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Effective data visualisation for marketerswww.wallpaperingfog.co.uk
A quick guide to data visualisation for marketers…            communicating data effectively with chartsCharts can be a gr...
Why are you drawing a chart?It‟s an obvious question, but an important one.You‟re trying to communicate a point and you us...
Internet share of spend in 2010 was 24%                           Cinema                             1%                   ...
Internet share of spend in 2010 was 24%                 2010 Share of Spend TV                     29% Internet           ...
Internet share of spend in 2010             24%
Edward Tufte introduced the „Data-Ink Ratio‟ in 1983,when drawing a chart took a lot longer than it does now He wasn‟t try...
Napoleon‟s March(Because there was no such thing as Excel in 19th Century France)
Anything on your chart that isn‟t communicating data,                       makes it harder to understand“Chart Junk” that...
This is pretty, but it‟s a terrible chart                                   How much more was spent on TV than Door Drops?...
3D is always a bad thing                            Direct Mail   Door Drops   Internet     Outdoor   Press   Radio   TVSp...
Axes, borders and gridlines distract from the data                            Direct Mail   Door Drops   Internet   Outdoo...
The colour isn‟t helpful; labels are betterSpend (£)            60,000,000.00            50,000,000.00            40,000,0...
We don‟t actually need the vertical axis and gridlines at all   £50,245,646                                               ...
Sorting the data is a huge help for your audience£50,245,646              £38,560,717                            £4,199,33...
We learned at school that bar charts go upwards, but                  horizontal bars are often easier to readDirect Mail ...
One‟s pretty, the other communicates a point!             Direct Mail    Door Drops   Internet   Outdoor             Press...
Going to extremesThe people we work with in marketing don‟t often havemaths and statistics backgrounds and you can takesim...
Our brains are much faster at pre-attentive processingWhen you find yourself actually reading a chart to try tounderstand ...
How many number 5s are there?
What about now?
We can make good use of pre-attentive processingIf we‟re presenting data, then it should have a pointIf it doesn‟t have a ...
Features you can change that the brain will process                          unconsciously (and fast)
Brand A share of voice has fallen in 2011                                                                                 ...
Brand A share of voice has fallen in 2011                                                                                 ...
The seven items ruleOur short-term memory can‟t hold more than seven thingsat once. Given more than seven things to look a...
Pie charts are rarely the best chart to useData visualisation professionals (yes, it‟s a job) really hatepie charts.They‟r...
Which category is largest?Door Drops                     Direct Mail   TV             Press
Which category is largest?                                        PressDoor Drops                     Direct Mail         ...
Showing a lot of categories really doesn‟t work on a                                          pie chart…                  ...
…But it‟s not because there was too much data       Daily Telegraph (B)             Daily Mail (T)         Sunday Times (B...
Either it‟s difficult to use the legend to work out which                                       segment is which…         ...
… or your category names get in the way of the chartDoor Drops Region National                Saga Magazine               ...
When you need colour to tell segments apart, you                       can‟t do something more useful with itDoor Drops   ...
A financial services dashboardHow much profit did we make last week?
Excel makes life difficultIf you want to present data clearly and effectively, Exceland PowerPoint aren‟t very helpful.Exc...
Useful charts in the Excel gallery     
How to use templates to get a good starting point                                             every time•   Use the Insert...
How to use templates to get a good starting point, every time                        (Excel 2003 does this bit a different...
A few simple rules to follow•   Never, ever use 3D•   Remove everything from the chart that is doesn‟t need.    Axes, bord...
Principles that work for any slide, whether there‟s a                                      chart on it or not• What‟s the ...
About the authorNeil Charles is Head of Econometrics atMediacom Leeds and has worked in marketingas an economist and stati...
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Effective data visualisation for marketers

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Effective data visualisation for marketers

  1. 1. Effective data visualisation for marketerswww.wallpaperingfog.co.uk
  2. 2. A quick guide to data visualisation for marketers… communicating data effectively with chartsCharts can be a great help to putting across yourargument, or they can make life difficult and frustratingfor your audienceEffective charts aren‟t necessarily pretty charts; they‟refunctional - there‟s a huge difference between „pretty‟ and„elegant‟If you only want a chart to act as a picture on a slide andpeople aren‟t actually supposed to try to read thedata, then making an effective chart matters less.But why would you put a chart on a PowerPoint slide thatpeople aren‟t supposed to read? They‟ll try anyway.
