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  1. 1. Chapter 3 Data Resource Management
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain the importance of implementing data resource management processes and technologies in an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the advantages of a database management approach to managing the data resources of a business. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives (continued) <ul><li>Explain how database management software helps business professionals and supports the operations and management of a business. </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate each of the following concepts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major types of databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data warehouses and data mining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical data elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental database structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database access methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database development </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Section I <ul><li>Managing Data Resources </li></ul>
  5. 5. Data Resource Management <ul><li>A managerial activity </li></ul><ul><li>Applies information systems technology to managing data resources to meet needs of business stakeholders. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Foundation Data Concepts <ul><li>Levels of data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single alphabetical, numeric, or other symbol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Groupings of characters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Represents an attribute of some entity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Foundation Data Concepts (continued) <ul><ul><li>Records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Related fields of data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of attributes that describe an entity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed-length or variable-length </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Foundation Data Concepts (continued) <ul><ul><li>Files (table) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A group of related records </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classified by </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary use </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of data </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>permanence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Foundation Data Concepts (continued) <ul><ul><li>Database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated collection of logically related data elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidates records into a common pool of data elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data is independent of the application program using them and type of storage device </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Foundation Data Concepts (continued) <ul><li>Logical Data Elements </li></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Databases <ul><li>Operational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports business processes and operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called subject-area databases, transaction databases, and production databases </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Types of Databases (continued) <ul><li>Distributed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replicated and distributed copies or parts of databases on network servers at a variety of sites. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Done to improve database performance and security </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Types of Databases (continued) <ul><li>External </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Available for a fee from commercial sources or with or without charge on the Internet or World Wide Web </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypermedia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperlinked pages of multimedia </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Data Warehouses and Data Mining <ul><li>Data warehouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores data extracted from operational, external, or other databases of an organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central source of “structured” data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be subdivided into data marts </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Data Warehouses and Data Mining (continued) <ul><li>Data mining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A major use of data warehouse databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is analyzed to reveal hidden correlations, patterns, and trends </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Database Management Approach <ul><li>Consolidates data records and objects into databases that can be accessed by many different application programs </li></ul>
  17. 17. Database Management Approach (continued) <ul><li>Database Management System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software interface between users and databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls creation, maintenance, and use of the database </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Database Management Approach (continued)
  19. 19. Database Management Approach (continued) <ul><li>Database Interrogation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Query </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports ad hoc requests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tells the software how you want to organize the data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SQL queries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphical (GUI) & natural queries </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Database Management Approach (continued) <ul><ul><li>Report Generator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turns results of query into a useable report </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Database Maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Updating and correcting data </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Database Management Approach (continued) <ul><li>Application Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data manipulation language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data entry screens, forms, reports, or web pages </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Implementing Data Resource Management <ul><li>Database Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop and maintain the data dictionary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design and monitor performance of databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforce database use and security standards </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Implementing Data Resource Management (continued) <ul><li>Data Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate planning and analysis function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing the overall data architecture </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Implementing Data Resource Management (continued) <ul><li>Data Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardize collection, storage, and dissemination of data to end users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on supporting business processes and strategic business objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May include developing policy and setting standards </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Implementing Data Resource Management (continued) <ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technologically complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vast amounts of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerability to fraud, errors, and failures </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Section II <ul><li>Technical Foundations of Database Management </li></ul>
  27. 27. Database Structures <ul><li>Hierarchical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treelike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One-to-many relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for structured, routine types of transaction processing </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Database Structures (continued) <ul><li>Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many-to-many relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More flexible but doesn’t support ad hoc requests well </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Database Structures (continued) <ul><li>Relational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data elements stored in simple tables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can link data elements from various tables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very supportive of ad hoc requests but slower at processing large amounts of data than hierarchical or network models </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Database Structures (continued) <ul><li>Multi-Dimensional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A variation of the relational model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cubes of data and cubes within cubes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular for online analytical processing (OLAP) applications </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Database Structures (continued)
  32. 32. Database Structures (continued) <ul><li>Object-oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key technology of multimedia web-based applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for complex, high-volume applications </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Database Structures (continued)
  34. 34. Accessing Databases <ul><li>Key fields (primary key) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A field unique to each record so it can be distinguished from all other records in a table </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Accessing Databases (continued) <ul><li>Sequential access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is stored and accessed in a sequence according to a key field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for periodic processing of a large volume of data, but updating with new transactions can be troublesome </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Accessing Databases (continued) <ul><li>Direct access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key transformation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Index </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indexed sequential access </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Database Development <ul><li>Data dictionary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directory containing metadata (data about data) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interrelationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information regarding access and use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance & security issues </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Database Development (continued) <ul><li>Data Planning & Database Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning & Design Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entity relationship diagrams (ERDs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data modeling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop logical framework for the physical design </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Discussion Questions <ul><li>How should an e-business enterprise store, access, and distribute data & information about their internal operations & external environment? </li></ul><ul><li>What roles do database management, data administration, and data planning play in managing data as a business resource? </li></ul>
  40. 40. Discussion Questions (continued) <ul><li>What are the advantages of a database management approach to organizing, accessing, and managing an organization’s data resources? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the role of a database management system in an e-business information system? </li></ul>
  41. 41. Discussion Questions (continued) <ul><li>Databases of information about a firm’s internal operations were formerly the only databases that were considered to be important to a business. What other kinds of databases are important for a business today? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the benefits and limitations of the relational database model for business applications? </li></ul>
  42. 42. Discussion Questions (continued) <ul><li>Why is the object-oriented database model gaining acceptance for developing applications and managing the hypermedia databases at business websites? </li></ul><ul><li>How have the Internet, intranets, extranets, and the World Wide Web affected the types and uses of data resources available to business end users? </li></ul>
  43. 43. Real World Case 1 – IBM versus Oracle <ul><li>What key business strategies did Janet Perna implement to help IBM catch up to Oracle in the database management software market? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the business case for both IBM’s and Oracle’s product strategy for their database software? </li></ul>
  44. 44. Real World Case 1 (continued) <ul><li>Which approach would you recommend to a company seeking a database system today? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you see as the key factor to IBM’s success? </li></ul>
  45. 45. Real World Case 1 (continued) <ul><li>The case states that “database software has become more of a commodity.” Do you agree? </li></ul>