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[DSC Europe 23] Ales Gros - Quantum and Today s security with Quantum.pdf

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Quantum and Today's security with Quantum
Aleš Gros
IT Architect, Client Engineering team
IBM Quantum Ambassador
E-mail: ales.gros@si.ibm.com
There is a 1 in 7 chance that
fundamental public-key crypto
will be broken by quantum by
2026, and a 1 in 2 chance of
the same by 2031.”
“
Dr. Michele Mosca
Institute of Quantum Computing, University of
Waterloo
2
Cryptography impacts
everything
Cryptography touches every corner of
the digital world
Internet
Domain Name Service(DNS), Hyper-text Transfer Protocol
(HTTP), Telnet, File-Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Digital Signatures
eIDAS – PDF Advanced Electronic Signature – (PAdES),
Advanced Electronic Signatures (AES), …
Critical Infrastructure
Code updates, Control systems, Car systems,…
Financial Systems
Payment Systems: (EMV, CHAPS, Fedwire, Target2, EURO1,
...), SWIFT, Settlement Systems, …
Blockchain
Wallets, Transactions, Authentication
Enterprise
EMAIL – PGP, Identity Management PKI/LDAP/.., Virus
scanning patterns, PKI Services, Bespoke applications, …
Upgrading digital infrastructure takes a long time
Passports – 10 years from issue
Road Vehicles – 15-20 Years
Critical Infrastructure – 25-30 Years
Aircrafts / Trains – 25-30 Years
(Some) Critical Mainframe Applications – 50 Years
Data needs to stay secure for a long time
HIPAA – 6 years from its last use, Securities exchange act
Tax Records – 7-10 Years in most countries, Sarbanes Oxley
Guide 0068 - Clinical Trials – 25 Years
Toxic Substances Control Act / Occupational Safety and Health Act
Medical Records in Japan – 100 years
3
4
What will a cyber criminal
be able to do?
IBM Quantum / © 2023 IBM Corporation
Gain access to critical infrastructure
through fraudulent authentication
Manipulate legal history by forging
digital signatures
Decrypt lost or harvested confidential
historical data through cracking
encryption keys (Harvest now, decrypt
later)
Adversaries might:
• Launch extortion attacks by threatening
to disclose harvested data
• Create fake software signatures
introducing malware
• Create indistinguishable fraudulent land
records or lease documents
• Create fraudulent transactions on
blockchains
• Manipulate bank transactions
• Remote control critical infrastructure
Cryptography today
• Asymmetric/Public Key Cryptography
Public key = Private key =
• Symmetric Encryption:
Encryption key = Decryption key =
• Examples: Web traffic, Email, Virtual Private Networks, Remote Connections etc.
In practice: Usually a combination of Public Key Crypto and Symmetric Encryption
IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation 5
What cryptographic schemes are impacted?
AES SHA-2 SHA-3
RSA
ECDSA ECDH El-Gamal
Pallier
Public Key schemes broken by Shor’s
algorithm and need to be replaced
Symmetric cryptography / hashing
schemes are impacted by Grover’s
algorithm but are not broken.
