Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management


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Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management

  1. 1. Chapter 16 Database Administration Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management, Fifth Edition, Rob and Coronel
  2. 2. In this chapter, you will: <ul><li>Learn that data are a valuable business asset that requires careful management </li></ul><ul><li>Learn why and how the database plays a critical role in an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Learn that the introduction of a DBMS has important technological, managerial, and cultural organizational consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Learn what the database administrator's managerial and technical roles are </li></ul><ul><li>Be introduced to several database administration tools </li></ul><ul><li>Examine various database administration strategies </li></ul><ul><li>See how various database administration technical tasks are performed with Oracle </li></ul>
  3. 3. Data as a Corporate Asset <ul><li>Raw material used to produce information </li></ul><ul><li>Valuable resource </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timely and accurate data can trigger beneficial actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basis for knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in decision making </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Data-Information-Decision Cycle Figure 16.1
  5. 5. Databases in an Organization <ul><li>DBMS facilitates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation and presentation of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution of data and information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data preservation and monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control over data duplication and use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supports managerial decision making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction of Database <ul><li>Big organizational change and challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Process with three primary aspects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managerial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must focus on organizational needs </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Roots in decentralized file systems </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Data Processing (EDP) or Data Processing (DP) Department </li></ul><ul><li>Information systems (IS) department </li></ul>Evolution of Database Administration Figure 16.2
  8. 8. <ul><li>Database administration created to handle complex data management tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Database administrator (DBA) responsible for control of database </li></ul><ul><li>Factors affecting DBA placement in organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and complexity of operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic distribution of facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General coordinator of all DBAs is systems administrator (SYSADM) </li></ul><ul><li>Data administrator (DA) </li></ul>Evolution of Database Administration (Con’t.)
  9. 9. Placement of DBA Function Figure 16.3
  10. 10. DBA Functional Organization Figure 16.4
  11. 11. DA Versus DBA Table 16.1
  12. 12. Summary of DBA Activities Figure 16.6
  13. 13. DBA Skills Table 16.2
  14. 14. DBA Activities and Services Table 16.3
  15. 15. DBA Service: End-User Support <ul><li>User requirements gathering </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict and problem resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Finding solutions to information needs </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring quality and integrity of applications and data </li></ul><ul><li>Building end-user confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Managing the training and support of DBMS users </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General statements of direction or action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate and support DBA goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More detailed and specific than policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe minimum requirement of DBA activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written instructions that describe steps for activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support and enhance work environment </li></ul></ul>DBA Service: Policies, Procedures, & Standards
  17. 17. <ul><li>Authorization management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User access management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>View definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS utilities access control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS usage monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security breaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserved integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data recovery may not be necessary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrupted integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Database must be recovered </li></ul></ul></ul>DBA Service: Security, Privacy, & Integrity
  18. 18. <ul><li>Database security officer (DSO) </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic data and applications backups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper backup identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenient and safe backup storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal access control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance coverage for the data in the database </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data recovery and contingency plans must be tested and evaluated </li></ul><ul><li>Backup and recovery may not cover all aspects of IS </li></ul>DBA Service: Data Backup and Recovery
  19. 19. <ul><li>Data useful in right hands at right time </li></ul><ul><li>Current philosophy makes authorized data access easier </li></ul><ul><li>Sophisticated query tools </li></ul><ul><li>Web front ends </li></ul><ul><li>Data democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Cautions due to improper use of data </li></ul>DBA Service: Data Distribution and Use
  20. 20. <ul><li>DBMS and utilities evaluation, selection, and installation </li></ul><ul><li>Design and implementation of databases and applications </li></ul><ul><li>Testing and evaluation of databases and applications </li></ul><ul><li>Operation of the DBMS, utilities, and applications </li></ul><ul><li>Training and supporting users </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of the DBMS, utilities, and applications </li></ul>DBA’s Technical Role
  21. 21. <ul><li>Integrated data dictionary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Included with the DBMS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stand-alone data dictionary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From third-party vendor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active data dictionary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatically updated by the DBMS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Passive data dictionary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created and updated by a batch process </li></ul></ul>DB Administrative Tools: Data Dictionary
  22. 22. <ul><li>Data elements in all tables </li></ul><ul><li>Tables defined in all databases </li></ul><ul><li>Indexes defined for each database table </li></ul><ul><li>Defined database specifics </li></ul><ul><li>End users and administrators of database </li></ul><ul><li>Programs that access database </li></ul><ul><li>Access authorizations for all users </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships among data elements </li></ul>DB Administrative Tools: Data Dictionary (Con’t.)
  23. 23. <ul><li>CASE is Computer-Aided Software Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Provides automated framework for Systems Development Life Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Classifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Front-end CASE tools support planning, analysis, and design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back-end CASE tools support coding and implementation </li></ul></ul>DB Administrative Tools: CASE
  24. 24. <ul><li>Reduction in development time and costs </li></ul><ul><li>Automation of the SDLC </li></ul><ul><li>Standardization of the systems development methodologies </li></ul><ul><li>Easier maintenance of application systems developed with CASE tools </li></ul><ul><li>Improves communications among the DBA, applications designers, and end users </li></ul>DB Administrative Tools: CASE (Con’t.)
  25. 25. <ul><li>Information Engineering (IE) translates strategic goals of the company into data and applications </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on description of corporate data instead of the processes </li></ul><ul><li>Output is Information Systems Architecture (ISA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as the basis for planning, development, and control of future IS </li></ul></ul>Data Administration Strategy: Information Engineering
  26. 26. Forces Affecting Development of ISA Figure 16.8
  27. 27. <ul><li>Management commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Thorough company situation analysis </li></ul><ul><li>End-user involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Defined standards </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Small pilot project </li></ul>Critical Success Factors for IS Strategy
  28. 28. Database Administration Using Oracle <ul><li>Security Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Schema Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Manager </li></ul><ul><li>SQL Worksheet </li></ul><ul><li>Instance Manager </li></ul>Figure 16.9