Foreign relations of Pakistan
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The flag of Pakistan
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
o Presidential: 2008
o General: 2013
Pakistan is the second largest Muslim country in terms of population (after Indonesia), and its
status as a declared nuclear power, being the only Islamic nation to have that status, plays a part
in its international role.
Pakistan has a fiercely independent foreign policy, especially when it comes to issues such as
development of nuclear weapons, construction of nuclear reactors, foreign military purchases
and other issues that are vital to its national interests. Pakistan has a strategic geo-political
location at the corridor of world major maritime oil supply lines, and has close proximity to the
resource and oil rich central Asian countries. Pakistan is an important member of the
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), is ranked by the US as a major non-NATO ally in
the war against terrorism, and has a highly disciplined military, which is the world's eighth-
largest standing military force.
1 Foreign policy of Pakistan
o 1.1 Historical overview
o 1.2 Major alliances
o 1.3 Major rivalries
2 International organisation
3 Relations by country
o 3.1 Asia
o 3.2 North Africa
o 3.3 Sub-Saharan Africa
o 3.4 Europe
o 3.5 Americas
o 3.6 Oceania
o 3.7 International organizations
4 Pakistan and the Commonwealth of Nations
5 See also
7 External links
Foreign policy of Pakistan
Main articles: Pakistan-Soviet Union relations, Pakistan-United States relations and East
The Foreign policy of Pakistan sets out in the way it interacts with foreign nations and to
determine its standard of interactions for its organizations, corporations and individual
Backed by the semi-agricultural and semi-industrialized economy, Pakistan is the
47th largest (nominal GDP) and 27th largest (purchasing power) economic power in the world,
with a defence budget of $5.60 billion, which accounts for approximately ~2.8% of global
military spending. The Foreign Minister of Pakistan is the official charged with state-to-state
diplomacy, although the Prime minister maintains an ultimate authority over foreign policy.
The state foreign policy includes defining the national interest, as well as the economic interest
and strategies chosen both to safeguard that and to achieve its policy goals.
general election held on May 2013, Tariq Fatimi and NSA Sartaj Aziz are designated as advisers
to the Prime Minister on foreign and strategic policies.
Since its establishment in 1947, Pakistan's foreign policy has encompassed difficult relations
with the neighboring Soviet Union (USSR) who maintained a close military and ideological
interaction with the neighboring countries such as Afghanistan (in the West) and India (in East)
as well as East Pakistan.
During most of 1947–1991, the USSR support was given to India;
especially on the core-issue of Kashmir, over which it has fought three wars.
During the 1960s,
Pakistan's relations with East Pakistan and the neighboring Afghanistan have also been
extremely difficult due to the two latter's contest over the Durand Line. The foreign relations
with Iran, Saudi Arabia and China remains extremely important and based on the extensive
cooperation in national security and economical interests in the Persian Gulf and wide-ranging
bilateral relations with the United States and other Western countries. With the growing
influence of USSR in the region, Pakistan cemented close security relations with China in Asia
and Poland in Europe during most of the Cold War. While Pakistan's had "on-off relations" with
the United States, Pakistan assisted President Nixon reapproach with China and other East Asian
In 1947, Jinnah clearly described the principles and objectives of Pakistan's foreign policy in a
broadcast message. The Objectives of Foreign Policy of Pakistan:
The foundation of our foreign policy is friendship with all nations across the globe.
—Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Founder of Pakistan, source
Main articles: Pakistan-OIC relations, Pakistan – United States relations and China–Pakistan
This section requires expansion. (February 2011)
In 1951, Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan paid a historical and friendly state visit to the United
States, and held meetings with President Harry Truman and the American military officials for
the purpose of the military aid.
Ideologically, Prime Minister Ali Khan was opposed to the
communism; his government was also struggling with the issues concerning the matters of
uplifting the national economy and protecting interests of national security.
In 1954–56, the
United States and Pakistan signed the Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement which saw the
dispatching of the Military Assistance Advisory Group to provide military training to the
Pakistan Armed Forces in 1955–56.
In 1955, Pakistan joined the CENTO and the SEATO alliances in 1956.
In 1971, Pakistan
withdrew itself from these two alliances in a vision of exercising the independent foreign policy.
In 1974, Pakistan became a critical entity in the militarization of the OIC and has historically
maintained brotherly and friendly relations with all the Arab and Muslim countries under the
banner of OIC. In 2004, Pakistan became the Major non-NATO ally of the United States.
Main articles: India-Pakistan relations and Afghanistan–Pakistan relations
Since 1947, Pakistan's relations have been difficult with regional neighbors, India and
Afghanistan over the geopolitical issues. In fact, India and Pakistan have fought three
conventional wars throughout the 20th century over the issue of Kashmir. The continuing dispute
over the status of Kashmir inflames opinions in both nations and makes friendly relations
difficult. In the 1960s, the problems over the Durand Line escalated with Afghanistan which led
to open hostilities in the 1970s.