TDES Blowfish
GOST SM4 SEED
RC4 DSA
SM2 KCDSA
SM9
A very long list
including many
NIST, ISO/IEC,
ETSI, IETF
standards
International
Problem
Digital Signatures Key-Exchange PK Encryption
6

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[DSC Europe 23] Ales Gros - Quantum and Today s security with Quantum.pdf

  • 1. Quantum and Today's security with Quantum Aleš Gros IT Architect, Client Engineering team IBM Quantum Ambassador E-mail: ales.gros@si.ibm.com
  • 2. There is a 1 in 7 chance that fundamental public-key crypto will be broken by quantum by 2026, and a 1 in 2 chance of the same by 2031.” “ Dr. Michele Mosca Institute of Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo 2
  • 3. Cryptography impacts everything Cryptography touches every corner of the digital world Internet Domain Name Service(DNS), Hyper-text Transfer Protocol (HTTP), Telnet, File-Transfer Protocol (FTP) Digital Signatures eIDAS – PDF Advanced Electronic Signature – (PAdES), Advanced Electronic Signatures (AES), … Critical Infrastructure Code updates, Control systems, Car systems,… Financial Systems Payment Systems: (EMV, CHAPS, Fedwire, Target2, EURO1, ...), SWIFT, Settlement Systems, … Blockchain Wallets, Transactions, Authentication Enterprise EMAIL – PGP, Identity Management PKI/LDAP/.., Virus scanning patterns, PKI Services, Bespoke applications, … Upgrading digital infrastructure takes a long time Passports – 10 years from issue Road Vehicles – 15-20 Years Critical Infrastructure – 25-30 Years Aircrafts / Trains – 25-30 Years (Some) Critical Mainframe Applications – 50 Years Data needs to stay secure for a long time HIPAA – 6 years from its last use, Securities exchange act Tax Records – 7-10 Years in most countries, Sarbanes Oxley Guide 0068 - Clinical Trials – 25 Years Toxic Substances Control Act / Occupational Safety and Health Act Medical Records in Japan – 100 years 3
  • 4. 4 What will a cyber criminal be able to do? IBM Quantum / © 2023 IBM Corporation Gain access to critical infrastructure through fraudulent authentication Manipulate legal history by forging digital signatures Decrypt lost or harvested confidential historical data through cracking encryption keys (Harvest now, decrypt later) Adversaries might: • Launch extortion attacks by threatening to disclose harvested data • Create fake software signatures introducing malware • Create indistinguishable fraudulent land records or lease documents • Create fraudulent transactions on blockchains • Manipulate bank transactions • Remote control critical infrastructure
  • 5. Cryptography today • Asymmetric/Public Key Cryptography Public key = Private key = • Symmetric Encryption: Encryption key = Decryption key = • Examples: Web traffic, Email, Virtual Private Networks, Remote Connections etc. In practice: Usually a combination of Public Key Crypto and Symmetric Encryption IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation 5
  • 6. What cryptographic schemes are impacted? AES SHA-2 SHA-3 RSA ECDSA ECDH El-Gamal Pallier Public Key schemes broken by Shor’s algorithm and need to be replaced Symmetric cryptography / hashing schemes are impacted by Grover’s algorithm but are not broken. TDES Blowfish GOST SM4 SEED RC4 DSA SM2 KCDSA SM9 A very long list including many NIST, ISO/IEC, ETSI, IETF standards International Problem Digital Signatures Key-Exchange PK Encryption 6
  • 7. 7 © 2023 IBM Corporation OUR MODERN DIGITAL WORLD DEPENDS ON CRYPTOGRAPHY Prime factors = p x q 2048-bit composite integer 25195908475657893494027183240048398571429282126204032 02777713783604366202070759555626401852588078440691829 06412495150821892985591491761845028084891200728449926 87392807287776735971418347270261896375014971824691165 07761337985909570009733045974880842840179742910064245 86918171951187461215151726546322822168699875491824224 33637259085141865462043576798423387184774447920739934 23658482382428119816381501067481045166037730605620161 96762561338441436038339044149526344321901146575444541 78424020924616515723350778707749817125772467962926386 35637328991215483143816789988504044536402352738195137 863656439212010397122822120720357 Expected computation time The most powerful computer today: Millions of years Shor’s Quantum Algorithm: Hours Shor’s algorithm will crack our asymmetric form of cryptography § Public Key Encryption § Digital Signatures § Key Exchange Algorithms § RSA § DSA § ECC § ECDSA § DH Cryptography is the last line of defense
  • 10. Improved nitrogen-fixation process for creating ammonia- based fertilizer New catalysts to make CO2 conversion into hydrocarbons more efficient and selective New classes of antibiotics to counter the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains Better financial models to improve stability, predictability and growth of world economies
  • 11. One of the world’s most powerful supercomputers Oak Ridge National Laboratory US Department of Energy Summit supercomputer specs 200 quadrillion calculations per second 9216 IBM Power 9 processors 27,648 NVIDIA GPUs 250 PB File System IBM Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) v 7.4 Operating System IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation https://www.ibm.com/thought-leadership/summit-supercomputer/
  • 12. “I’m not happy with all the analyses that go with just the classical theory, because nature isn’t classical, dammit, and if you want to make a simulation of nature, you’d better make it quantum mechanical …” Richard P. Feynman Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology International Journal of Theoretical Physics, Vol 21, Nos. 6/7, 1982 IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation
  • 13. The limit of bits For decades we’ve been simplifying nature into 1s and 0s because that was the only way we could manage to create a useful and scalable system of computation. IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation 001001101110010010001001001001100100111 001011100111110010100100011100010001001 010001001001010101001010101110010011011 100100100010010010011001001110010111001 111100101001000111000100010010100010010 010101010010101011101110011100101011110
  • 14. The limit of bits For decades we’ve been simplifying nature into 1s and 0s because that was the only way we could manage to create a useful and scalable system of computation. IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation 001001101110010010001001001001100100111 001011100111110010100100011100010001001 010001001001010101001010101110010011011 100100100010010010011001001110010111001 111100101001000111000100010010100010010 010101010010101011101110011100101011110 But the future isn’t just 1s and 0s.
