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ABSTRACT of thesis

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ABSTRACT of thesis

  1. 1. Abstract Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a popular flavor enhancer used in food industries; however, excess MSG is neurotoxic. Oxidative stress is well documented in MSG induced neurotoxicity. MSG was administrated to Swiss albino mice of 4 weeks at doses of 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g/Kg body weight for 12 days through intraperitoneal (i.p) injection in three different groups. At the end of the treatment period, animals were assessed for behavioral activity and were sacrificed; brains were isolated for histopathological study and brain phospholipid estimation. Plasma and serum were collected to perform biochemical tests: ALT, creatinine, total protein, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, plasma glucose. Hemoglobin assay was done with the whole blood. Body weight was significantly decreased at high dose of MSG. As body weight is affected there was a possibility that MSG might have some deleterious effect on the brain. To find out this, animal model was placed in the Y maze test, and, the Morris water maze (MWM) test. The data showed that MSG treated mice failed to recognize a specific arm in the Y maze test, and, failed to recognize a hidden platform in the MWM test indicated that their memory was somehow affected. As hippocampus (mostly CA regions) plays an important role in the memory formation, there was a possibility that the cells of hippocampus will be affected. As for the histopathological observation of the brain hippocampus, cells of CA1 layers are found to be affected, while CA2, CA3, and, dentate gyrus (DG) were unaffected (Nissl staining was performed), which suggests the damage in neuronal and glial cells in the brain occurs due to MSG administration. In regard to liver functions, the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was found to be increased in the plasma, with MSG administration, meanwhile, plasma total protein level was found to be decreased. MSG had adverse effects on kidney functions as plasma creatinine were found to be increased. Plasma glucose level decreased non- significantly. Hemoglobin level was also found to be decreased indicated that MSG might have a deleterious effect on hematological parameters. The total cholesterol level was found to be decreased. The brain phospholipid level was also found to be decreased after MSG treatment. Basically, all lipids in the brain have a role in modifying the structure, fluidity, and function of cellular and subcellular membranes and in myelin. Thus, decrease in brain phospholipid indicates the deleterious effect of MSG in brain function. Key words: Monosodium Glutamate, Neurotoxicity, Hippocampus, Nissl staining

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