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  1. 1. Chapter 15 Database Administration Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management 4th Edition Peter Rob & Carlos Coronel
  2. 2. Data as a Corporate Asset <ul><li>Data were seldom viewed as a company asset for two reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There were simply too many data to be processed manually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal and external business operations moved at a much slower pace than they do today, so there was relatively little need for quick reactions triggered by fast-flowing information. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The computer liberated both managers and data. Data are now better understood as a resource. </li></ul><ul><li>An organization is subject to a data-information-decision cycle . (Figure 15.1) </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Data-Information-Decision Cycle Figure 15.1
  4. 4. The Need for and Role of Databases in an Organization <ul><li>Used properly, the DBMS facilitates : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation and presentation of data in useful formats, by transforming raw data into information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution of data and information to the right people at the right time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data preservation and data usage monitoring for adequate periods of time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control over data duplication and use, both internally and externally. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The database’s predominant role is to support managerial decision making at all levels in the organization . </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Need for and Role of Databases in an Organization <ul><li>DB Support at Different Management Levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top Management Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the information necessary for strategic decision making, strategic planning, policy formulation, and goals definition. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide access to external and internal data to identify growth opportunities and to chart the direction of such growth. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a framework for defining and enforcing organizational policies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improve the likelihood of a positive return on investment for the company by searching for new ways to reduce costs and/or by boosting productivity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide feedback to monitor whether the company is achieving its goals. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Need for and Role of Databases in an Organization <ul><ul><li>Middle Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver the data necessary for tactical decisions and planning. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor and control the allocation and use of company resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How efficiently are resources allocated and used? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What potential or current operational problems exist? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the performance of the different departments. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a framework for enforcing and ensuring the security and privacy of the data in the database. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Need for and Role of Databases in an Organization <ul><ul><li>Operational Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Represent and support the company operations as closely as possible. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produce query results within specified performance levels. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance the company’s short-term operational ability by providing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Timely information for customer support </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support for application development and computer operations. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Introduction of a Database: Special Considerations <ul><li>The introduction of a DBMS represents a big change and challenge and is likely to have a profound impact throughout the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>The main issue of the DBMS should be the organization’s needs rather than the DBMS’s technical virtues. </li></ul><ul><li>Three important aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological: DBMS hardware and software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managerial: Administrative functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural: Corporate resistance to change </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Evolution of the Database Administration Function <ul><li>Electronic Data Processing (EDP) Department </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data process (DP) department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its task was to pool all computer resources to support all departments at the operational level with a minimal duplication of data and effort. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The DP department was in charge of coordinating and maintaining all operational applications. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Evolution of the Database Administration Function <ul><li>Information Systems (IS) Department </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IS responsibilities were broadened to include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A service function to provide end users with active data management service. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A production function to provide end users with specific solutions for their information needs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The database administration function was created to handle increasingly complex data management tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The person responsible for the control of the centralized and shared database was the database administrator (DBA) . </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The IS Department Internal Organization Figure 15.2
  12. 12. The Placement Of The DBA Function Figure 15.3
  13. 13. The Evolution of the Database Administration Function <ul><li>Factors Affecting the Placement of DBA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Company management style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and complexity of the company operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic distribution of the company facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in DBMS Technologies Affecting Organizational Styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The development of distributed databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The growing use of Internet-ready and object-oriented databases and the growing number of data warehousing applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The increasing sophistication and power of microcomputer-based DBMS. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Evolution of the Database Administration Function <ul><li>DBA Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database requirements-gathering and conceptual design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database logical design and transaction design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database physical design and implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database testing and debugging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database operations and maintenance , including installation, conversion, and migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database training and support </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. A DBA Functional Organization Figure 15.4
  16. 16. The Evolution of the Database Administration Function <ul><li>The general coordinator of all DBAs is known as the systems administrator (SYSADM). (Figure 15.5) </li></ul><ul><li>Some large corporations make a distinction between a DBA and the data administrator (DA). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The DA, a.k.a., the information resource manager (IRM), usually reports directly report to top management and is given a higher degree of responsibility and authority than the DBA. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The DA is responsible for controlling the overall corporate data resource, both computerized and non-computerized. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Multiple Database Administrators In An Organization Figure 15.5
  18. 18. Contrasting DA And DBA Activities And Characteristics Table 15.1
  19. 19. A Summary Of DBA Activities Figure 15.6
  20. 20. Desired DBA Skills Table 15.2
  21. 21. Human Component <ul><li>The DBA’s Managerial Role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating, monitoring, and allocating DB administration resources: people and data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining goals and formulating strategic plans for the DB administration function. </li></ul></ul>Table 15.3 DBA Activities And Services