  • 15. IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation Bits and classical logic circuits A bit is a controllable classical object that is the unit of information A classical logic circuit is a set of gate operations on bits and is the unit of computation 0 1
  • 16. Computing with caffeine IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation 16 If our best classical computers are so powerful, shouldn’t we be able to perfectly simulate molecules and chemical reactions? This would allow us to accelerate discovery of new compounds and processes for healthcare, materials, alloys, and sustainable energy creation. Let’s consider caffeine …
  • 17. Computing with caffeine IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation 17 We would need approximately 10 48 bits to represent the energy configuration of a single caffeine molecule at a single instant in a classical computer. This is 1 to 10% of the total number of atoms in the Earth. 1048 = 1,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000
  • 18. Computing with caffeine IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation Although it’s impossible to completely represent the molecular configuration of caffeine on today’s most powerful super computers, we could represent it using 160 logical qubits. 18
  • 19. IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation Quantum bits (qubits) and quantum circuits A quantum bit or qubit is a controllable quantum object that is the unit of information A quantum circuit is a set of quantum gate operations on qubits and is the unit of computation |0⟩ |1⟩
  • 20. Quantum computing uses essential ideas from quantum mechanics Superposition Superposition is creating a quantum state that is a combination of |0⟩ and |1⟩ a |0⟩ + b |1⟩ These conditions allow us to map the qubit onto the Bloch Sphere. Note that if a and b are non-zero, then the qubit’s state contains both |0⟩ and |1⟩. This is what people mean when they say that a qubit can be “0 and 1 at the same time.” IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation
  • 21. IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation Quantum Circuits 0 1 A qubit’s state is a combination of |0⟩ and |1⟩: |qubit⟩ = a |0⟩ + b |1⟩ This means that a single qubit contains two pieces of information. When we measure a qubit, the result is either 0 or 1 based on probability. Probability = |a| 2 Probability = |b| 2 |0⟩ |1⟩
  • 22. Quantum computing uses essential ideas from quantum mechanics Entanglement With two qubits we get combinations like a |00⟩ + b |01⟩ + c |10⟩ + d |11⟩ where |01⟩ means the first qubit is |0⟩ and the second is |1⟩ a, b, c, and d are complex numbers and |a|2 + |b|2 + |c|2 + |d|2 = 1 If two or more of the a, b, c, and d are non- zero, and we cannot separate the qubits, they are entangled with perfect correlation and are no longer independent. IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation
  • 23. Quantum computing uses essential ideas from quantum mechanics Interference Interference allows us to increase the probability of getting the right answer and decrease the chance of getting the wrong one. IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation 1 -1 1 8 |000> |001> |010> |011> |100> |101> |110> |111> probability amplitude
  • 24. Quantum computing uses essential ideas from quantum mechanics Gates / operations Classical logical circuits use operations like and, or, not, nand, and xor. We also call these gates. Quantum circuits use reversible gates that change the quantum states of one, two , or more qubits. IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation
  • 25. IBM Quantum – On the cloud since May 2016 Over 460,000 registered users have run … over 2 TRILLION hardware quantum circuits in total, and users run … over 4 BILLION hardware quantum circuits on a typical day on ... more than 25 quantum computing systems on the IBM Cloud, and written over 1750+ scientific and research papers. IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation
  • 26. IBM Quantum datacenter in NY Fraunhofer University of Tokyo Cleveland Clinic PINQ2 Jan 2021 July 2021 1Q23 Projected 3Q23 Quantum Innovation Centers: Strategic partnerships to accelerate regional quantum ecosystems Seoul, South Korea New York, USA Ehningen, Germany Shin-Kawasaki, Japan Ohio, USA Bromont, Canada Yonsei University Projected 2024
  • 27. IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation Quantum applications span three general areas Quantum chemistry Material science High energy physics Simulating Quantum Systems Better model training Pattern recognition Fraud detection Artificial Intelligence Portfolio optimization Risk analysis Loans & credit scoring Monte Carlo-like applications Optimization / Monte Carlo