See also: Foreign trade of Pakistan
Pakistan is an active member of the United Nations. It was a member of the CENTO and SEATO
military alliances. Its alliance with the United States was especially close after the Soviets
invaded the neighboring country of Afghanistan. In 1964, Pakistan signed the Regional
Cooperation for Development (RCD) Pact with Turkey and Iran, when all three countries were
closely allied with the U.S., and as neighbors of the Soviet Union, wary of perceived Soviet
expansionism. To this day, Pakistan has a close relationship with Turkey. RCD became defunct
after the Iranian Revolution, and a Pakistani-Turkish initiative led to the founding of the
Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO) in 1985.
Pakistan is the leading member of the Coffee Club to oppose Indian membership in the United
Nations Security Council.
Relations by country
Bahrain 1971 Main article: Bahrain-Pakistan relations
Islamabad and Manama enjoy close co-operations between the
two in many fields of brotherhood. Joint initiatives between
Bahraini and Pakistani governments have started to further
bilateral trades that reached to $250 million in 2007.
Iran 14/Aug/1947 Main article: Iran-Pakistan relations
Teheran and Islamabad have a somewhat complex relationship.
Although both the countries have been at odds at some issues
including border clashes and supported rival entities during the
Afghan civil war, there is a general consensus within both the
countries to develop close and steady relations over the span of
time. Pakistan has an embassy in Iran's capital Teheran and
consulates-general in Mashhad and Zahidan. Iran has an embassy
in Pakistan's capital Islamabad, supported by many consulates-
general and cultural centers in many major cities including
Karachi, Lahore, Quetta, Peshawar, Hyderabad, Rawalpindi and
Iraq Main article: Iraq-Pakistan relations
Iraq and Pakistan have had close, friendly, and cooperative
relations since the latter's independence in 1947. Issues such as
Iraqi support for Pakistan in its 1971 war with India (which Iraq
also has excellent relations with), and Pakistani support for Iraq
against Iran in the Iran-Iraq War have forged relations between
Israel No diplomatic
Main article: Israel–Pakistan relations
Jordan Main article: Jordan–Pakistan relations
There are very close relations between Jordan and Pakistan.
Princess Sarvath wife of Prince Hassan is originally a Pakistani.
At the international level Pakistan and Jordan have similar views
such as the Israel/Palestine issue.
Kuwait Main article: Kuwait–Pakistan relations
After the end of the first Gulf War in 1991 Pakistani army
engineers were involved in a programme of mine clearance in the
Kuwait was also the first country to send aid to
isolated mountain villages in Kashmir after the quake of 2005,
also offering the largest amount of aid in the aftermath of the
Lebanon Main article: Lebanon–Pakistan relations
Lebanon and Pakistan have good relations. Pakistan has also
been a steadfast supporter of Lebanon particularly when it was
invaded by Israel. Additionally, Pakistan has extended moral,
diplomatic and material support to Lebanon and refuses to
recognize Israel officially, as a legitimate country in solidarity
with the Palestinian, Lebanese and other Middle Eastern
Oman Main article: Oman–Pakistan relations
The relationship between Muscat and Islamabad is warm,
because it is the nearest Arab country to Pakistan and the fact
that some 30% of Omani's are of Balochi origin from Pakistan's
Balochistan province having settled Oman over a hundred years
ago. In 1958 Gwadar was part of Oman but was transferred to
Pakistan in that year.
Main article: Pakistan-Palestine relations
Pakistan fully supports the proposal of the creation of an
independent Palestinian state. Due to Pakistan's pro-Palestinian
stance, bilateral relations between Pakistan and Israel have
continuously wavered over the last few years. Pakistan has also
declined to recognise the state of Israel until the "liberation of
Palestine" will take place.
Main article: Pakistan-Saudi Arabia relations
Saudi Arabia has also provided extensive religious and
educational aid to Pakistan. Saudi Arabia remains a major
destination for immigration amongst Pakistanis, the number of
whom living in Saudi Arabia stands between 900,000 and 1
Saudi Arabia is the largest source of petroleum for
It also supplies extensive financial aid to Pakistan
and remittance from Pakistani migrants to Saudi Arabia is also a
major source of foreign currency.
Syria Main article: Pakistan–Syria relations
Both countries were on the silk route through which civilizational
exchanges took place for centuries, Islamic missionaries that
introduced Islam after 711 AD were from Syria. During the Yom
Kippur War of 1973 (usually referred to as the Ramadan war in
Pakistan) several Pakistani pilots assisted the Syrian air force.
In 2005 Syria and Pakistan agreed on mutual cooperation in the
fields of science and technology.
