Ontology Summit    12 February 2013 Bill Mandrick, PhD  Senior Ontologist
Agenda•   Background•   Previous Information Revolutions•   Ontology Defined•   Snapshot of the Method•   Return On Invest...
Background
Horizontal Integration (HI) of     Warfighter    Intelligence   …the ability toexploit multiple datasources as if they are...
Warfighters’ Information Sharing Environment        Intelligence          Fire          Targeting                         ...
Authoritative References       Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate        Joint Publication 1-02 DoD Dictionary   Joint Publicati...
Ontology(ies) that enables interoperability among members of an Operations Center                               and other ...
Doctrinal Publications            Consistent Terminology (Data Elements, Names and Definitions)    JP 1-02 DoD Dictionary ...
Joint Publication 6-02    A Joint       Horizontal Integration of                        InformationPublication for H.I. n...
Conclusion• Two Types of Integration  – Organizational (Cultural)  – Technical• Operations Centers are Organizationally  I...
Information Integration Revolutions Dowding Radar System (1940 Battle of Britain)                             Coordinated ...
Interoperable Semantics (example: Anatomy & Physiology)                 •   Standardized Labels                 •   Anatom...
Ontology Defined
Ontology Defined  Ontology is the science of representing, defining, and relating the kinds and structures of objects, pro...
Ontology Defined“...partial semantic account of the intended conceptualization of a          logical theory...”           ...
top level                Basic Formal Ontology (BFO)                                            Ontology for          Info...
Levels of OntologyCommon Upper Ontology   Guarantees consistency                        and interoperability at       (BFO...
Dealing with TimeArtifact   is_aBuildinginstance_of                            Educational                                ...
Dealing with TimeAgent   is_aPersoninstance_of                                       Warehouse                            ...
Orders of Reality                                                     3rd Order.                                          ...
Ontology Types               Asserted (Reference) Ontology created manually by its ontology developers to conform tocertai...
Geospatial           Region                                                       Asserted Ontologies                     ...
Water Source                 Relating Asserted Ontologies                                                Region.water.feca...
Ontologies We Have• Agent Ontology (Person and Organization)• Artifact Ontology (Technical, Facility…)• Emotion Ontology• ...
Admin Page
Every term in the ontologywill have an authoritative definition and unique ID
Every term in the ontologywill have an authoritative definition and unique ID
Person Roles
To create ontologies which evolve consistently is very hard…                      very, very hard…                   but t...
Snapshot of the Method
Repeatable Processes                                    Developed though repeated                                    obser...
The Repeatable Process for         the... Military Decision Making    Process (MDMP)... as depicted in DoctrineThis is a h...
34
Scoping the Domain                     35
Scope the DomainSubject Matter Expert (SME) InteractionIdentify Authoritative ReferencesSurvey Authoritative ReferencesDef...
Authoritative References        Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate        Joint Publication 1-02 DoD Dictionary   Joint Publicat...
38
Metrics:                   20 Questions for C2 Related DomainsWhat is the baseline definition/description for this        ...
Create Initial Lexicon                         40
Building the Domain LexiconJoint Operation Planning Process: Planning activities associated with joint military operations...
DefinitionsOriginal “Definition”                                                    Improved Definition(s)Attack Geography...
Example 2: Method of Emplacement      Original “Definition”                                                           Impr...
Example 3: Method of Employment      Original “Definition”                                                           Impro...
45
Create Initial Ontology                          46
Military Ontology is the task of establishing and representing the salient types of entities                      and rela...
Publish and Share                    48
MilPortalOntology Name                            Terms      ContactEmotion Ontology                         320     Janna...
Return On Investment•   Prerequisite for H.I.•   Standardized Process•   DOTMLPF driven•   Perspective Neutral•   Evolutio...
Collaboration• DoD CIO Office of Information Sharing• NSA• NGA• JIEDDO• World Wide Human Geography Data Working  Group (WW...