  3. 3. Why are you drawing a chart?It‟s an obvious question, but an important one.You‟re trying to communicate a point and you use a chartbecause the chart makes it easier and faster for youraudience to understand, than just writing down numbers.Or it should be easier and faster to understand than justwriting down numbers, which leads to our first point.Is a chart the best way to communicate your data?
  4. 4. Internet share of spend in 2010 was 24% Cinema 1% Direct Mail Door Drops 12% 1% TV 29% Internet 24% Radio 4% Outdoor Press 5% 24%
  5. 5. Internet share of spend in 2010 was 24% 2010 Share of Spend TV 29% Internet 24% Press 24% Direct Mail 12% Outdoor 5% Radio 4% Cinema 1% Door Drops 1%
  6. 6. Internet share of spend in 2010 24%
  7. 7. Edward Tufte introduced the „Data-Ink Ratio‟ in 1983,when drawing a chart took a lot longer than it does now He wasn‟t trying to save time – he was trying to draw effective charts The data-ink ratio is the amount of ink you‟ve used to illustrate the data, set against the total amount of ink used to draw the chart Ideally, every bit of ink used to draw a chart should be necessary to making that chart work.
  8. 8. Napoleon‟s March(Because there was no such thing as Excel in 19th Century France)
  9. 9. Anything on your chart that isn‟t communicating data, makes it harder to understand“Chart Junk” that is unhelpful includes• Gridlines• 3D• Borders• Shading• Clip art• Different colours that don‟t change for a reason• Prominent axes and titles
  10. 10. This is pretty, but it‟s a terrible chart How much more was spent on TV than Door Drops?Direct Mail Door Drops Internet Outdoor Press Radio TV Spend (£) 60,000,000.00 50,000,000.00 40,000,000.00 30,000,000.00 20,000,000.00 10,000,000.00 0.00
  11. 11. 3D is always a bad thing Direct Mail Door Drops Internet Outdoor Press Radio TVSpend (£) 60,000,000.00 50,000,000.00 40,000,000.00 30,000,000.00 20,000,000.00 10,000,000.00 0.00
  12. 12. Axes, borders and gridlines distract from the data Direct Mail Door Drops Internet Outdoor Press Radio TVSpend (£) 60,000,000.00 50,000,000.00 40,000,000.00 30,000,000.00 20,000,000.00 10,000,000.00 0.00
  13. 13. The colour isn‟t helpful; labels are betterSpend (£) 60,000,000.00 50,000,000.00 40,000,000.00 30,000,000.00 20,000,000.00 10,000,000.00 0.00 Direct Mail Door Drops Internet Outdoor Press Radio TV
  14. 14. We don‟t actually need the vertical axis and gridlines at all £50,245,646 £38,560,717 £4,199,331 £1,702,692 £572,992 £110,100 £288,433 Direct Mail Door Drops Internet Outdoor Press Radio TV
  15. 15. Sorting the data is a huge help for your audience£50,245,646 £38,560,717 £4,199,331 £1,702,692 £572,992 £288,433 £110,100Direct Mail Press TV Door Drops Internet Radio Outdoor
  16. 16. We learned at school that bar charts go upwards, but horizontal bars are often easier to readDirect Mail £50,245,646 Press £38,560,717 TV £4,199,331Door Drops £1,702,692 Internet £572,992 Radio £288,433 Outdoor £110,100
  17. 17. One‟s pretty, the other communicates a point! Direct Mail Door Drops Internet Outdoor Press Radio TV Direct Mail £50,245,646 60,000,000.00Spend (£) Press £38,560,717 50,000,000.00 40,000,000.00 TV £4,199,331 30,000,000.00 Door Drops £1,702,692 20,000,000.00 Internet £572,992 10,000,000.00 0.00 Radio £288,433 Outdoor £110,100
  18. 18. Going to extremesThe people we work with in marketing don‟t often havemaths and statistics backgrounds and you can takesimplification too farA splash of colour that stops a slide looking like a mathstext-book is definitely a good thing!Very often though, simpler visuals are easier for people whodon‟t like charts. You don‟t need to know how a dual axis linechart works – you just read the data label next to the pointthat you‟re interested in.
