number of words that can come between them physical w/1 education w/s: within the same sentence w/p: within the same paragraph Pre/n before the term where n=designated number physical education physical pre/1 education
Research Process Continued <ul><li>Get an Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying Available Research Tools: find articles using </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodical Holdings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journal Linker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interlibrary Loan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use Sources to find Other Sources </li></ul>
Databases/ Indexes ERIC – FirstSearch Essay & General Literature Index (FirstSearch) Arts & Humanities Citation Index (FirstSearch)
Databases/ Indexes SIRS Researcher (FirstSearch) Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center (OVRC) Proquest Research Library Academic Search Premier
<ul><li>Business Source Premier </li></ul><ul><li>Lexis/Nexis – Business News </li></ul><ul><li>ABI Inform (FirstSearch) </li></ul><ul><li>Business Management (FirstSearch) </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Press Index (FirstSearch) </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Press Index Archive (FirstSearch) </li></ul>Databases/ Indexes
Additional Research Tools <ul><li>Encyclopaedia Britannica Online </li></ul><ul><li>Philosopher’s Index (CSA) </li></ul><ul><li>WorldCat - FirstSearch </li></ul>
Additional Research Tools <ul><li>Search Engines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>search the public Internet by keyword </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subject Directories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>search the public Internet by subject category </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer generated viz a viz compiled by human experts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Portals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gateway to selected Websites </li></ul></ul>
Intelligent Searching <ul><li>Use specialized scholarly subject directories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BUBL link (bubl.ac.uk) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Librarian (digital-librarian.com) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INFOMINE (infomine.ucr.edu) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Librarian’s Index to the Internet (lii.org) (public library audience) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scout Report (http://scout.wisc.edu/) </li></ul></ul>
Additional Research Tools <ul><li>Google Scholar (scholar.google.com) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, abstracts and articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from academic publishers, professional societies, preprint repositories, universities and other scholarly organizations </li></ul></ul>
Use Every Source To Find Other Sources Authors Titles Subject Headings Call Numbers Jargon Persons Places Events Bibliographies Outlines Descriptors
Evaluating Resources <ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Applicability </li></ul>Library Web site Research Guides & Tutorials General Research Guides *Evaluating Resources *Web Page Evaluation Worksheet
Summary of the Research Process How: <ul><li>Focus Topic </li></ul><ul><li>List Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Get an Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Research Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Use Sources to Find Other Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Sources </li></ul>
Summary of the Research Process Where: <ul><li>OPAC – Books, Audio-Videos, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Indexes – Periodical Articles </li></ul><ul><li>Databases – theses, dissertations, multi-author works, essays, news, proceedings, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Directories – Reputable Web sites </li></ul>Use Sources to Find Other Sources
Find Articles and other resources <ul><li>Periodical Holdings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Journals held by the library </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Journal Linker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full-text Articles in other databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journals held by the library </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interlibrary Loan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles obtained from other libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Books and other resources obtained from other libraries </li></ul></ul>
Help with Writing & Citing <ul><li>For books, Web sites, manuals and help finding more information on how to do research, write papers and cite sources: </li></ul><ul><li>Library Web site Research Guides & Tutorials General Research Guides Writing & Citing </li></ul>
Copyright: Purpose Nature Amount Effect Research Guides & Tutorials Copyright Information Fair Use Checklist Educational Fair Use
http://fairuse.stanford.edu/ Copyright: Educational Fair Use Additional Handouts http://lcweb.loc.gov/copyright/circs/ http://www.utsystem.edu/ogc/intellectualproperty/cprtindx.htm http://www.copyright.com/ Research Guides & Tutorials Copyright Information
Internet Searching <ul><li>Search Intelligently </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate all Web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Use Subject Directories created by specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Check Domain Names </li></ul>
Intelligent Searching <ul><li>Use specialized scholarly directory services: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google Scholar (scholar.google.com) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUBL link (bubl.ac.uk) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Libarian (digital-librarian.com) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INFOMINE (infomine.ucr.edu) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Librarian’s Index to the Internet (lii.org) (public library audience) </li></ul></ul>
Process – Internet Searching http://www.albany.edu/library/internet/engines.html http://www.albany.edu/library/internet/subject.html http://www.albany.edu/library/internet/research.html http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Internet/FindInfo.html HOW TO:
Process Evaluate sources http://www.albany.edu/library/internet/evaluate.html http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Internet/Evaluate.html
Intelligent Searching <ul><li>A ~”name” reflects a personal site representing a personal viewpoint </li></ul>Clues of Caution… in the URL: <ul><li>A .com or .org typically provides biased information </li></ul>
Intelligent Searching … on the site itself: <ul><li>Comic or incendiary language </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of citation or authority </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of currency </li></ul><ul><li>Bias towards audience, or slant of information; positive without the negative; one sided </li></ul>
Intelligent Searching <ul><li>Check domain names with a registry agency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>InterNIC http://www.internic.net/whois.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WhoIS.com: http://www.uwhois.com/cgi/domains.cgi?User=NoAds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are domain names: http://cse.stanford.edu/class/cs201/projects-97-98/domain-names/background/domainnames.html </li></ul>Search Smart: <ul><li>Check underlying pages, top level pages, and links </li></ul>
Look up the domain registry at these registry agencies: For .com, .edu, .net, .org : www.networksolutions.com/cgi-bin/whois/whois For .gov (U.S. government) : www.dotgov.gov/whois.aspx For American Registry for Internet Numbers: http://www.arin.net/whois/index.html For Asian-Pacific : www.apnic.net/apnic-bin/whois.p l For European : www.ripe.net/cgi-bin/whois The rest of the world: www.uninett.no/navn/domreg.html
Intelligent Searching <ul><li>Does it have the HON seal: Health on the Net foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Visit web sites that post hoaxes </li></ul><ul><li>Professional associations </li></ul>