Physics Presentation Task 2012 6PHO1 – Physics Foundation in Science By : Darrell Nadeng Dominic
Presentation Outline :• History of the element• Physical Properties and appearance of the element• Usage and Application of the element
History of Titanium• Discovered and announced in 1791 by an amateur geologist Reverend William Gregor from Cornwall, England.• Gregor found a black, magnetic sand that looked like gunpowder in a stream parish of Mannacan in Cornwall, England.• This substance is known as sand ilmenite which is a mixture of oxides of iron and titanium.
Ilmenite (iron titanium oxide) ; the mineral in which William Gregor discovered Titanium
History of Titanium (continue)• Many research on Titanium has gone on the way ever since the element was discovered in 1791.• 199 years after its discovery, 99.9% titanium was isolated in 1910 by metallurgist Matthew Hunter, who heated Titanium(VI) chloride with sodium to red-hot in a pressure cylinder.
History of Titanium (continue)• By 1936, the Kroll Process (heating titanium (IV) chloride with magnesium) made the commercial production of titanium possible.• In 1956, scientist and engineers had realized titanium’s properties were highly desirable and worldwide production has exploded to 25,000 tons a year.
Physical Properties and Appearance• Pure titanium is a light, silvery-white, hard, lustrous metal.• It has excellent strength and corrosion resistance and also has a high strength to weight ratio.• Titanium has a low corrosion rate where after 4000 years in seawater, corrosion would only have penetrated the metal to the thickness of a thin sheet of paper
Physical Properties and Appearance (continue)• At high temperature, the metal burns in air and, unusually, titanium also burns in pure nitrogen.• Titanium is ductile and malleable when heated.• It is insoluble in water, but soluble in concentrated acids.
Uses and application of Titanium• Titanium metals are used as an alloying agent with metals including aluminum, iron, molybdenum and manganese.• Alloys of titanium are mainly used in aerospace, aircraft and engines where strong, lightweight, temperature-resistant materials are needed.
Uses and application of Titanium (continue)Because titanium is very resistant to seawater, titanium is ued for hulls of ships, propellershafts and other structures exposed to sea.
Uses and application of titanium (continue) Titanium is also used in joint replacement implants, such as the ball-and-socket hip joint.
Uses and application of Titanium (continue)• About 95% of titanium production is in the form of titanium dioxide. This is an intensely white pigment, with a high refractive index and strong UV light absorption is used in white paint, food coloring, toothpaste, plastics and sunscreen.• Titanium is used in several everyday products such as drill bits, bicycles, golf clubs, watches and laptop computers.
The History of Helium• French astronomer, Pierre-Jules-Cesar-Janssen first obtained evidence of the existence of helium during the solar eclipse in 1868 in India when he detected yellow line in the solar spectrum very close to the yellow sodium D-line.• It was not possible to produce this line in the lab. Sir Norman Lockyer, an English astronomer, recognized that no known element at that time gave this line and named the element helium for the sun.
Ionized helium atoms at about 60,000 C in the Sun’s chromosphere emit the ultraviolet light seen in the image.
History of Helium (continue)• For many years, helium was regarded as an element that might exist on the sun although it was unknown on Earth.• In 1895, Sir William Ramsey discovered helium after treating cleveite, a uranium mineral, with mineral acids. Ramsey sent samples of the gas to Sir William Crooks and Sir Norman Lockyer who identified it as helium.
Physical Properties and Appearance• Helium is a light, odorless, colorless, inert, monoatomic gas. It can form diatomic molecules, but only weakly and at temperatures close to absolute zero.• Helium has the lowest melting point of any element and its boiling point is close to absolute zero.
Physical Properties and Appearance(continue) • Unlike any other element, helium does not solidify but remains a liquid down to absolute zero under ordinary pressures. • The voice of someone who has inhaled helium temporarily sounds high-pitched.
Uses and Application of Helium• Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the biggest user of helium. The helium is used to cool MRI scanners’ superconducting magnets.• Mixtures of helium and oxygen are used as artificial ‘air’ for divers and other working under pressure. Helium is used instead of nitrogen in normal air because, after a long dive, helium leaves the body faster than nitrogen, allowing faster decompression
Uses and Application of Helium(continue)• Helium is used for filling balloons such as blimps and for pressuring liquid fuel rockets• Helium is used as a gas shield in the vicinity of arc welding preventing. For example, any reaction of hot metal welds with oxygen. The gas is used in the semi-conductor industry to provide an inert atmosphere for growing silicon and germanium crystals.