  19. 19. Our brains are much faster at pre-attentive processingWhen you find yourself actually reading a chart to try tounderstand what it says, that‟s attentive processingAttentive processing happens in the conscious mind andit‟s slowIf you can almost instantly read the data, that‟s pre-attentive processing and it‟s very, very fast
  20. 20. How many number 5s are there?
  21. 21. What about now?
  22. 22. We can make good use of pre-attentive processingIf we‟re presenting data, then it should have a pointIf it doesn‟t have a point, then you‟re going to struggle todraw an effective chart!What do you want your audience to see?Highlight the conclusion
  23. 23. Features you can change that the brain will process unconsciously (and fast)
  24. 24. Brand A share of voice has fallen in 2011 45.57% 34.98% 32.90% 18.37% 13.26% 10.99%10.06% 10.00% 9.32% 7.73% 8.07% 7.41% 7.34% 6.66% 6.45% 6.70% 6.56% 6.43% 5.37% 5.49% 5.53% 5.50% 4.81% 4.05% 4.55% 5.07% 3.59% 2.25% 2.37% 2.61% 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 Brand A Brand B Brand C Brand D Brand E Brand F Brand G Brand H Brand I Brand J
  25. 25. Brand A share of voice has fallen in 2011 45.57% 34.98% 32.90% 18.37% 13.26% 10.99%10.06% 10.00% 9.32% 7.73% 8.07% 7.41% 7.34% 6.66% 6.45% 6.70% 6.56% 6.43% 5.37% 5.49% 5.53% 5.50% 4.81% 4.05% 4.55%5.07% 3.59% 2.25% 2.37% 2.61% 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 Brand A Brand B Brand C Brand D Brand E Brand F Brand G Brand H Brand I Brand J
  26. 26. The seven items ruleOur short-term memory can‟t hold more than seven thingsat once. Given more than seven things to look at, you‟reforced to think actively about what you‟re doingIf you put more than seven series on a chart, or segments ina pie chart, you‟ll force people to think about thechart, rather than about the point you‟re makingMore than seven lines on a chart is too manyMore than seven segments in a pie chart is too manyEven better, use five as a limit wherever possible
  27. 27. Pie charts are rarely the best chart to useData visualisation professionals (yes, it‟s a job) really hatepie charts.They‟re not always a bad idea, but they do have problems• Pie charts divide up the area of a circle and people really aren‟t good at visually judging differences in area• It‟s difficult to illustrate more than four or five categories with a pie• Pie charts take away your ability to make use of colour, because each slice has to be a different shade• There are plenty more here
  28. 28. Which category is largest?Door Drops Direct Mail TV Press
  29. 29. Which category is largest? PressDoor Drops Direct Mail Direct Mail Door Drops TV Press TV
  30. 30. Showing a lot of categories really doesn‟t work on a pie chart… Daily Telegraph (B) Daily Mail (T) Sunday Times (B) Times (B/t) Sunday Telegraph (B) Daily Express (T) Mail On Sunday (T) Sunday Express (T) Saga Magazine Guardian (B/bl) Radio Times *from 01/00 Sunday Times (Scot) Daily Mail (Scot) Daily Exp (Scot) (T) Observer (B/bl) Readers Digest Independent (B/t) National Trust Magazine*from 03/95 Daily Mirror (T) Garden The *from 01/93 M&s Magazine *from 01/00 Sunday Mirror (T) Yours
  31. 31. …But it‟s not because there was too much data Daily Telegraph (B) Daily Mail (T) Sunday Times (B) Times (B/t) Sunday Telegraph (B) Daily Express (T) Mail On Sunday (T) Sunday Express (T) Saga Magazine Guardian (B/bl) Radio Times *from 01/00 Sunday Times (Scot) Daily Mail (Scot) Daily Exp (Scot) (T) Observer (B/bl) Readers Digest Independent (B/t) National Trust… Daily Mirror (T) Garden The *from 01/93M&s Magazine *from 01/00 Sunday Mirror (T) Yours
