Managerial Overview: Database Management Is data only ...


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Managerial Overview: Database Management Is data only ...

  1. 1. Managerial Overview: Database Management <ul><li>Is data only important to organizations like libraries and banks? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we need from our data storage system? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we rectify some of these problems? </li></ul><ul><li>What does a word processor provide you? </li></ul><ul><li>By using a word processor, will you always produce high quality term papers? </li></ul><ul><li>DBMS is to data, like, word processing is to a term paper. </li></ul><ul><li>How are databases classified? </li></ul>
  2. 2. Information requirements <ul><li>What information do we need to store about this class? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For you to graduate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For you to apply to graduate school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For your professor to store grades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For administrators to assess faculty performance and to assess classroom utilization </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Database Management System provides <ul><li>Redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>data validation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintenance inconsistency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data can be shared </li></ul><ul><ul><li>users (simultaneous access) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>applications (independence) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control and Security </li></ul><ul><li>Maintainability </li></ul>
  4. 5. Excel data elements
  5. 6. Excel structure very similar to a database <ul><li>Column --> Field (a descriptor) </li></ul><ul><li>Row --> Record (set of related fields) </li></ul><ul><li>Sheet --> File (set of related records) </li></ul><ul><li>Workbook --> Database (set of related files) </li></ul>
  6. 7. Database data elements
  7. 8. Data Resource Management <ul><li>Data a critical resource: How is it managed? </li></ul><ul><li>Data Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>data ownership, access, requirements, architecture, modeling, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS strategic usage, data sharing opportunities, application planning, data retention policies, operational procedures, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Database Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical design and implementation, monitoring and maintenance tasks, performance improvements, how to best use the DBMS tool </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Defining the data <ul><li>What data is required? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Past course objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systems analysis and design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The classifications of IS based on functions they perform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational and disciplinary dependence on data & IS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User Interface Design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How is the data structured? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are several different data models. Each model has associated advantages and disadvantages </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Hierarchical Data Model Origination Destination Date Flight Number Passenger List Data is accessible, top-down only.
  10. 11. Network Data Model Flight Information Pilot Information Airplane Information Destination Information Passenger Information Explicit sets of pointers define the linkages.
  11. 12. Relational Model Flight Flies Pilot Passenger Transports Has a Airplane Goes to Destination Data values provide the linkages.
  12. 13. Object Oriented Model Flight Object Flight Information Entry Methods Pilot Information Deletion Methods Passenger Information Retrieval Methods Airplane Information Modification Methods Destination Information Everything is self-contained within the object.
  13. 14. <ul><li>Hierarchical (Oldest & Fastest) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>leverage the natural hierarchical relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tremendous redundancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>singular view of the data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network (Primarily COBOL applications) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>relationships must be maintained through pairs of explicit pointers (actual storage location of related file). This becomes complex </li></ul></ul>Data Model Overview
  14. 15. Data Model Overview <ul><li>Relational (Most Popular) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Performance (cost of flexibility) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very abstract/difficult for novice to conceptualize (more reliance of technical staff) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design Techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Normalization: a process used to reduce data redundancy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic modeling (Entity Relationship Diagrams): a process used to structure the data. Interjects some meaning into the data. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Data Model Overview <ul><li>Object Oriented (Newest) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily handles complex data types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>graphics, photographs, video, sound, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encapsulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objects are 100% self contained (data, procedures, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>only preprogrammed procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inheritance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical in design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cost of updates and flexibility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Database Classification Schemes