Lecture 10 Notes

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Lecture 10 Notes

  1. 1. CIS 100 Winter 2005 Week 10 Lecture Dr. David Gadish
  2. 2. Week 10 Agenda <ul><li>Programming and Languages (Chapter 14) </li></ul><ul><li>Your Future and Information Technology (Chapter 15) </li></ul>
  3. 3. 14 Programming and Languages
  4. 4. Competencies <ul><li>Six steps of programming </li></ul><ul><li>Design tools </li></ul><ul><li>Program testing </li></ul><ul><li>CASE tools and Object-oriented software </li></ul><ul><li>Generations of programming languages </li></ul>
  5. 5. Programs <ul><li>A list of instructions for the computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes data into information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by end users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prepackaged </li></ul><ul><li>Custom-made </li></ul>
  6. 6. Software Development <ul><li>Specification </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Code </li></ul><ul><li>Test </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul>
  7. 7. Step 1: Program Specifications <ul><li>Program definition or analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Statement of problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desired results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determine inputs and their source </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specification document </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Step 2: Program Design <ul><li>Solutions are planned and created </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-down program design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudocode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowcharts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logic structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loop </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Step 3: Program Code <ul><li>Code the processes from the program design </li></ul><ul><li>Good program qualities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well documented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understandable to programmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured programs best method </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Step 4: Program Test <ul><li>Testing and correcting errors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Debugging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syntax errors </li></ul><ul><li>Logic errors </li></ul><ul><li>Testing process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desk checking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test with sample data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beta testing </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Step 5: Documentation <ul><li>Written descriptions and procedures about the program and how to use it </li></ul><ul><li>Written within programs and in documents </li></ul><ul><li>Written for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmers </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Step 6: Program Maintenance <ul><li>75% of total lifetime cost </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that programs are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Error-free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing needs </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. CASE <ul><li>Computer-aided software engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Automate development process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Object-Oriented Programming <ul><li>OOP software for development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses less on procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OOP software development changes programming approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program is organized into objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize re-use </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Programming Languages <ul><li>Occurring in “generations” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine languages to natural languages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lower level, closer to machine language </li></ul><ul><li>Higher level is closer to human-like language </li></ul>
  16. 16. Generations of Languages <ul><li>1 st -- Machine languages </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd -- Assembly languages </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd -- High level procedural languages </li></ul><ul><li>4 th -- Problem-oriented languages </li></ul><ul><li>5 th -- Natural languages </li></ul>
  17. 17. A Look to the Future <ul><li>Natural language programming </li></ul><ul><li>Ml-tech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System developed by Synapse Solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enter a “wish list” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer translates the list </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 15 Your Future and Information Technology
  19. 19. Competencies <ul><li>Individual strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Technology changing competition </li></ul><ul><li>React to new technology </li></ul><ul><li>Computer competence </li></ul><ul><li>Job definitions </li></ul>
  20. 20. Changing Times <ul><li>Successful individuals have a strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Technology changes responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Some jobs are made obsolete, but new ones are created </li></ul><ul><li>Successful individuals are best at changing </li></ul>
  21. 21. Technology and Organizations <ul><li>Technology changes competition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New enterprises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet service providers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Webmasters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New customer and supplier relationships </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Technology and People <ul><li>Different coping styles with technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cynicism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer use is overrated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naiveté </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magic boxes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frustration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imposition to learn something new </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acting in anticipation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Be a Winner <ul><li>Stay current </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain competence </li></ul><ul><li>Develop professional contacts </li></ul><ul><li>Develop specialties </li></ul><ul><li>Be alert </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative opportunities </li></ul>
  24. 24. Job Opportunities On-line <ul><li>Browse job listings </li></ul><ul><li>Post resumes </li></ul><ul><li>Use special agents (on-line employment agency) </li></ul>
  25. 25. IS Careers <ul><li>Systems analyst </li></ul><ul><li>Web technology </li></ul><ul><li>Database administrator </li></ul><ul><li>Programmer </li></ul><ul><li>Network manager </li></ul><ul><li>Computer support Specialist </li></ul>
  26. 26. A Look to the Future <ul><li>Take positive control </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on goals </li></ul><ul><li>Use computer to your advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Gain control over technology </li></ul>

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