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Blockchain. Massimo Chiriatti, IBM

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Blockchain & Crytocurrency. May 19th 2018. Data Driven Innovation 2018. Engineering Department, University of Roma Tre

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Blockchain. Massimo Chiriatti, IBM

  1. 1. Massimo Chiriatti IBM Italy massimo_chiriatti@it.ibm.com https://www.linkedin.com/in/massimochiriatti/ @massimochi Blockchain
  2. 2. LA MONETA È INFORMAZIONE • UNITÀ DI CONTO (MISURARE) • MEZZO DI PAGAMENTO (SCAMBIARE) • RISERVA DI VALORE (CONSERVARE VALORE NEL TEMPO) TUTTE INFORMAZIONI TENUTE INSIEME DA UN UNICO REGISTRO.
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  6. 6. Soluzione al problema della doppia spesa 1. Quando il numero di partecipanti è sufficiente? 2. Cosa succede se Alice crea miliardi di identità fittizie che comunicano sia a Bob sia a Charlie che la transazione è valida? La soluzione è apparentemente contro‐intuitiva ma elegante ed è in realtà la combinazione di due idee: 1. Rendere (artificialmente) costoso, dal punto di vista computazionale, validare le transazioni. 2. Premiare i partecipanti che validano le transazioni.
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  8. 8. Offerta di moneta
  9. 9. 9 “bitcoin” SCARSI  Non si possono creare a piacimento DURATURI  Non deperiscono PORTABILI  Non materiali, sono digitali DIVISIBILI  In miliardesimi VERIFICABILI  Attraverso la blockchain FACILI DA CONSERVARE  La banca sei tu FUNGIBILI  Ogni bitcoin è quasi uguale all’altro ANTI‐CONTRAFFAZIONE  Grazie alla crittografia
  10. 10. 10https://www.scribd.com/document/354688866/Bitcoin‐A‐5‐8‐Million‐Valuation‐Crypto‐Currency‐and‐A‐New‐Era‐of‐Human‐Cooperation
  11. 11. 11 PSEUDOANONIMATO Public key 0xa8fc93875a972ea Signature 0xa87g14632d452cd Public key 0xc7b2f68...
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  13. 13. 14 Una transazione finanziaria richiede: (1)Una rete di partecipanti, persone o machine (2) Un asset, fisico o digitale, che è trasferito tra i partecipanti e (3) un processo di trasferimento, che definisce le procedure e gli obblighi.
  14. 14. 15 15 PARTECIPANTI, TRANSAZIONI & CONTRATTI PARTECIPANTI – MEMBRI DI UNA RETE DI BUSINESS Clienti, Fornitori, Regolatori, etc. TRANSAZIONI – UN TRASFERIMENTO DI ASSET Registrato in un database secondo gli accordi tra le parti. CONTRATTI – ACCORDO TRA LE PARTI Clausole, Condizioni, Foro, etc.
  15. 15. 16 16 TRASFERIRE UN ASSET, COSTRUIRE UN VALORE Qualsiasi entità che può essere controllata o posseduta per produrre valore è un asset. Due fondamentali tipi di asset: Tangibili, es. una casa Intangibili, es. un mutuo Gli intangibili si suddividono: Finanziari, es. obbligazione Intellettuali, es. brevetti Digitali, es. musica
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  18. 18. DECENTRALIZZAZIONE •LA DECENTRALIZZAZIONE HA EFFETTI IMPORTANTI  SULLE TRANSAZIONI, PER ESEMPIO, SU: •– (PSEUDO)ANONIMATO, SE NESSUNO CONOSCE  L’IDENTITÀ ANAGRAFICA DELLE PARTI; •– PRIVACY, NEL SENSO CHE NESSUNO SA COSA SI È  ACQUISTATO E A CHE PREZZO; •– IRREVERSIBILITÀ, PER LA MANCANZA DI UN  ORGANO DI CONTROLLO E COMPENSAZIONE.