Main article: Pakistan-United Arab Emirates relations
Pakistan was the first country to accord formal recognition to
UAE on its achieving independence. Bilateral relations and
mutually beneficial cooperation have progressed steadily ever
since. These relations date back to the UAE's formation in 1971,
and have since evolved into wide-ranging co-operation in various
fields. UAE has been a major donor of economic assistance to
Main article: Afghanistan-Pakistan relations
18/Jan/1976 Main article: Bangladesh–Pakistan relations
Relations between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the
People's Republic of Bangladesh are influenced by the fact that
Bangladesh was a part of Pakistan until 1971, when it achieved
independence after the Bangladesh Liberation War and the Indo-
Pakistani War of 1971. As part of Shimla Agreement, India
sought to make sure that Pakistan would take steps to recognize
Bangladesh. Pakistan established full diplomatic relations with
Bangladesh on January 18, 1976, and relations improved in the
Bhutan Pakistan is one of the few countries with which Bhutan maintains
diplomatic relationship. Both countries are member of SAARC.
Trade and bilateral relationship between the two countries can be
largely regarded as being insignificant, and the diplomatic
relationship as being largely symbolic.
Brunei Main article: Pakistan-Brunei relations
Diplomatic relationship between Pakistan and Brunei are very
warm and friendly, this is primarily because both are Muslim
countries and member of the Organisation of Islamic
Cooperation. Pakistan maintains an High commission in
and Brunei has an embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan. To
further foster ties between the 2 countries, Brunei-Pakistan
Friendship Association (BPFA) was created in 2008.
Burma Main articles: Burma–Pakistan relations and Burmese people in
Pakistan has an embassy in Yangon,
and Burma has an
embassy in Islamabad.
In January 2012, President Asif Ali
Zardari paid a state visit to Yangon, Burma where he met Aung
San Suu Kyi and conferred her the "Shaheed Benazir Bhutto
Award for Democracy" for her long struggle for democracy.
Zardari's children were also present in the ceremony.
Main article: Cambodia–Pakistan relations
Pakistan has an embassy in Phnom Penh although Cambodia
does not have an embassy in Pakistan.
Main article: Sino-Pakistan relations
Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and the People's Republic
of China (PRC) were established on 21 May 1951, shortly after
the retreat of the Republic Of China in 1949.
ambivalent towards the idea of a Communist country on its
borders, Pakistan hoped that the PRC would serve as a
counterweight to Indian influence. India had recognised the PRC
a year before, and Indian Prime Minister Nehru also hoped for
closer relations between India and the PRC. However, with
escalating border tensions leading to the 1962 Sino-Indian war,
the PRC and Pakistan formed an alliance. One year after the
PRCs border war with India, Pakistan ceded the Trans-
Karakoram Tract to the PRC in order to convince the PRC
Authorities to be friendly towards Pakistan.
India Main article: Indo-Pakistani relations
Relations between India and Pakistan have been strained by a
number of historical and political issues, and are defined by the
violent partition of British India in 1947, the Kashmir dispute
and the numerous military conflicts fought between the two
nations. Consequently, even though the two South Asian nations
share historic, cultural, geographic, and economic links, their
relationship has been plagued by hostility and suspicion.
India and Pakistan have fought in numerous armed conflicts
since their independence. There are three major wars that have
taken place between the two states, namely in 1947, 1965 and the
Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. In addition to this was the
unofficial Kargil War and some border skirmishes.
Both India and Pakistan are member states of the Commonwealth
Main article: Pakistan-Indonesia relations
Indonesia has its Embassy in Islamabad
and a Consulate in
Karachi and Pakistan has its Embassy in Jakarta
consulate in Medan.
Bilateral trade between the two countries
is $800 million but they hope to increase this to $2 billion.
Both nations are members of the Developing 8 and Next 11
Japan Main article: Japan–Pakistan relations
Tokyo and Islamabad have long enjoyed cordial relations
throughout chronology. Japan's economic assistance has played a
very important role in the development of Pakistan's economic
and social infrastructure. The major projects, which have been
funded by the Government of Japan, include the Indus Highway
Project, a number of power projects in various provinces of
Pakistan, Rural Roads Construction Project and the Children
Hospital PIMS lslamabad Project. Presently the Kohat Tunnel
Project and the Ghazi Brotha Dam Project are being completed
with the help of the Japanese assistance.
Main article: Kazakhstan-Pakistan relations
Relations between the two countries began when Pakistan
recognized Kazakhstan on December 20, 1991. On February 24,
1992, diplomatic and consular relations were established during
an official visit by Kazakhstani president Nursultan Nazarbayev
Kazakhstan is an emerging market for Pakistani
Main article: Kyrgyzstan-Pakistan relations
Pakistan extended diplomatic recognition to the Kyrgyz Republic
on December 20, 1991. A Protocol for the establishment of
diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Kyrgyzstan was
signed on May 10, 1992.
Laos Main article: Laos–Pakistan relations
Legend has it that the origin name of Laos is named after
Pakistani city of Lahore.