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Bill Ontology Summit (08 feb 1400hrs) v2

  1. 1. Ontology Summit 12 February 2013 Bill Mandrick, PhD Senior Ontologist
  2. 2. Agenda• Background• Previous Information Revolutions• Ontology Defined• Snapshot of the Method• Return On Investment
  3. 3. Background
  4. 4. Horizontal Integration (HI) of Warfighter Intelligence …the ability toexploit multiple datasources as if they are one
  5. 5. Warfighters’ Information Sharing Environment Intelligence Fire Targeting Support Maneuver & Blue Force Tracking Civil-MilitaryAir Operations Logistics Operations 5
  6. 6. Authoritative References Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Joint Publication 1-02 DoD Dictionary Joint Publication 3-0 Joint Operations Dictionary of Military and Related Terms Joint Publication 3-13 Joint Command Joint Publication 3-24 Joint Publication 3-57 Civil-Military and Control Counterinsurgency Operations JP 3-10, Joint Security Operations in Joint Publication 3-16 Multinational Joint Publication 5-0 Joint Operations Theater Operations Planning Warfighter Lexicon Controlled Vocabulary Stable Horizontally Integrated Common Operational Picturehttp://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/ 6
  7. 7. Ontology(ies) that enables interoperability among members of an Operations Center and other warfighters. 7
  8. 8. Doctrinal Publications Consistent Terminology (Data Elements, Names and Definitions) JP 1-02 DoD Dictionary JP 3-16 JP 3-33 JP 6-0 JP 2-0 JP 3-0 JP 4-0 Multinational JTF Comm Intelligence Operations Logistics Operations Headquarters SupportArea of Interest X X XArea of Operations X X X XArea of Responsibility X X X XC2 Systems X X XCivil-Military Operations X XKey: word for word 8
  9. 9. Joint Publication 6-02 A Joint Horizontal Integration of InformationPublication for H.I. needs tobe developed Under Development 2013 9
  10. 10. Conclusion• Two Types of Integration – Organizational (Cultural) – Technical• Operations Centers are Organizationally Integrated• Joint Doctrine is the Warfighter’s Lexicon• Lexicons and Controlled Vocabularies supposed to advance technical integration, but they fail• Completely new approach is needed
  11. 11. Information Integration Revolutions Dowding Radar System (1940 Battle of Britain) Coordinated (Massing) Artillery Fires (1910-1940) 1800’s Cartographic*DOTMLPF Revolution 12
  12. 12. Interoperable Semantics (example: Anatomy & Physiology) • Standardized Labels • Anatomical Continuants • Physiological Occurrents • Teachable • Inferencing • Horizontally Integrated • Sharing of Observations • Accumulated Knowledge 13
  13. 13. Ontology Defined
  14. 14. Ontology Defined Ontology is the science of representing, defining, and relating the kinds and structures of objects, properties, events, processes and relations in every area of reality. An ontology is an exhaustive classification of entities insome sphere of being, which results in the formulation of robust and shareable descriptions of a given domain. (e.g. Physics, Biology, Medicine, Intelligence, etc.). www.militaryontology.com 15
  15. 15. Ontology Defined“...partial semantic account of the intended conceptualization of a logical theory...” www.militaryontology.com 16
  16. 16. top level Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) Ontology for Information Artifact Biomedical Spatial Ontologymid-level Ontology Investigations (BSPO) (IAO) (OBI) Anatomy Ontology Infectious (FMA*, CARO) Disease Environment Cellular Ontology Cell Ontology Component (IDO*) Ontology (EnvO) Ontology (CL) Phenotypic Biological domain (FMA*, GO*) Quality Process level Subcellular Anatomy Ontology (SAO) Ontology Ontology (GO*) (PaTO) Sequence Ontology (SO*) Molecular Function Protein Ontology (GO*) (PRO*) Extension Strategy + Modular Organization 17
  17. 17. Levels of OntologyCommon Upper Ontology Guarantees consistency and interoperability at (BFO) lower levels Organizing effect similar to the JP’s…act as a nexus Mid-Level Ontologies between lower and upper levels Developed by Domain Low-Level Ontologies Subject Matter Experts
  18. 18. Dealing with TimeArtifact is_aBuildinginstance_of Educational Facility has_role at t1 Production Facility has_role at t2 has_role at t3 Storage Facility
  19. 19. Dealing with TimeAgent is_aPersoninstance_of Warehouse Manager Role has_role at t1 has_role at t2 Key Leader Role has_role at t3 Brother Role
  20. 20. Orders of Reality 3rd Order. Records, data, symbols, models… 2nd Order Participant perceptions, ideas, thoughts, goals… 1st Order Reality as it is.The gaps between the orders of reality introduce risk. These gaps are not the 21 only form of risk but reducing these gaps contributes to reducing risk.