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  20. 20. PRIVATE Permissionless PUBLIC Permissioned Distributed Ledger TechnologyBlockchain Layer: Network Layer: Process Layer: Data WHAT WHO HOW
  21. 21. 22 SMART CONTRACT
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  26. 26. 27 Massimo Chiriatti http://massimochiriatti.nova100.ilsole24ore.com massimo_chiriatti@it.ibm.com https://www.linkedin.com/in/massimochiriatti/ @massimochi
  27. 27. 28 What is Hyperledger Fabric • Linux Foundation Hyperledger – A collaborative effort created to advance cross-industry blockchain technologies for business • Hyperledger Fabric – An implementation of blockchain technology that is intended as a foundation for developing blockchain applications – Key technical features: – A shared ledger and smart contracts implemented as “chaincode” – Privacy and permissioning through membership services – Modular architecture and flexible hosting options • V1.0 released July 2017: contributions by 159 engineers from 27 organizations – IBM is one of the contributors to Hyperledger Fabric
  28. 28. 29 Introducing the IBM Blockchain Platform Hyperledger Composer DeveloperTools IBM Cloud OperationalTools GovernanceTools Blockchain application Hyperledger Fabric IBM Blockchain Platform is a fully integrated enterprise- ready blockchain platform designed to accelerate the development, governance, and operation of a multi- institution business network – Developer tools that make use of Hyperledger Composer to quickly build your blockchain application – Hyperledger Fabric provides the ledger, which is managed through a set of intuitive operational tools – Governance tools for democratic management of the business network – Flexible deployment options, including a highly secure and performant IBM Cloud environment http://ibm.biz/Platform_Demo
  29. 29. 30 IBM model
  30. 30. 31 © 2017 IBM Corporation … Consensus, provenance, immutability, finality
  31. 31. © 2017 IBM Corporation 32 Food Trust TM What? • Provide a trusted source of information and traceability to improve transparency and efficiency across the food network. How? • Shared ledger for storing digital compliance documentation, test results and audit certificates Benefits • Reduce impact of food recalls through instant access to end-to-end traceability data to verify history in the food network and supply chain. • Help to address the 1 in 10 people sickened and 400,000 fatalities WW which occur every year from food-born illnesses.
  32. 32. © 2017 IBM Corporation 33 Global Digitized Trade What? Providing Trusted, Tamper-Proof, Cross-Border Workflows for Digitized Trade Documents. How? Providing Shared Visibility and Shared State for Container Ship Benefits Increase speed and transparency for cross border transactions through real time access to container events. Reduced cost and increased efficiency through paperless trade
  33. 33. © 2017 IBM Corporation 34 What? • Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are a traditionally underserved segment in the market, often without access to finance options. According to the World Bank, 50 percent of SMEs don’t have access to formal credit. How? • We.Trade (aka Digital Trade Chain (DTC)) Consortium consisting of: Deutsche Bank, HSBC, KBC, Natixis, Rabobank, Santander, Societe Generale and Unicredit, have selected IBM to build a new blockchain network designed to simplify and facilitate domestic and cross-border trade for SMEs in Europe. Benefits • Simplify trade finance by managing, tracking and securing international trade transactions. • Gain access to capital • Increase overall trade transaction transparency • Reduce risk Trade Finance for Small and Medium Enterprises
  34. 34. © 2017 IBM Corporation 35 What? • A universal rail for real-time clearing and settlement on an integrated Blockchain network How? • Collaboration between IBM and technology partners Stellar.org and KlickEx Group • Initial participants include over 13 financial institutions Benefits • Clearing and settlement are performed on the same network in near real time • There is no pre-funding requirement • Transactions are atomic and settled instantly by exchange of a digital monetary asset • Digital assets are also used as an intermediary bridge for FX BC Pagamenti – Payment Cross Border