Malaysia Main article: Malaysia-Pakistan relations
Pakistan has its High Commission in Kuala Lumpur, and
Malaysia has its High Commission in Islamabad. Pakistan has
brotherly relations with Malaysia. Both are members of the
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Commonwealth of
Nations. There is a trade and cultural pact between the two
countries, under which the import and export of various goods is
done on fairly large scale. Both the countries enjoy close
relations and links of mutual friendship and the cooperation has
Maldives Main article: Maldives–Pakistan relations
The Maldives and Pakistan are culturally very close in sharing a
Sunni majority. Islamabad supports the Maldivian position in the
territorial dispute over the southern Indian colony of Minicoy
Island in the Lakshadweep, whose population is Muslim by faith.
Both the Maldives and Pakistan are member states of the
Commonwealth of Nations.
Mongolia Main article: Mongolia–Pakistan relations
Pakistan and Mongolia maintain cordinal diplomatic
Main article: Nepal-Pakistan relations
Despite an extensive 1982 trade agreement, the volume of
bilateral trade remains comparatively small at USD 4.8
Pakistan's total exports to Nepal are worth USD 1.631
million while Nepal's exports to Pakistan tally USD 3.166
Both countries have recently[when?]
stepped up efforts
to promote bilateral trade, especially in textiles, oilseeds,
extraction of oil and tourism; Pakistan also offered a USD 5
million line of credit to Nepal.
Nepal and Pakistan are
signatories to the South Asia Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA)
and members of the South Asian Economic Union.
Main article: North Korea-Pakistan relations
Sept/1949 Main article: Pakistan-Philippines relations
Main article: Pakistan-South Korea relations
Main article: Pakistan-Singapore relations
Sri Lanka Main article: Pakistan-Sri Lanka relations
Sri Lanka's ties with Pakistan are warming gradually. Pakistan
has been recently[when?]
supplying military equipment to the Sri
Lankan armed forces. Relations between the Islamic Republic of
Pakistan and the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka are
generally warm. In the past, Pakistan has been supplying military
equipment to the Sri Lankan military in the prevailing civil war
against the Tamil Tigers. There is a Pakistani embassy located in
Sri Lanka and a Sri Lankan embassy situated in Pakistan.
Main article: Pakistan-Tajikistan relations
The Islamic Republic of Pakistan, established diplomatic
relationship with the Republic of Tajikistan in 1992, but
cooperation between these two countries started from 1991.
Geographically Tajikistan is the nearest Central Asian State to
Pakistan - fourteen kilometeres between two countries. Many
Tajiks have immigrated to Pakistan, notably in the city of
Ishkoman where they have integrated into the local population.
Main article: Pakistan-Thailand relations
10/May/1992 Main article: Pakistan–Turkmenistan relations
Pakistan was one of the first countries to recognize Turkmenistan
as an independent country in December 1991. Exchange of high-
level visits during the last 10 years give credence to the fact that
Pakistan and Turkmenistan have laid foundation of mutually
beneficial relations, friendship and understanding. The two
countries have signed 21 Agreements and Memoranda of
understanding in the fields of oil and gas, transport, energy,
trade, science and culture.
Main article: Pakistan–Uzbekistan relations
Relations between the two states were established when the
republic of Uzbekistan became independent following the
collapse of the USSR, the relations between the two countries
were initially strained by the situation in Afghanistan which both
countries border as they supported different factions Afghan
However relations improved after the fall of the Taliban, both
countries seeking to improve relations for the sake of trade,
Pakistan wishing to gain access to Central Asian markets and
landlocked Uzbekistan to access ports on the Indian Ocean.
Vietnam 1972 Main article: Pakistan–Vietnam relations
Algeria Main article: Algeria-Pakistan relations
There exists friendly foreign relations between Algeria and
Pakistan. Pakistan supported the cause of Algeria's
independence from France.
Egypt Main article: Egypt–Pakistan relations
Pakistan and Egypt (Misr), both being Muslim countries,
share cordial relations. Both are also members of the OIC
(Organisation of Islamic Cooperation), as well as "the next
eleven" and "D8". After the foundation of Pakistan, it has
established diplomatic and trade relations with Egypt.
Libya Main article: Libya-Pakistan relations
The relations between the two nations have always been deep
and abiding, ever since the start. The two countries also share
common religious and cultural links, especially the fact that
both the countries are Islamic states.
Morocco Main article: Morocco-Pakistan relations
Pakistan has an embassy in Rabat while Morocco also has its
embassy in Islamabad. Both the countries have co-operated
significantly since the past and continue to widely expand
their relations, in the past Pakistan has said that it does not
recognise Western Sahara and that its status is disputed and
remains to be decided by United Nations resolutions, but at
the same time it gave the Moroccan point of view that it is an
Sudan Main article: Pakistan–Sudan relations
Due to both states sharing the same religion, being former
British colonies, and refusing to recognize Israel as a
legitimate nation, Pakistan and Sudan have shared generally
close and warm relations for decades. Sudan declared its
support for Pakistan in the Indo-Pakistani Wars, and also due
to the fact that Pakistan stood by the Sudanese people over its
integrity and sovereignty, especially on its boundary disputes
with both Egypt and South Sudan.