  32. 32. Either it‟s difficult to use the legend to work out which segment is which… 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% Dirmail Region National 2% 2% Daily Telegraph (B) 3% Daily Mail (T) 3% Sunday Times (B) 3% Times (B/t) 4% Sunday Telegraph (B) Daily Express (T) 6% Mail On Sunday (T) Door Drops Region National 59% Sunday Express (T) Saga Magazine 12% Guardian (B/bl) Radio Times *from 01/00 Sunday Times (Scot) Daily Mail (Scot)
  33. 33. … or your category names get in the way of the chartDoor Drops Region National Saga Magazine Sunday Times Radio Times *from Guardian 2% 1% (Scot) 01/00 Sunday (B/bl) 1% 1% Daily Mail (Scot) Express (T) 1% 1% 1% Mail On Sunday (T) 2% Daily Express (T) 3% Sunday Telegraph (B) 3% Times (B/t) 3% Sunday Times (B) 4% Daily Mail (T) 6% Dirmail Region National 59% Daily Telegraph (B) 12%
  34. 34. When you need colour to tell segments apart, you can‟t do something more useful with itDoor Drops Direct Mail Press Direct Mail TV Door Drops Press TV
  35. 35. A financial services dashboardHow much profit did we make last week?
  36. 36. Excel makes life difficultIf you want to present data clearly and effectively, Exceland PowerPoint aren‟t very helpful.Excel improved with 2007, but it still encourages you todraw bad charts and the default formatting is OK at bestIn Excel 2003, the default chart formatting is appallingWe need to resist the temptation to use some of Excel‟smore „exotic‟ charts.
  37. 37. Useful charts in the Excel gallery  
  38. 38. How to use templates to get a good starting point every time• Use the Insert menu to draw a simple chart in Excel – a bar chart showing just one short data series is a good start – Excel will insert the chart onto your worksheet, because it likes to be unhelpful• Right click the chart and choose „Move Chart‟. Then select „New Sheet‟ and click OK – Excel will move the chart off the worksheet and into its own sheet• Now format it so it looks as you want. You‟re going to get this chart as a starting point every time from now on, so keep it clean and simple
  39. 39. How to use templates to get a good starting point, every time (Excel 2003 does this bit a different way. Try here.)• Once the chart looks ok, you can save it as a template• In Excel 2007 onwards, make sure your chart is selected and then click „Save as Template‟ from the Design menu• Give the chart a name and save it• Now right click your chart again and choose „Change chart type‟• Click Templates in the top left of the pop-up box and select the one you saved, then click „Set as default chart‟ at the bottom and „OK‟• Now go to any worksheet you like and highlight some data• And press F11
  40. 40. A few simple rules to follow• Never, ever use 3D• Remove everything from the chart that is doesn‟t need. Axes, borders, colours, gridlines, clip art… – But remember that it should still make sense as a stand- alone slide.• Use pie charts sparingly – they‟re rarely the best solution• Sorting data is a big help to the viewer• Labels are often better than colours• Colour is a valuable tool; many-coloured charts are hard to read• Stay away from everything in the Excel gallery except the simplest charts
  41. 41. Principles that work for any slide, whether there‟s a chart on it or not• What‟s the summary?• What‟s the story?• What can I remove?• What needs explanation?• What action needs to happen?
  42. 42. About the authorNeil Charles is Head of Econometrics atMediacom Leeds and has worked in marketingas an economist and statistician for the pasttwelve years, across a wide range ofbusinesses.Econometricians use mathematical models to measure theeffectiveness of advertising and to improve the return oninvestment of marketing budgets.At Mediacom, we use complex mathematical models toproduce simple, straightforward insights into how hardmarketing budgets are working and to show how thosebudgets can be used more effectively.Introduction to econometrics

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