  21. 21. Ontology Types Asserted (Reference) Ontology created manually by its ontology developers to conform tocertain principles, the most important of which concerns the explicit declaration of the is_a relations between its terms. Inferred (Application) Ontology results when multiple asserted ontologies (or portions of asserted ontologies) are merged – which means: combinedtogether into a single ontology – and an automatic reasoner is used to infer new relations on the basis of the merged content.
  22. 22. Geospatial Region Asserted Ontologies Region.water.distanceBetweenLatrinesAndWaterSource TribalVillage Region Area Of Operations Water Source Act Latrine Pond Act Of Well Act Of Cesspool Measurement Observation Act Of Analysis Geographic Coordinates Measurement Result Latitude Distance Height Military Grid Longitude Measurement Result Measurement Result Universal Reference SystemCoordinates Coordinates Transverse Depth Mercator Measurement Coordinates Result
  23. 23. Water Source Relating Asserted Ontologies Region.water.fecalOrOralTransmittedDiseasesLatrine Pond Role Well Cesspool has_location Pathogen Medicinal Role Role has_role Consumable Role Microorganism cause_of part_of Bacterium Virus Protozoan Event DiseaseContamination Epidemic Event Event Shigellosis Cholera Disease Transmission Hepatitis A Event
  24. 24. Ontologies We Have• Agent Ontology (Person and Organization)• Artifact Ontology (Technical, Facility…)• Emotion Ontology• Event Ontology (Natural, Mil Ops, IED…)• Geospatial Feature Ontology• Information Artifact (Name, Grid Coordinates, Measurement, Map, Image, Report…)• Infectious Disease Ontology• etc…
  25. 25. Admin Page
  26. 26. Every term in the ontologywill have an authoritative definition and unique ID
  27. 27. Every term in the ontologywill have an authoritative definition and unique ID
  28. 28. Person Roles
  29. 29. To create ontologies which evolve consistently is very hard… very, very hard… but the ROI is worth it!