South Sudan Pakistan recognised South Sudan after South Sudan was
added as a candidate in the United Nations General
However the boundary dispute with Kenya is
not supportive by Pakistan as it favours Nairobi administration
of its integrity and sovereignty.
Tunisia Main article: Pakistan-Tunisia relations
Pakistan supported Tunisia on the issue of its complete control
on Bizerte and declared it an integral part of Tunisia. Former
Tunisian president Habib Bourguiba had always supported
Pakistan's point of view.
Botswana Botswana has diplomatic relations with Pakistan which is
covered by the Botswana Embassy in Beijing, China
Embassy located in Islamabad within the Republic of
Pakistan's Embassy in Botswana is located in
Trade between the 2 nations in 2001/02 accounted for $20
Mehru Khan of Pakistan and Botswana was
crowned Miss NRI Global 2005 winner at an international
Congo Pakistan embassy in Zimbawe is also accredited to Congo.
Pakistan maintains an Honorary Consulate in Kinsasha.
Pakistan also has up to 3500 troops in Congo under United
Nations Operation in Congo
Eritrea Eritrea maintains an embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan.
Ethiopia Main article: Ethiopia–Pakistan relations
Kenya Main article: Kenya-Pakistan relations
Relations between Pakistan and Kenya were first historically
established in the 60's, when Pakistan expressed its support for
Kenya in getting independence from British rule. Ever since
from that time, relations between the two nations have been
warm, with both countries having had discussed previously in
the Pakistan-Kenya Joint Ministerial Commission session
which was hosted in Nairobi in 2004, about boosting bilateral
trade and economic relations.
Lesotho Pakistan and Lesotho maintain honorary consulates in each
Madagascar Pakistan maintains an honorary consulate in Madagascar.
Malawi Pakistan maintains an Honorary Consulate in Malawi. The
Pakistani embassy in Zimbabwe is also accredited to
Mauritius Main article: Mauritius–Pakistan relations
Pakistan has a High Commission in Port Louis and Mauritius
has a High Commission in Islamabad. The two countries are
progressing the finalisation of a Free Trade Agreement.
Mozambique Pakistan maintain cordinal relations with Mozambique.
1976, on the eve of independence of Mozambique, technical
support of Pakistani pilots, engineers and maintenance persons
were despatched to Mozambique for making their helicopters
airworthy and training of their pilots/ technicians.
also gave nationality to many Muslim Indians in Mozambique
after 1961 Indian annexation of Goa.
Niger Pakistan has an embassy in Niamey,
although Niger does
not maintain a permanent embassy in Islamabad.
Nigeria Main article: Nigeria–Pakistan relations
Pakistan has a High Commission in Abuja and Nigeria has a
High Commission in Islamabad, as well as a Consulate-
General in Karachi. The two states have maintained a close
relationship, a relationship which is described by the Nigerian
Defence Minister as "friendly" and like a "family tie"
Pakistan has had friendly political relations with the island
country of São Tomé and Príncipe. Traditionally, the Pakistan
Ambassador in Portugal is accredited to the islands. Mr.
Fradique de Menezes, the President of São Tomé and Príncipe
specifically requested for Pakistan's assistance in promoting
income generating skills in agriculture and textiles as well as
in poverty alleviation programmes. Mr. Fradique de Menezes,
expressed his profound desire to enhance political, economic
and cultural cooperation with Pakistan.
Senegal Main article: Pakistan-Senegal relations
Somalia Main article: Pakistan–Somalia relations
Pakistan recognizes the Federal Government of Somalia as the
official national government of Somalia.
It maintans strong
relations with the Somalian federal authorities, who also have
an embassy in Islamabad.
South Africa Pakistan maintains a high commission in Cape Town, and
South Africa maintains a high commission in Islamabad.
South Africa is also home to more than 2,500 Pakistanis.
Tanzania Pakistan maintains a High Commission in Dar es Salaam,
Uganda Pakistan maintains an honorary consulate in Kampala.
Pakistan also provide scholarships to Ugandan students under
its technical assistance programme.
Zambia Zambia maintains an General Honorary Consulate in
Islamabad, whereas Pakistan's embassy in Zimbabwe is also
accredited to Zambia.
In Feb 2008 an 11-member Pakistan
Trade Delegation visited Lusaka for exploring bilateral trade
Zimbabwe Main article: Pakistan–Zimbabwe relations
Pakistan is represented in Zimbabwe by an embassy in Harare.