  22. 22. Human Component <ul><ul><li>End User Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User requirements-gathering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict and problem resolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finding solutions to information needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring quality and integrity of application and data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building end user confidence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Managing the training and support of DBMS users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies, Procedures, and Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Policies are general statements of direction or action that communicate and support the DBA goals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standards are more detailed and specific than policies and describe the minimum requirement of a given DBA activity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures are written instructions that describe a series of steps to be followed during the performance of a given activity. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Human Component <ul><ul><li>Data Security, Privacy, and Integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authorization management defines procedures for the following functions: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User access management </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>View definition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS utilities access control </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS usage monitoring </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security breaches can yield a database whose integrity is either preserved or corrupted: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preserved: Action is required to avoid the repetition of similar security problems, but data recovery may not be necessary. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corrupted: Action is required to avoid the repetition of similar security problems, and the database must be recovered to a consistent state. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Human Component <ul><ul><li>Data Backup and Recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The database security officer (DSO) is responsible for the assurance of the database security and integrity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster management includes all planning, organizing, and testing of database contingency plans and recover procedures. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic data and applications backups </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proper backup identification </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convenient and safe backup storage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical protection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal access control </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance coverage for the data in the database </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Distribution and Use </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Human Component <ul><li>The DBA’s Technical Role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS and utilities evaluation, selection, and installation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design and implementation of databases and applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing and evaluation of databases and applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation of the DBMS, utilities, and applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training and supporting users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of the DBMS, utilities, and applications </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Human Component <ul><ul><li>DBMS model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS storage capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application development support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security and integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backup and recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concurrency control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database administration tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability and data distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portability and standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Dictionary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendor training and support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available third-party tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul>DBMS and Utilities Evaluation, Selection, and Installation
  27. 27. Human Component <ul><ul><li>Design and Implementation of Databases and Applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data modeling and design services at conceptual, logical, and physical levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review of the design to ensure that transactions are: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Correct: The transactions mirror real-world events. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient: The transactions do not overload the DBMS. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compliant with integrity and standards. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Database storage and access plans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Database operational procedures </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Human Component <ul><ul><li>Testing and Evaluation of Databases and Applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical aspects of both the applications and the database </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of the written documentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observance of standards for naming, documenting, and coding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data duplication conflicts with existing data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The enforcement of all data validation rules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation of the DBMS, Utilities, and Applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System Support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance monitoring and tuning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backup and recovery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security auditing and monitoring </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Human Component <ul><ul><li>Training and Supporting Users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training users and application programmers to use the DBMS and its tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unscheduled, on-demand technical support for end user and programmers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External sources (e.g., vendors) for support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of the DBMS, Utilities, and Applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management of the physical storage devices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrading the DBMS and utility software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migration and conversion services for incompatible data and different DBMS </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Database Administration Tools <ul><li>The Data Dictionary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different types of data dictionaries: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An integrated data dictionary is included with the DBMS, while a stand-alone data dictionary comes from a third-party vendor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An active data dictionary is automatically updated by the DBMS, while a passive data dictionary requires a batch process to create and update the dictionary. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Database Administration Tools <ul><li>The Data Dictionary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The data dictionary typically stores descriptions of all: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data elements defined in all tables of all databases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tables defined in all databases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indexes defined for each database table </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defined databases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>End users and administrators of the database </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Programs that access the database </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access authorizations for all users of all databases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships among the data elements </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Database Administration Tools <ul><ul><li>Data Dictionary Usage Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example 1 List the names and creation dates of all tables created by the user JONESVI in the current database. