Chapter 3 Organizing Data and Information
Introduction <ul><li>Database:  an organized collection of data </li></ul><ul><li>Database management system (DBMS):  grou...
The Hierarchy of Data <ul><li>Bit  (a binary digit) :  a circuit that is either on or off </li></ul><ul><li>Byte:  eight b...
The Hierarchy of Data Figure 3.1: The Hierarchy of Data
Data Entities, Attributes, and Keys <ul><li>Entity:  a generalized class of people, places, or things (objects) for which ...
Data Entities, Attributes, and Keys Figure 3.2: Keys and Attributes
The Database Approach <ul><li>Traditional approach to database management: separate data files are created for each applic...
The Database Approach Figure 3.3: The Database Approach to Data Management
The Database Approach
The Database Approach Table 3.2: Disadvantages of the Database Approach
Data Modeling and the Relational Database Model <ul><li>When building a database, consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content:...
Data Modeling <ul><li>Building a database requires two types of designs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical design </li></ul></u...
Data Modeling <ul><li>Data model:  a diagram of data entities and their relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Entity-relationshi...
The Relational Database Model <ul><li>Relational model:  all data elements are placed in two-dimensional tables (relations...
Manipulating Data Figure 3.7: Linking Data Tables to Answer an Inquiry
Database Management Systems (DBMS) <ul><li>Interface between: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database and application programs  </l...
Overview of Database Types <ul><li>Flat file </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple database program whose records have no relations...
Creating and Modifying the Database <ul><li>Data definition language (DDL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of instruction...
Storing and Retrieving Data <ul><li>When an application requests data from the DBMS, the application follows a logical acc...
Manipulating Data and Generating Reports <ul><li>Query-By-Example (QBE):   a visual approach to developing database querie...
Database Administration <ul><li>Database administrator (DBA): directs or performs all activities to maintain a database en...
Popular Database Management Systems <ul><li>Popular DBMSs for end users: Microsoft Access and FileMaker Pro </li></ul><ul>...
Selecting a Database Management System <ul><li>Important characteristics of databases to consider </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Si...
Using Databases with Other Software <ul><li>Database management systems are often used with other software packages or the...
Linking Databases to the Internet <ul><li>Linking databases to the Internet is important for many organizations and people...
Data Warehouses, Data Marts, and Data Mining <ul><li>Data warehouse:  collects business information from many sources in t...
Data Warehouses, Data Marts, and Data Mining Table 3.5: Common Data-Mining Applications
Business Intelligence <ul><li>Business intelligence ( BI):  gathering the right information in a timely manner and usable ...
Distributed Databases <ul><li>Distributed database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data may be spread across several smaller databas...
Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) <ul><li>Software that allows users to explore data from a number of different perspect...
Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Database Management Systems <ul><li>Object-oriented database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S...
Visual, Audio, and Other Database Systems <ul><li>Visual databases for storing images </li></ul><ul><li>Audio databases fo...
Video Clip <ul><li>ChoicePoint </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bWB3kEw08Gk </li></ul>
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Databases