The Pakistani government has pledged to always "stand by
Zimbabwe in its challenging times and continue to render
assistance in every way possible in an effort to cement the
already cordial relations between the two countries."
Albania Main article: Albania–Pakistan relations
Pakistan's diplomatic relations with Albania are very cordial
given that Albania is a Muslim majority country, and the only
European country with OIC membership. Albania has
consistently supported Pakistan for the Kashmir cause.
Dec 2006, Albanian Deputy Foreign Minister Mr. Anton
Gurakqui visited Pakistan to hold bilateral consultation with
Pakistani political leadership. Pakistan also offers training
facilities to young Albanian bureaucrats in the field of
banking, finance, management and diplomacy.
Andorra The Pakistani embassy in Spain is accredited to Andorra.
Austria 1956 Main article: Austria–Pakistan relations
Relations between the two countries are generally friendly.
The diplomatic ties between Pakistan and Austria were
established in 1956 when Pakistan formally recognized
Azerbaijan Main article: Azerbaijan-Pakistan relations
Pakistan recognized independence of Azerbaijan 1991 (the
second country after Turkey) and the two countries
established full diplomatic relations in 1992. Pakistan was
one of the first countries to open its Embassy in Baku.
Belarus Belarus' Minsk Tractor Works has played a key role in
supplying tractor to Pakistan
and establishing the tractor
assembly plant in Pakistan.
Belarus and Pakistan have also
signed agreements on trade-economic cooperation and
Pakistan ambassador to Russia is
accredited as a non-residential ambassador to Belarus.
Belgium Main article: Belgium–Pakistan relations
Main article: Bosnia and Herzegovina–Pakistan relations
Both nations share close relations on the grounds of religion
and politics. Pakistan was a staunch supporter of Bosnia
during the civil war. Pakistan sent in UN Peacekeeping forces
to the former Yugoslavia during the Yugoslav wars. Pakistan
and Bosnia have a free trade agreement.
Bulgaria Main article: Bulgaria–Pakistan relations
Croatia Pakistan maintains an Honorary Consulate in Zagreb.
May 2007, Pakistan Minister of State for Foreign Affairs,
Makhdum Khusro Bakhtyar made an official visit to Belarus
and meet with high-ranking government officials of
Main article: Pakistan-Czech Republic relations
Denmark Main article: Denmark-Pakistan relations
Main article: Estonia-Pakistan relations
Finland Main article: Finland-Pakistan relations
France Main article: France–Pakistan relations
Pakistan and France have high levels of diplomatic meetings
and are in good terms with one another. However, these good
relations haven't been around very long. Trade between
Pakistan and France is increasing and France has donated
large funds to help Pakistan with its economic problems.
Germany Main article: Germany–Pakistan relations
Germany and Pakistan enjoy closely cordial relations.
Germany has taken large measures to aid the South Asian
country in its economic and governmental hardship.
Commercial trade between Berlin and Islamabad has also
been very essential in recent years seeing as Germany is
Pakistan's fourth largest trade partner. Also, Germany is
home to 35,081 Pakistani immigrants. Overall, the two
nations have almost always had a friendly bond.
Georgia 12/May/1994 Pakistan ambassador to Azerbaijan is accredited to be the
non-residential ambassador to Georgia.
Greece Main article: Greece–Pakistan relations
In modern times, Pakistan's first embassy in Athens was
opened in 1975. Greece established an embassy in Islamabad
in 1987. There are around 32,500 Pakistani people living and
working in Greece.
Holy See Main article: Holy See – Pakistan relations
Hungary 26/Nov/1965 Main article: Hungary-Pakistan relations
Since 1970, Hungary has an embassy in Islamabad and an
honorary consulate in Karachi.
Pakistan has an embassy in
Iceland Pakistan maintain cordinal diplomatic relations with
Ireland Main article: Ireland-Pakistan relations
Ireland is represented in Pakistan through its embassy in
Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) and an honorary consulate in Karachi.
Pakistan has an embassy in Dublin. Pakistanis continue to
support the idea of unification of Northern Ireland to the
Republic of Ireland which remains part of the United
Kingdom after the Republic of Ireland left the
Commonwealth of Nations.
Italy Main article: Italy–Pakistan relations
Latvia Latvia maintains an Honorary Consul in Karachi.
the Pakistani ambassador to Sweden is accredited as a non-
residential ambassador to Latvia.
There is also a growing
number of Pakistanis (mostly university students) living in
The Pakistani ambassador to Switzerland is accredited as a
non-residential ambassador to Liechtenstein. Pakistan
diplomatic relations with Liechtenstein is important, despite
the small size of Liechtenstein, as Liechtenstein is member of
European Free Trade Association, with which Pakistan is
seeking Free Trade Agreement.
Lithuania Pakistan maintains friendly diplomatic relations with
Luxembourg Pakistan maintains cordial diplomatic relations with the
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.