  • 28. IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation Quantum applications span three general areas Simulating Quantum Systems Artificial Intelligence Optimization / Monte Carlo Improved battery materials Manufacturing defect identification Semiconductor materials Chemical property prediction Drug Discovery Protein Structure Predictions Disease Risk Predictions Accelerated Diagnosis Genomic Analysis Chemical product design Catalyst discovery Chemical process optimization High energy physics classification Transaction classification Product recommendation Fraud detection Risk analysis Options pricing Derivatives Pricing Investment Risk Analysis Portfolio Management Transaction Settlement Finance Offer Recommender Credit/Asset Scoring Airline Scheduling Irregular Operations Network Optimization Product Portfolio Optimization Process Planning Quality Control Vehicle Routing Raw materials shipping Refining Processes Seismic imaging Disruption Management Freight Forecasting Irregular Operations Fabrication Optimization Manufacturing Supply Chain Fluid Dynamics and many more …
  • 29. Connecting industry clients with quantum computing use cases A leading insurance company A Leading Global Technology & Services Company A Leading Global Consumer Products Company Search and optimization Mathematics and processing data with complex structure Simulating nature
  • 30. IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation A snapshot of global collaboration within the IBM Quantum Network IBM Quantum Keio University JPMorgan Chase Qiskit Publishes algorithm paper on Amplitude Estimation. Advances method, publishes with Mizuho and MUFG. Applies the method to options pricing and publishes. Contributed code into open source Qiskit for all to use. Zurich, Switzerland Tokyo, Japan New York, USA Global
  • 31. Executed by IBM On target Development Roadmap Heron 133 qubits x p Crossbill 408 qubits Circuits System Modularity Falcon 27 qubits Hummingbird 65 qubits Eagle 127 qubits Osprey 433 qubits Condor 1,121 qubits Kernel Developers Qiskit Runtime Threaded Quantum algorithm and application modules Machine learning | Natural science | Optimization Algorithm Developers Model Developers Flamingo 1,386+ qubits Kookaburra 4,158+ qubits Dynamic circuits Error suppression and mitigation Error correction Quantum Serverless Intelligent orchestration Circuit libraries Prototype quantum software applications Machine learning | Natural science | Optimization Quantum software applications 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 Beyond 2026 Run quantum circuits on the IBM cloud Demonstrate and prototype quantum algorithms and applications Run quantum programs 100x faster with Qiskit Runtime Enhancing applications with elastic computing and parallelization of Qiskit Runtime Improve accuracy of Qiskit Runtime with scalable error mitigation Scale quantum applica- tions with circuit knitting toolbox controlling Qiskit Runtime Bring dynamic circuits to Qiskit Runtime to unlock more computations Increase accuracy and speed of quantum workflows with integration of error correction into Qiskit Runtime Scaling to 10K-100K qubits with classical and quantum communication Threaded primitives Circuit Knitting Toolbox
  • 32. Inside an IBM Quantum computing system Microwave electronics 3K 0.9K 0.1K 0.015K 40K Quantum chip with superconducting qubits Refrigerator to cool qubits to 10 - 15 mK – 100x colder than outer space IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation
  • 33. Osprey – 433 Qubits Osprey connectivity map
  • 34. Cryogenic Platform KIDE Rethink user access Multiple and dedicated cooling units Expandable into clusters IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation
  • 35. Problems we can address today classically Problems we can’t adequately address today Problems we hope to address with quantum Overview of Quantum Application Domains Applications: Chemistry Materials Machine learning Optimization Simulating quantum mechanics Factoring IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation
  • 36. IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation Mercedes-Benz Quantum Computing for Materials Discovery and Manufacturing Optimization Mercedes-Benz and IBM have recently published a series of papers demonstrating progress toward using quantum computers to model material systems including Lithium- sulfur that are relevant to advancing the performance of batteries. The teams have also demonstrated applications in manufacturing defect analysis and product recommendation. 36 “Developing and perfecting these hypothetical batteries could unlock a billion-dollar opportunity.” Benjamin Boeser [Former] Director of Innovation Management, Silicon Valley at Mercedes-Benz R&D North America
  • 37. IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation Mitsubishi Chemical, JSR and Keio University Exploring new forms of light with Quantum Computing A Japanese research partnership comprising corporate teams from industrial chemists Mitsubishi Chemical and JSR Corporation, and academics from Keio University, have joined the IBM Quantum Network. Their mission is to collaborate with IBM scientists to create a new breed of disruptively efficient OLED materials — flexible, scalable and able to produce more (and more visually appealing) light with far less energy. 37