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Databases

  1. 1. Chapter 3 Organizing Data and Information
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Database: an organized collection of data </li></ul><ul><li>Database management system (DBMS): group of programs to manage database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulates database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides an interface between database and the user of the database and other application programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Database administrator (DBA): skilled IS professional who directs all activities related to an organization’s database </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Hierarchy of Data <ul><li>Bit (a binary digit) : a circuit that is either on or off </li></ul><ul><li>Byte: eight bits </li></ul><ul><li>Character: basic building block of information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each byte represents a character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be an uppercase letter, lowercase letter, numeric digit, or special symbol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Field: typically a name, number, or combination of characters that describes an aspect of a business object or activity </li></ul><ul><li>Record: a collection of related data fields </li></ul><ul><li>File: a collection of related records </li></ul><ul><li>Database: a collection of integrated and related files </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of data: bits, characters, fields, records, files, and databases </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Hierarchy of Data Figure 3.1: The Hierarchy of Data
  5. 5. Data Entities, Attributes, and Keys <ul><li>Entity: a generalized class of people, places, or things (objects) for which data is collected, stored, and maintained </li></ul><ul><li>Attribute: characteristic of an entity </li></ul><ul><li>Data item: value of an attribute </li></ul><ul><li>Key: field or set of fields in a record that is used to identify the record </li></ul><ul><li>Primary key: field or set of fields that uniquely identifies the record </li></ul>
  6. 6. Data Entities, Attributes, and Keys Figure 3.2: Keys and Attributes
  7. 7. The Database Approach <ul><li>Traditional approach to database management: separate data files are created for each application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in data redundancy (duplication) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data redundancy conflicts with data integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Database approach to database management: pool of related data is shared by multiple applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant advantages over traditional approach </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Database Approach Figure 3.3: The Database Approach to Data Management
  9. 9. The Database Approach
  10. 10. The Database Approach Table 3.2: Disadvantages of the Database Approach
  11. 11. Data Modeling and the Relational Database Model <ul><li>When building a database, consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content: What data should be collected, at what cost? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access: What data should be provided to which users and when? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical structure: How should data be arranged to make sense to a given user? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical organization: Where should data be physically located? </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Data Modeling <ul><li>Building a database requires two types of designs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract model of how data should be structured and arranged to meet an organization’s information needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fine-tunes the logical database design for performance and cost considerations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Data Modeling <ul><li>Data model: a diagram of data entities and their relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Entity-relationship (ER) diagrams: data models that use basic graphical symbols to show the organization of and relationships between data </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Relational Database Model <ul><li>Relational model: all data elements are placed in two-dimensional tables (relations), which are the logical equivalent of files </li></ul><ul><li>In the relational model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each row of a table represents a data entity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Columns of the table represent attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain: the allowable values for data attributes </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Manipulating Data Figure 3.7: Linking Data Tables to Answer an Inquiry
  16. 16. Database Management Systems (DBMS) <ul><li>Interface between: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database and application programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database and the user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating and implementing the right database system ensures that the database will support both business activities and goals </li></ul><ul><li>DBMS: a group of programs used as an interface between a database and application programs or a database and the user </li></ul>
  17. 17. Overview of Database Types <ul><li>Flat file </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple database program whose records have no relationship to one another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Single user </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only one person can use the database at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Access, FileMaker, and InfoPath </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple user </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows dozens or hundreds of people to access the same database system at the same time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Oracle, Sybase, and IBM </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Creating and Modifying the Database <ul><li>Data definition language (DDL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of instructions/commands that define and describe data and data relationships in a database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows database creator to describe the data and the data relationships that are to be contained in the schema </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data dictionary: a detailed description of all the data used in the database </li></ul>
  19. 19. Storing and Retrieving Data <ul><li>When an application requests data from the DBMS, the application follows a logical access path </li></ul><ul><li>When the DBMS goes to a storage device to retrieve the requested data, it follows a path to the physical location (physical access path) where the data is stored </li></ul>
  20. 20. Manipulating Data and Generating Reports <ul><li>Query-By-Example (QBE): a visual approach to developing database queries or requests </li></ul><ul><li>Data manipulation language (DML): commands that manipulate the data in a database </li></ul><ul><li>Structured Query Language (SQL): ANSI standard query language for relational databases </li></ul><ul><li>Database programs can produce reports, documents, and other outputs </li></ul>
  21. 21. Database Administration <ul><li>Database administrator (DBA): directs or performs all activities to maintain a database environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing, implementing, and maintaining the database system and the DBMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing policies and procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee training </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Popular Database Management Systems <ul><li>Popular DBMSs for end users: Microsoft Access and FileMaker Pro </li></ul><ul><li>Entire market includes databases by IBM, Oracle, and Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of open-source database systems: PostgreSQL and MySQL </li></ul><ul><li>Many traditional database programs are now available on open-source operating systems </li></ul>
  23. 23. Selecting a Database Management System <ul><li>Important characteristics of databases to consider </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of the database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of concurrent users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to be integrated with other systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendor considerations </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Using Databases with Other Software <ul><li>Database management systems are often used with other software packages or the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>A database management system can act as a front-end application or a back-end application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Front-end application: interacts with users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back-end application: interacts with applications </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Linking Databases to the Internet <ul><li>Linking databases to the Internet is important for many organizations and people </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing a seamless integration of traditional databases with the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows people to access and manipulate a number of traditional databases at the same time through the Internet </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Data Warehouses, Data Marts, and Data Mining <ul><li>Data warehouse: collects business information from many sources in the enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Data mart: a subset of a data warehouse </li></ul><ul><li>Data mining: an information-analysis tool for discovering patterns and relationships in a data warehouse or a data mart </li></ul>
  27. 27. Data Warehouses, Data Marts, and Data Mining Table 3.5: Common Data-Mining Applications
  28. 28. Business Intelligence <ul><li>Business intelligence ( BI): gathering the right information in a timely manner and usable form and analyzing it to have a positive impact on business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turns data into useful information that is then distributed throughout an enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Competitive intelligence: aspect of business intelligence limited to information about competitors and the ways that knowledge affects strategy, tactics, and operations </li></ul><ul><li>Counterintelligence: steps an organization takes to protect information sought by “hostile” intelligence gatherers </li></ul>
  29. 29. Distributed Databases <ul><li>Distributed database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data may be spread across several smaller databases connected via telecommunications devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporations get more flexibility in how databases are organized and used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Replicated database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds a duplicate set of frequently used data </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) <ul><li>Software that allows users to explore data from a number of different perspectives </li></ul>Table 3.6: Comparison of OLAP and Data Mining
  31. 31. Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Database Management Systems <ul><li>Object-oriented database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores both data and its processing instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Method: a procedure or action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Message: a request to execute or run a method </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Visual, Audio, and Other Database Systems <ul><li>Visual databases for storing images </li></ul><ul><li>Audio databases for storing sound </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual database systems: allow different databases to work together as a unified database system </li></ul><ul><li>Other special-purpose database systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial data technology: stores and accesses data according to the locations it describes and permits spatial queries and analysis </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Video Clip <ul><li>ChoicePoint </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bWB3kEw08Gk </li></ul>

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