Pakistan also maintains an
Honorary Consulate in Luxembourg.
Malta Main article: Pakistan-Malta relations
Moldova The Pakistani ambassador to Romania is accredited as a non-
residential ambassador to Moldova.
Monaco Pakistan maintains cordial diplomatic relations with
Montenegro Jun/2006 Pakistan formally recognized the Republic of Montenegro as
a sovereign and independent state, following the request of its
government in Jun 2006.
Both countries maintain cordinal
Netherlands Main article: Netherlands–Pakistan relations
Norway Main article: Norway-Pakistan relations
Norway and Pakistan have strengthened ties. Pakistanis form
the largest immigrant community in Norway.
an embassy in Islamabad and an honorary consulate in
Lahore, whereas Pakistan has an embassy in Oslo.
Portugal Main article: Pakistan-Portugal relations
Romania Main article: Pakistan–Romania relations
Pakistan has an embassy in Bucharest and an honorary
consulate in Iaşi.
Romania has an embassy in Islamabad
and an honorary consulate in Lahore.
Main article: Pakistan–Russia relations
Relations between these two countries have been strained in
the past, because of Pakistan's close ties to America and its
support for the Afghan rebels during the invasion by the
San Marino 12/Apr/2006 Pakistan established diplomatic relations with San Marino on
12 April 2006. The Pakistani ambassador to Italy is
accredited as a non-residential ambassador to San Marino.
Serbia Main article: Pakistan–Serbia relations
Since July 2001, Pakistan has an embassy in Belgrade.
Serbia has now closed its embassy in Pakistan after 2001 due
to financial or reciprocal reasons because Pakistan's role in
the desire for Sanjak's merger with their brethren of Bosnia
and Herzegovina and is now represented in Pakistan through
its embassy in Beijing (China).
However there is a bone of
contention between the two, because of the latter's close
relations with, India.
Slovakia The Pakistani ambassador to Austria is accredited be the non-
residential ambassador to Slovakia. Relations between
Pakistan and the Slovak Republic are cordial and friendly.
The two countries have agreements on cultural cooperation
and visa abolition (for diplomatic/official passport holders).
Some well known Slovak companies like Matador and
Mediprogress are active in Pakistan through their agents.
Spain Main article: Pakistan-Spain relations
Switzerland Main article: Pakistan-Switzerland relations
Sweden Main article: Pakistan-Sweden relations
Turkey Main article: Pakistani–Turkish relations
Pakistani–Turkish relations have been traditionally strong.
Both nations maintain extensive cultural, commercial,
strategic and military cooperation. Both Turkey and Pakistan
are Muslim-majority states and share extensive cultural and
Ukraine 1992 Main article: Pakistan-Ukraine relations
Pakistan recognized Ukraine's independence in 1991.
Pakistan has an embassy in Kiev.
Ukraine has an embassy
Ukraine and Pakistan have been
cooperating with each other in educational sector as well as
cultural exchanges. Pakistan and Ukraine are also heavily
cooperating with each other in aerospace engineering,
aerospace technologies, bio-medical sciences and science and
Main article: Pakistan-United Kingdom relations
Pakistan has been a member of the Commonwealth of
Nations since independence in 1947. It was not a member of
the British Commonwealth from 1972 until 1989, because of
the Commonwealth's recognition of Bangladesh. It was
readmitted to full membership of the Commonwealth in
October 1989. It was suspended with the overthrow of the
democratically elected government in 1999. Its full
membership has been reinstated with the backing of the
United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand for
Pakistan's support in the War on Terrorism. Pakistan
maintains diplomatic relations with all Commonwealth
countries even though it does not have its own High
Commission in each capital. The U.K. also has the biggest
Pakistani community outside of Pakistan.
Argentina Main article: Argentina–Pakistan relations
A memorandum of Understanding with the National Academy
of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences of Argentina and the
Pakistan Academy of Sciences was signed. In pursuit of its
policy of establishing scientific cooperation with Argentina,
the Pakistan has been actively engaged in signing
Memorandum of understanding (MoUs) with various
Brazil Main article: Brazil–Pakistan relations
The relation between Brazil and Pakistan is friendly and there
is a lot of cooperation between in the two countries in military
Canada Main article: Canada–Pakistan relations
Pakistan is represented through its High Commission in
Ottawa and consulates in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.
Canada is represented through its High Commission in
Islamabad and consulate in Karachi. The value of the bilateral
trade relationship between Pakistan and Canada was close to
C$694 million in 2007.
There is also extensive people to
people links between Canada and Pakistan with an estimated
300,000 Pakistanis living in Canada.
Chile Main article: Pakistan-Chile relations
Cuba Main article: Cuba-Pakistan relations
The relations between the two countries strengthened after
Cuba provided humanitarian assistance to the victims of the
2005 Kashmir earthquake. Both the nations continue to
strengthen the bilateral relations especially in the fields of
higher education, agriculture, industry and science and
technology and have also held talks for military cooperation.