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SELECT NAME, CTIME FROM SYSTABLES WHERE CREATOR = ‘JONESVI’; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example 2 List the names of the columns for all tables created by JONESVI in the current database. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SELECT NAME FROM SYSCOLUMNS WHERE CREATOR = ‘JONESVI’; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Database Administration Tools <ul><ul><li>Example 3 List the names of all tables for which the user JONESVI has DELETE authorization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SELECT NAME FROM SYSTABAUTH WHERE GRANTEE = ‘JONESVI’; AND DELETEAUTH = ‘Y’; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example 4 List the names all users who have some type of authority over the INVENTRY table. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SELECT DISTINCT GRANTEE FROM SYSTABAUTH WHERE TTNAME = ‘INVENTRY’; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Database Administration Tools <ul><ul><li>Example 5 List the user and table names for all users who can alter the database structure for any table in the database. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SELECT GRANTEE, TTNAME FROM SYSTABAUTH WHERE ALTERAUTH = ‘Y’ ORDER BY GRANTEE, TTNAME; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Database Administration Tools <ul><li>CASE Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CASE -- Computer-Aided Software Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It provides an automated framework for the Systems Development Life Cycle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Front-end CASE tools provide support for the planning, analysis, and design phases. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Back-end CASE tools provide support for the coding and implementation phases. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is based on the use of structured methodologies and powerful graphical interfaces. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Database Administration Tools <ul><ul><li>Benefits of CASE tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A reduction in development time and costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The automation of the SDLC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standardization of the systems development methodologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easier maintenance of application systems developed with CASE tools. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improve communications among the DBA, applications designers, and the end users. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Database Administration Tools <ul><ul><li>Commercial CASE Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excelerator from Merant, Inc. provides five components: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics designed to produce structured diagrams as data flow diagrams and E-R diagrams. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Screen painters and report generators to produce the information system’s input/output formats. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An integrated repository for storing and cross-referencing the system design data. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An analysis segment to provide a fully automated check of system consistency, syntax, and completeness. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A program document generator. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Figure 15.7 An Example of a CASE Tool’s Use: Excelerator
  39. 39. Database Administration Tools <ul><li>Commercial CASE Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PLATINUM ERwin by PLATINUM Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It produces fully documented E-R diagrams that can be displayed at different abstraction levels. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is able to produce detailed relational designs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major relational DBMS vendors, such as ORACLE, provide fully integrated CASE tools for their own DBMS software as well as for RDBMSs supplied by other vendors. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Developing a Data Administration Strategy <ul><li>Information Engineering allows us to translate the strategic goals of the company into the data and applications. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IE focuses on the description of the corporate data instead of the processes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The output of the IE process is an Information Systems Architecture (ISA) that serves as the basis for planning, development, and control of future information systems. (Figure 15.8) </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Forces Affecting The Development Of The ISA Figure 15.8
  42. 42. Developing a Data Administration Strategy <ul><ul><li>Critical Success Factors for IS Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management commitment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thorough company situation analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>End user involvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defined standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A small pilot project </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Database Administration Using Oracle <ul><li>Detailed look at how a DBA might handle the following technical tasks in a specific DBMS - Oracle Workgroup 2000 for Windows NT: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation and expansion of the database storage structures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management of database objects such as tables, indexes, triggers, procedures, and so on. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management of the end user database environment, including the type and extent of database access. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customization of database initialization parameters. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Database Administration Using Oracle <ul><li>Oracle Database Administration Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schema Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SQL Worksheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instance Manager </li></ul></ul>Figure 15.9 The Oracle Administrator Toolbar
  45. 45. Database Administration Using Oracle <ul><li>The Default Login </li></ul>Figure 15.10 Oracle Login Information
  46. 46. Database Administration Using Oracle <ul><li>Ensuring an Automatic RDBMS Start </li></ul>Figure 15.11 Verifying That The Oracle Services Are Running
  47. 47. Database Administration Using Oracle <ul><li>Using the Storage Manager to Create Tablespaces and Datafiles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A database is logically composed of one or more tablespaces. A tablespace is a logical storage space. Tablespaces are primarily used to logically group related data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tablespace data are physically stored in one or more datafiles. A datafile physically stores the database’s data. </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Database Administration Using Oracle <ul><ul><li>When the DBA creates a database, Oracle automatically creates the tablespaces and datafiles shown in Figure 15.12: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The SYSTEM tablespace is used to store the data dictionary data. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The USER_DATA tablespace is used to store the table and to index data created by the end users. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The TEMPORARY_DATA tablespace is used to store the temporary tables and indexes created during the execution of SQL statements. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ROLLBACK_DATA tablespace is used to store database transaction recovery information. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Database Administration Using Oracle <ul><ul><li>Using the Storage Manager, the DBA can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create additional tablespaces to organize the data in the database. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create additional tablespaces to organize the different subsystems that may exist within the database. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expand the tablespace storage capacity by creating additional datafiles. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 50. The Oracle Storage Manager Figure 15.12
  51. 51. Figure 15.13 Creating a New Tablespace
  52. 52. The Oracle Schema Manager Figure 15.14
  53. 53. Figure 15.15 The Oracle Security Manager
  54. 54. Figure 15.16 The Create User Dialog Box
  55. 56. Creating A New Database With The Oracle Instance Manager Figure 15.18
  56. 57. New Instance Screen Figure 15.19
  57. 58. Advanced Parameters Screen Figure 15.20