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  1. 1. Database Administration Todd S. Bacastow
  2. 2. Need for Databases <ul><li>Data is used by different people, in different departments, for different reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation and Presentation of data in useful formats </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of data and information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To the right people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the right time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Control over Data Duplication and Use </li></ul>
  3. 3. Role of the Database <ul><li>Primary Role: To Support Managerial Decision Making at All Levels of the Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top Level  Strategic Decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Management  Tactical Decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational Management  Daily, Operational Decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DBMS must provide each level a separate view of the data and support their specialized decision making roles </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a seamless flow of information throughout the company </li></ul>
  4. 4. Top Level Management <ul><li>Provide information for strategic decision making, strategic planning, policy formation, and goals definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Provide access to data to identify growth opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a framework for defining and enforcing organizational policies </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the likelihood of a positive return on investment for the company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ways to reduce cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase Productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide feedback on whether the company is achieving its goals </li></ul>
  5. 5. Middle Management <ul><li>Provide necessary data for tactical decision making and planning </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor and control the use of company resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How efficiently are the resources allocated and used (including data) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What potential or current operational problems exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the performance of the different departments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide a framework for ensuring the security and privacy of the data in the database </li></ul>
  6. 6. Operational Management <ul><li>Represent and support the company operations </li></ul><ul><li>Produce query results within set performance levels </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance short-term operational ability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timely information for Customer Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for application development and computer operations </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Special Database Considerations <ul><li>Having a database does not mean the data will be use properly, efficiently, correctly </li></ul><ul><li>DBMS is just a tool for managing data – it must be used correctly  effective management and use </li></ul><ul><li>3 Main Processes for implementing a DBMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological  DBMS software and hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managerial  Administrative Functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural  Corporate Resistance to Change </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Evolution of the DBA <ul><li>Data Processing Department </li></ul><ul><li>Information Systems Department </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service Function to provide end users active data management support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production Function to provide solutions to information needs (application development) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DBA – Database Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and Role varies from company to company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DBA’s function is very dynamic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed Databases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Databases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Object Oriented databases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sophistication and Power of the DBMS packages </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Common Functions of DBA <ul><li>Database Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards, procedures, enforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requirements Gathering and Conceptual Design </li></ul><ul><li>Logical Design </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Design and Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Testing and Debugging </li></ul><ul><li>Operations and Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Training and Support </li></ul>
  10. 10. DBA’s Managerial Role <ul><li>Control and Planning Dimensions of Database Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating, Monitoring, and Allocating database administration resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining Goals and Formulating Strategic Plans for the Database Administration function </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. DBA’s Responsibilities Data Distribution and Use Delivering Data backup and Recovery Monitoring Data Security, Privacy, Integrity Testing Policies, Procedures, Standards Organizing End-User Support Planning DBA Service DBA Activity
  12. 12. End-User Support <ul><li>User Requirements Gathering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of the users’ views and needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present and Future information needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conflict and Problem Resolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solutions in one department may cause problems in another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Finding Solutions to Information Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure Quality and Integrity of Applications and Data </li></ul><ul><li>Build End-User Confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Manage the Training and Support of DBMS users </li></ul>
  13. 13. Policies, Procedures, and Standards <ul><li>Policies: General Statements of Direction or action that communicate and support DBA goals </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures: Written Instructions that describe a services of steps to be followed during the performance of a given activity </li></ul><ul><li>Standards: More detailed and specific than policies, and describe the minimum requirements of a DBA activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules that are used to evaluate the qualityof the activity </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Areas of Policies and Procedures <ul><li>End-User database requirements gathering </li></ul><ul><li>Database design and modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation and Naming conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Design, coding, and testing of applications </li></ul><ul><li>Database software selection </li></ul><ul><li>Database security and integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Database backup and recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Database maintenance and operation </li></ul><ul><li>End-user training </li></ul>