Guyana Main article: Guyana–Pakistan relations
Guyana along with Suriname is one of the only 2 member
state of OIC in the Americas. Pakistan maintains an Honorary
Consulate in Guyana.
The Muslims of Guyana provided
moral support for the creation of the state of Pakistan. Many
of the Muslims from British Guiana even took Pakistani
citizenship after the creation of Pakistan in 1947 and migrated
Jamaica Pakistan ambassador to USA is accredited as Pakistan's non-
resident High Commissioner to Jamaica.
Mexico Main article: Mexico-Pakistan relations
Pakistan maintains an embassy in Mexico City,
Mexico is accredited to Pakistan through its embassy in
Both countries are also working on Mechanism of
Bilateral Consultations on Issues of Mutual Interest for
Mexico and Pakistan.
Paraguay 23/Oct/1967 Main article: Pakistan–Paraguay relations
Relations were established on 23 October 1967.
maintains an embassy in Brazil which is accredited to
Paraguay and a consulate in Asuncion.
an embassy in Egypt accredited to Pakistan.
ministers met in 2005 to explore potential trade
Bilateral trade in 2010 totaled US $2.4
million per year and growing yearly.
carpets, surgical instruments to Paraguay, whereas Paraguay
exports pharmaceuticals 
Suriname Main article: Suriname–Pakistan relations
Pakistan and Suriname both maintain friendly and cooperative
Many of Suriname Hindustani Muslim speak
Urdu, and maintain cultural link in Pakistan. Surinamese
Islamic Association maintains its umberalla headquarters in
Pakistan maintain a consulate general in North Trinidad.
Trinidad is also home to a sizeable number of South Asian
Muslim who draw links with Pakistan. During the 2010
Pakistan floods, Trinidad Congress of the People party
donated US$33,000 worth of aid to Pakistan flood victims.
20/Oct/1947 Main article: Pakistan-United States relations
Australia Main article: Australia–Pakistan relations
Former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf visited Australia
and the former Prime Minister of Australia, John
Howard, also having extended a visit to Pakistan in 2005 as
well, following the 2005 Kashmir earthquake which had
immensely targeted the northern areas of Pakistan. He also
announced 500 new scholarships for students in Pakistan to
study in Australia.
Fiji While Pakistan and Fiji maintain formal diplomatic
relationship, they do not have diplomatic mission in each
other's country. Pakistan designates her high commissioner to
Australia as a non-residential high commissioner to Fiji.
Many of Fiji's large Indian Muslim population maintain
family links with Pakistan
New Zealand Main article: New Zealand–Pakistan relations
Pakistan has a High Commission located in Wellington whilst
New Zealand has a Consulate-General in Karachi. New
Zealand was party to the Commonwealth Heads of
Government decision to readmit Pakistan to the Councils of
the Commonwealth after the restoration of civilian rule in
Tonga While Pakistan and Tonga maintain diplomatic relationship,
they do not have diplomatic mission in each other's country.
Pakistan exports to Tonga in 2007 was T$11,655.
also has bilateral visa-abolition scheme with Tonga, for all
passport types of both the countries.
Organization Membership Notes
Arab League Non-member Main article: Pakistan–Arab relations
Pakistan has signed an MoU with the Arab League, and has
shown interest to be granted oberver status.
also lobbied for greater representation of the Arab League in
the United Nation Security Council.
ASEAN Non-member See fesea report on Pakistan and ASEAN: Constraints and
Non-member Main article: Pakistan – European Union relations
IMF Pakistan is a full member of IMF, and has received several
monetary assistance from IMF. IMF also maintains a Resident
Representative Office in Pakistan
1985 Main article: Economic Cooperation Organization
Pakistan, Turkey, Iran are the founding members of (ECO)
NATO Non-member Pakistan is a major non-NATO ally against the war against
OIC 1969 Main article: Pakistan-OIC relations
SAARC 1985 Pakistan is one of the founding members of SAARC.
Pakistan has shown strong interest to be a full member of
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
30/Sept/1947 Main article: Pakistan and the United Nations
Pakistan and the Commonwealth of Nations
Pakistan was a member of the Commonwealth from 1947 to 1956 under the name 'Dominion of
From 1956 to 1972,the Islamic Republic of Pakistan was a Commonwealth republic, when it was
withdrawn in protest at the Commonwealth's support of East Pakistan's secession and
In 1989, Pakistan regained its status as a Commonwealth republic, which remains the case,
despite Pakistan's suspension from the Commonwealth of Nations between 1999 and 2008.
Government of Pakistan portal
Government of Pakistan
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
List of diplomatic missions in Pakistan
List of diplomatic missions of Pakistan
Visa requirements for Pakistani citizens
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