Chap8.ppt

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Chap8.ppt

  1. 1. 8.1 8. MANAGING DATA RESOURCES
  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>COMPARE TRADITIONAL FILE ORGANIZATION & MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLAIN PROBLEMS OF TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIBE HOW DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ORGANIZES DATA </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.2
  3. 3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>IDENTIFY 3 DATABASE MODELS, PRINCIPLES OF DATABASE DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>DISCUSS DATABASE TRENDS </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYZE MANAGERIAL, ORGANIZATIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CREATING DATABASE ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.3
  4. 4. <ul><li>DATA REDUNDANCY </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM / DATA DEPENDENCY </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF FLEXIBILITY </li></ul><ul><li>POOR SECURITY </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF DATA SHARING & AVAILABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT (FLAT FILE) 8.12
  5. 5. DATABASE <ul><li>ORGANIZATION’S ELECTRONIC LIBRARY </li></ul><ul><li>STORES & MANAGES DATA </li></ul><ul><li>IN A CONVENIENT FORM </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.13
  6. 6. DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS) <ul><li>SOFTWARE TO CREATE & MAINTAIN DATA </li></ul><ul><li>ENABLES BUSINESS APPLICATIONS TO EXTRACT DATA </li></ul><ul><li>INDEPENDENT OF SPECIFIC COMPUTER PROGRAMS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.14 DBMS
  7. 7. COMPONENTS OF DBMS: <ul><li>DATA DEFINITION LANGUAGE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines Data Elements in Database </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DATA MANIPULATION LANGUAGE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulates Data for Applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DATA DICTIONARY: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal Definitions of all Variables in Database; Controls Variety of Database Contents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.15 DBMS
  8. 8. STRUCTURED QUERY LANGUAGE (SQL) <ul><li>EMERGING STANDARD </li></ul><ul><li>DATA MANIPULATION LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>FOR RELATIONAL DATABASES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.16 DBMS
  9. 9. TWO VIEWS OF DATA <ul><li>PHYSICAL VIEW: WHERE IS DATA PHYSICALLY? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DRIVE, DISK, SURFACE, TRACK, SECTOR (BLOCK), RECORD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TAPE, BLOCK, RECORD NUMBER (KEY) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LOGICAL VIEW: WHAT DATA IS NEEDED BY APPLICATION? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SUCCESSION OF FACTS NEEDED BY APPLICATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NAME, TYPE, LENGTH OF FIELD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>BIT BYTE FIELD RECORD FILE DATABASE 8.17 DBMS
  10. 10. ADVANTAGES OF DBMS: <ul><li>REDUCES COMPLEXITY </li></ul><ul><li>REDUCES DATA REDUNDANCY / INCONSISTENCY </li></ul><ul><li>CENTRAL CONTROL OF DATA CREATION / DEFINITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>REDUCES PROGRAM / DATA DEPENDENCE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.18 DBMS
  11. 11. ADVANTAGES OF DBMS: <ul><li>REDUCES DEVELOPMENT / MAINTENANCE COSTS </li></ul><ul><li>ENHANCES SYSTEM FLEXIBILITY </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASES ACCESS / AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.19 DBMS
  12. 12. COMPARISON OF DATABASE ALTERNATIVES HIERARCHICAL: <ul><li>PROCESSING EFFICIENCY: HIGH </li></ul><ul><li>FLEXIBILITY: LOW </li></ul><ul><li>USER FRIENDLY: LOW </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM COMPLEXITY: HIGH </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.25
  13. 13. COMPARISON OF DATABASE ALTERNATIVES NETWORK: <ul><li>PROCESSING EFFICIENCY: MEDIUM / HIGH </li></ul><ul><li>FLEXIBILITY: LOW / MEDIUM </li></ul><ul><li>USER FRIENDLY: LOW / MODERATE </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM COMPLEXITY: HIGH </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.26
  14. 14. COMPARISON OF DATABASE ALTERNATIVES RELATIONAL: <ul><li>PROCESSING EFFICIENCY: LOW BUT IMPROVING </li></ul><ul><li>FLEXIBILITY: HIGH </li></ul><ul><li>USER FRIENDLY: HIGH </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM COMPLEXITY: LOW </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.27
  15. 15. CREATING A DATABASE <ul><li>CONCEPTUAL DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.28
  16. 16. CREATING A DATABASE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN: <ul><li>ABSTRACT MODEL, BUSINESS PERSPECTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>HOW WILL DATA BE GROUPED? </li></ul><ul><li>RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ELEMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>ESTABLISH END-USER NEEDS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.29
  17. 17. CREATING A DATABASE PHYSICAL DESIGN: <ul><li>DETAILED MODEL BY DATABASE SPECIALISTS </li></ul><ul><li>ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM </li></ul><ul><li>NORMALIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>HARDWARE / SOFTWARE SPECIFIC </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.30
  18. 18. DATABASE TRENDS <ul><li>DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING: Multiple Geographical / Functional Systems Connected with Network </li></ul><ul><li>DISTRIBUTED DATABASE: Data Physically Stored in more than one Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PARTITIONED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DUPLICATE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.33
  19. 19. DISTRIBUTED DATABASES <ul><li>PARTITIONED: remote CPUs (connected to host) have files unique to that site, e.g., records on local customers </li></ul><ul><li>DUPLICATE: each remote CPU has copies of common files, e.g., layouts for standard reports and forms </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.34
  20. 20. DATABASE TRENDS <ul><li>OBJECT- ORIENTED: Data and Procedures Stored Together; can be Retrieved, Shared </li></ul><ul><li>HYPERMEDIA: Nodes Contain Text, Graphics, Sound, Video, Programs. Organizes Data as Nodes. </li></ul><ul><li>MULTIDIMENSIONAL: 3D (or higher) Groupings to Store Complex Data </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.35
  21. 21. DATABASE TRENDS <ul><li>DATA WAREHOUSE: Organization’s Electronic Library Stores Consolidated Current & Historic Data for Management Reporting & Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>DATA MART: small data warehouse for special function, e.g., focused marketing based on customer info </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.36
  22. 22. COMPONENTS OF DATA WAREHOUSE 8.37
  23. 23. DATABASE TRENDS <ul><li>ON-LINE ANALYTICAL PROCESSING (OLAP): ability to manipulate, analyze large volumes of data from multiple perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>LINKING DATABASES TO THE WEB </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.38
  24. 24. ELEMENTS OF DATABASE ENVIRONMENT 8.39 DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM DATA ADMINISTRATION DATABASE TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT USERS DATA PLANNING & MODELING METHODOLOGY
  25. 25. DATABASE ADMINISTRATION <ul><li>DEFINES & ORGANIZES DATABASE STRUCTURE AND CONTENT </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPS SECURITY PROCEDURES </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPS DATABASE DOCUMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>MAINTAINS DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>8.40

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