  • 38. IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation ExxonMobil Quantum Computing as a Tool for Chemistry and Engineering Working together, ExxonMobil and IBM recently demonstrated advancements in using quantum computers to accurately calculate thermodynamic observables, demonstrating how quantum can be the next generation tool for chemists and chemical engineers developing advanced energy solutions. 38 “We know in our bones that there are huge global challenges that we will tackle in the foreseeable future. When quantum computing scales to become utterly disruptive, we’ll be ready.” Dr. Vijay Swarup ExxonMobil Vice President of Research and Development
  • 39. IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation ExxonMobil Maritime Routing’s Mind-Boggling Math In 2021 more than 500 LNG (liquified natural gas) ships are used to transport critical fuel supplies across the oceans. Together, they make thousands of journeys per year to destination ports where the LNG is deployed to power critical infrastructure. Finding optimal routes for a fleet of such ships can be a mind-bendingly complex optimization problem. 39 Quantum computers take a new approach to addressing this sort of complexity, with the potential to find solutions that classical supercomputer alone cannot handle. Industry leaders like Exxon are getting involved now to explore how blending classical and quantum computing techniques might solve big, complex, pressing global challenges.
  • 40. IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation JP Morgan Chase European derivative pricing on a Quantum computer implements the Black-Scholes model using a Quantum Machine Learning Algorithm, namely a quantum Generative Adversarial Network (qGAN). The qGAN utility loads the log-normal probability distribution and models the spot price of an asset underlying a European call option. The resulting model can then be integrated into a Quantum Amplitude Estimation based algorithm to evaluate the expected payoff. Quantum Computing for the Financial Services Industry Recently, JPMC and IBM used Quantum Amplitude Estimation, a Monte Carlo-like sampling algorithm, to compute European option pricing, pricing path depend options, showing a quadratic speed-up versus a classical Monte Carlo approach. 40
  • 41. IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation CERN Quantum Machine Learning to understand what sews the universe together CERN’s partnership with IBM Quantum seeks new ways of finding patterns in data of the Large Hadron Collider. A recent collaboration with IBM scientists involves the detection and analysis of the Higgs boson, a recently discovered particle that helps explain the origin of mass. Sifting through raw data to find occurrences of Higgs behavior is a knotty problem that stretches classical computers to their limit. 41 “Quantum computing may play a significant role in (…) exploring the many open questions related to issues such as dark matter, dark energy, (…) and more.” Alberto Di Meglio Head of CERN openlab
  • 42. IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation IBM and partners working to find better patterns within AI/ML processes Data can exhibit structures hard to identify, which reduces classification accuracy
  • 43. Qiskit, Largest Open-Source Quantum Project and Community Open Learning: Over 3 Million digital learners on YouTube channels, challenges, hackathons, summer schools Open Plan Free Qiskit Runtime-as-a-Service available via the cloud, powered by small quantum systems and simulators IBM Quantum Offerings Digital Technical Support and Training Pay-As-You-Go Qiskit Runtime-as-a-Service powered by more advanced quantum systems, available via the cloud and charged based on consumption. Available as self-service on IBM Cloud. Enhanced Technical Support and Training Premium Plan Qiskit Runtime-as-a-Service powered by our premium quantum systems, purchased as reserved capacity and available via the cloud. Available direct from IBM Quantum or via an IBM Quantum hub. IBM Quantum Network Membership and Benefits Customized Technical Support and Training Quantum Accelerator Engagement with our quantum & industry experts to support your technical and business preparedness for quantum computing IBM Quantum Network Membership and Benefits IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation
  • 44. What builds a quantum workforce? O P E N A C C E S S IBM offers our newest quantum computers for public and premium access via the cloud; many free for anyone to use. O P E N S O U R C E Written in Python and maintained on GitHub, Qiskit is designed to make quantum computing software tools and frameworks available to everyone. E D U C A T I O N We have the opportunity for us all to give back and support building a diverse community of researchers, students, educators, and developers.