  35. 35. © 2017 IBM Corporation BC Nuovi Business Model – Car eWallet 36
  36. 36. © 2017 IBM Corporation 37 Principali Referenze nel Mondo
  37. 37. 38 Hyperledger Fabric V1 Architecture Client Application SDK (HFC) Membership Services Peer Endorser Ledger Committer A Chaincode B !Events Ordering-Service O O O O  Fabric-CA  External-CA Hyperledger Fabric Network optionaloptional Admin
  38. 38. 39 Hyperledger Fabric Consensus Consensus is achieved using the following transaction flow: EndorseEndorse OrderOrder ValidateValidate
  39. 39. 40 End-to-end lifecycle coverage Develop Govern Operate – Accelerated creation of blockchain applications – No-charge development and test tools hosted on IBM Cloud – Based on popular Hyperledger Composer toolset – Activate, customize and change complete blockchain business networks – Secure democratic governance across organizations – Implement rules for authorizing network updates – Connect, deploy and manage blockchain peers with flexible deployment options – Production ready, secure and scalable – Based on Linux Foundation Hyperledger Fabric V1
  40. 40. 41 IBM Blockchain Platform Sites Toronto London Singapore Sydney Tokyo Dallas Frankfurt São Paolo IBM Blockchain Platform Enterprise plan is hosted in multiple sites to help you satisfy data residency requirements More platform locations planned Complemented by a set of IBM Blockchain Garages to help you get started with IBM Blockchain Platform Learn more at www.ibm.com/blockchain New York Amsterdam Montreal
  41. 41. 42 Further Hyperledger Fabric Information • Project Home: https://www.hyperledger.org/projects/fabric • GitHub Repo: https://github.com/hyperledger/fabric • Latest Docs: https://hyperledger-fabric.readthedocs.io/en/latest/ • Community Chat: https://chat.hyperledger.org/channel/fabric • Project Wiki: https://wiki.hyperledger.org/projects/fabric • Design Docs: https://wiki.hyperledger.org/community/fabric-design-docs
  42. 42. 43 IBM Blockchain Platform Starter Plan Live! Free beta. • Enable fast start - preconfigured kick-starter default network for demos, POCs and education • Least expensive way to get IBM Blockchain Platform experience • Prebuilt and supplied industry examples • Environment to enable iterative development prior to production deployment • Same experience as Enterprise, no scaling back functionality https://www.ibm.com/blockchain/platform/ https://www.ibm.com/blockchain/getting‐started.html https://www.ibm.com/blogs/think/2018/03/extending‐the‐blockchain/
  43. 43. 44 Linux Foundation Hyperledger Project: https://www.hyperledger.org/ IBM Blockchain Homepage www.ibm.com/blockchain IBM IBV https://www-935.ibm.com/services/us/gbs/thoughtleadership/blockchainlibrary.html IBM Blockchain Platform incl. Starter Plan, Founders Handbook: www.ibm.com/blockchain/platform Platform – getting started developer focus: www.ibm.com/blockchain/getting-started.html IBM Food Trust: www.ibm.com/food Solution Overview: www.ibm.com/blockchain/solutions/food-trust/overview Tech Page: www.ibm.com/blockchain/solutions/food-trust/technology Industry landing: www.ibm.com/blockchain/industries FSS & Banking: www.ibm.com/blockchain/financial-services Supply Chain: www.ibm.com/blockchain/supply-chain Blockchain Main Links
  44. 44. 45 Blockchain Technical Concepts Blockchain Explored Peers are the networked services that maintain ledger state and run smart contracts Smart contracts constitute the transaction logic whose output is agreed by the peer network Consensus is the process by which agreement is obtained on the peer network ✓ ✓ ✓ Channels are defined subsets of the peer network that share a single ledger Certificate authorities provide identity services to participants on the network 🔑 🔑 The Ordering Service agrees transaction sequence and distributes blocks to peers

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