  30. 30. Snapshot of the Method
  31. 31. Repeatable Processes Developed though repeated observation, abstraction, and documentation 32The Repeatable Targeting Process
  32. 32. The Repeatable Process for the... Military Decision Making Process (MDMP)... as depicted in DoctrineThis is a highly refined and documented processAll Leaders, Planners, andDecision-Makers are well versed in the MDMP 33
  33. 33. 34
  34. 34. Scoping the Domain 35
  35. 35. Scope the DomainSubject Matter Expert (SME) InteractionIdentify Authoritative ReferencesSurvey Authoritative ReferencesDefine the DomainDescribe the DomainDevise Metrics 36
  36. 36. Authoritative References Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Joint Publication 1-02 DoD Dictionary Joint Publication 3-0 Joint Operations Dictionary of Military and Related Terms Joint Publication 3-13 Joint Command Joint Publication 3-24 Joint Publication 3-57 Civil-Military and Control Counterinsurgency Operations JP 3-10, Joint Security Operations in Joint Publication 3-16 Multinational Joint Publication 5-0 Joint Operations Theater Operations Planninghttp://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/ 37
  37. 37. 38
  38. 38. Metrics: 20 Questions for C2 Related DomainsWhat is the baseline definition/description for this Where is this information found?domain? Where is this information stored?What are the primary activities involved in this domain? What organizations are involved in this domain?What are the subordinate activities in this domain? How are these organizations related?Who participates in these activities? What do these outputs contribute to?What environment do these activities take place in? What is the relation between agents and organizations in this domain?What are the intended outcomes of these activities? What are the ultimate goals for the domain?What are the intended products of these activities? What are the subordinate goals for the domain?What information is consumed in these activities? What larger enterprise/objective does this domain contribute to?Who consumes this information? What happens if these activities fail to produce their intended outcomes?What information is produced by these activities? 39
  39. 39. Create Initial Lexicon 40
  40. 40. Building the Domain LexiconJoint Operation Planning Process: Planning activities associated with joint military operations bycombatant commanders and their subordinate joint force commanders in response tocontingencies and crises. Joint operation planning includes planning for the mobilization,deployment, employment, sustainment, redeployment, and demobilization of joint forces. (JointPublication 3-0 Joint Operations) Planning Activity Joint Military Operation Combatant Commander Subordinate Joint Force Contingency Event Crisis Event Commander Mobilization Event Deployment Event Employment Event Sustainment Event Redeployment Event Demobilization Joint Force Planning Process Response 41
  41. 41. DefinitionsOriginal “Definition” Improved Definition(s)Attack Geography: IED Attack Geography:A description of the geography surrounding the IED A Geospatial Region where some IED Incident takesincident, such as road segment, buildings, foliage, place.etc. Understanding the geography indicates enemyuse of landscape to channel tactical response, slow IED Attack Geography Description:friendly movement, and prevent pursuit of enemyforces. A Description of the physical features of some Geospatial Region where an IED Incident takes place. 42
  42. 42. Example 2: Method of Emplacement Original “Definition” Improved Definition(s)Method of Emplacement: Method of IED Emplacement:A description of where the device was delivered, used, or A systematic procedure used in the positioning of anemployed. (original definition) Improvised Explosive Device. Method of IED Emplacement Description: A description of the systematic procedure used in the positioning of an Improvised Explosive Device. 43
  43. 43. Example 3: Method of Employment Original “Definition” Improved Definition(s)Method of Employment: Method of IED Employment:A description of where the device was delivered, used, or A systematic procedure used in the delivery of anemployed. (original definition) Improvised Explosive Device. Method of IED Employment Description: A description of the systematic procedure used in the delivery of an Improvised Explosive Device. 44
  44. 44. 45
  45. 45. Create Initial Ontology 46
  46. 46. Military Ontology is the task of establishing and representing the salient types of entities and relations in a given domain (Battlespace) Ontology Review Revisions Process with SME’s SME Feedback 47
  47. 47. Publish and Share 48
  48. 48. MilPortalOntology Name Terms ContactEmotion Ontology 320 Janna HastingsFacility Ontology 349 Ron RudnickiGeospatial Feature Ontology 321 USGSHuman Physical Characteristic Ontology 233 I2WDInfectious Disease Ontology 508 Lindsay CowellInformation Artifact Ontology 485 Ron RudnickiOrganization Ontology 289 Bill MandrickSocial Event Ontology 215 WWHGD WGThreat Ontology 259 Bill Mandrick
  49. 49. Return On Investment• Prerequisite for H.I.• Standardized Process• DOTMLPF driven• Perspective Neutral• Evolutionary Process• Modular and Extensible• Facilitate Inter-Organizational Semantics• Avoid Redundancies
  50. 50. Collaboration• DoD CIO Office of Information Sharing• NSA• NGA• JIEDDO• World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group (WWHGD-WG)• Others…
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