  • 46. Understanding the Quantum Threat Exponential speedup for some algorithms 2048-bit composite integer A quantum computer can solve certain problems much faster Problem: find prime factors Expected computation time 25195908475657893494027183240048398 57142928212620403202777713783604366 20207075955562640185258807844069182 90641249515082189298559149176184502 80848912007284499268739280728777673 59714183472702618963750149718246911 65077613379859095700097330459748808 42840179742910064245869181719511874 61215151726546322822168699875491824 22433637259085141865462043576798423 38718477444792073993423658482382428 11981638150106748104516603773060562 01619676256133844143603833904414952 63443219011465754445417842402092461 65157233507787077498171257724679629 26386356373289912154831438167899885 04044536402352738195137863656439212 010397122822120720357 = p x q Most powerful computer today millions of years Shor’s Quantum Algorithm some hours IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation 46
  • 47. Selected government statements and guidance ”experience has shown that, in the best case, 5 to 15 or more years following the publication of quantum-resistant public-key cryptographic standards will still be required to implement those standards” “Organizations can and should begin to plan and prepare for this transition now” 1) NIST - Crypto Agility: Considerations for Migrating to Post-Quantum Cryptographic Algorithms https://www.nccoe.nist.gov/projects/building-blocks/post-quantum-cryptography US National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) 1) 47
  • 48. NIST standardization for quantum-safe cryptography In July 2022 NIST announced the first selected quantum-safe cryptography algorithms Key differentiations with lattice cryptography: • Efficient and fast implementations compared to RSA • Support wide range of applicability for hybrid cloud & edge • Building block for cryptographic advances (i.e., Fully Homomorphic Encryption, Zero Knowledge Proofs, ID based encryption) IBM Submission Purpose Algorithm Public-key Encryption and Key establishment Algorithms CRYSTALS-Kyber Digital Signature Algorithms CRYSTALS-DILITHIUM Falcon SPHINCS+ IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation 48
  • 49. Journey to Quantum Safe GSMA Telco Consortium IBM Quantum Safe z16 US Government establishes timeline for transition to CNSA 2.0- compliant algorithms Support industry transition to quantum- safe cryptography Support client transition to quantum- safe cryptography First Quantum-safe platform U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology announced the first quantum-safe cryptography protocol standards for cybersecurity (July 2022), three of which were created by IBM in collaboration with industry and academic partners. Purpose Algorithm Public-key Encryption and Key establishment Algorithms CRYSTALS-Kyber Digital Signature Algorithms CRYSTALS-DILITHIUM DSA (alternate) Falcon DSA (alternate) SPHINCS+ NIST Selected Algorithms, July 5th 2022. NIST recommended two primary algorithms to be implemented for most use cases: CRYSTALS-KYBER (key- establishment) and CRYSTALS- Dilithium (digital signatures).
  • 50. IBM and Quantum Safe 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 Submission to NIST Lattice based cryptography Code Based Cryptography Isogeny Based Cryptography IBM Systems Quantum Safe Tape announcement IBM Cloud Availability of quantum safe algorithms and communication IBM Open Source Announcement OQS IBM z16 First Quantum Safe mainframe platform NIST Algorithm Announcement NIST Quantum Safe Standards Ready GSMA, Vodafone and IBM: First Quantum Safe Telco Taskforce 50 IBM Quantum Safe technology launch IBM Quantum / © 2023 IBM Corporation
  • 51. IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation https://www.ibm.com/thought-leadership/institute-business-value/report/quantum-decade
  • 52. Bring useful quantum computing to the world Our mission Make the world quantum safe IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation
  • 53. Bring useful quantum computing to the world Our mission Make the world quantum safe IBM Quantum © 2023 IBM Corporation
  • 54. Let’s get you quantum safe 54