  15. 15. Data Security, Privacy and Integrity <ul><li>User Access Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define each user to the database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operating System Level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Database Level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign Passwords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define User Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign Access Privileges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Write </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delete </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Access Control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>View Definitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect and Control the Scope of the Data that is accessible to a user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DBMS utilities access control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit the use of query and reporting tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DBMS usage Monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audit Logs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(More difficult in distributed databases) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Data Backup and Recovery <ul><li>Disaster Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic Data and Application Backups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Full </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incremental </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concurrent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper Backup Identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenient and safe backup storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical protection of hardware and software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Access Control to the software of a database installation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance coverage for the data in the database </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Data Backup and Recovery <ul><li>Recovery and Contingency plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practiced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Will Not Recover all components of an IS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish priorities for the nature and extend of the data recovery process </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Data Distribution and Use <ul><li>Data is only useful when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Given to the Right User </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right Format </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Programmers Deliver programs to access data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time consuming for DBA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Distribution allows end users to access the database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intranets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Queries, Web Front Ends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End Users may make improper use of database, data duplication, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. DBA’s Technical Role <ul><li>DBMS and utilities, evaluation, selection and installation </li></ul><ul><li>Design and implementation of Database </li></ul><ul><li>Testing and Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Operation of DBMS, Utilities, and Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Training and Supporting Users </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of DBMS, Utilities, and Applicaitons </li></ul>
  20. 20. Evaluation, Selection, and Installation <ul><li>Selection of Hardware and Software </li></ul><ul><li>Must be based on the Organization’s Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Search is for a solutions to a problem, not a need for a software </li></ul><ul><li>1 st step is to determine companies NEEDS </li></ul>
  21. 21. DBMS Checklist <ul><li>DBMS Model </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Application Development Support </li></ul><ul><li>Security and Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Backup and Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrency Control </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>DBA tools </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability and Data Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Portability </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Data Dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>Vendor Training and Support </li></ul><ul><li>Third Party Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul>
  22. 22. Design and Implementation <ul><li>Determination and Enforcement of Standards and Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure the Design activities are performed within the Standards and Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure Transactions are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliant with Integrity and Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Design </li></ul><ul><li>Operational Procedures </li></ul>
  23. 23. Testing and Evaluation <ul><li>All Database and End User Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Maintained Independently of Development and Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Cover: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backup, Recovery, Security, Integrity, SQL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of Documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observance of Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Naming, Documentation, Coding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Duplication Conflicts with existing data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforcement of Data Validation rules </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Operation of DBMS, Utilities, and Applications <ul><li>System Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Day-to-day activity of the DBMS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance monitoring and tuning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate if performance objectives are being met </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolate Problems and Find solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Backup and Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Security auditing and monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate access rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper use of access privileges by programmers and end users </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Training and Supporting Users <ul><li>Technical Training in the use of DBMS and Utilities for Applications Programmers </li></ul><ul><li>Unscheduled on-demand technical support </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction with DBMS vendors </li></ul>
  26. 26. Maintenance of DBMS <ul><li>Dedicated to the Preservation of the DBMS environment </li></ul><ul><li>Management of the Physical or Secondary Storage devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reorganizing the physical location of the data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Upgrading the DBMS and Utility Software </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of data is dissimilar formats or between database </li></ul>
  27. 27. Database Administration Tools <ul><li>Data Dictionary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store the Description of all objects that interact with the database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated  Include data outside of DBMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standalone  limited to data of DBMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Case Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Aided Software Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated Framework for the SDLC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Front-End Tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planning, Analysis, Design </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Back-End Tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coding and Implementation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Data Dictionary <ul><li>Data Elements from all tables of all databases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Names, Types, Format, Validation rules, When an Element is Used and by whom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tables defined in the database </li></ul><ul><li>Indexes defined for each table </li></ul><ul><li>Defined databases, and properties </li></ul><ul><li>End Users and Administrators </li></ul><ul><li>Programs that access the database </li></ul><ul><li>Access Authorizations for all users </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships among data elements </li></ul>
  29. 29. Case Tools <ul><li>Reduction in development time and costs </li></ul><ul><li>Standardization of Systems Development Methodologies </li></ul><ul><li>Easier Maintenance of Application Systems Developed with CASE Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen Painters and Report Generators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repository for Storing and Cross-Referencing the System Design Data (Data Dictionary) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis Segment for Automated Check on System Consistency, Syntax, Completeness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Program Documentation Generator </li></ul></ul>