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Post cardiac arrest syndrome


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Post cardiac arrest syndrome

  1. 1. POST-CARDIAC ARREST SYNDROME<br />Darla Kay A. de Guzman, M.D.<br />Fellow-in-Training<br />Pediatric Critical Care Center<br />
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION<br />
  3. 3. OBJECTIVES<br />To define and describe post-cardiac arrest syndrome among cardiac arrest survivors<br />2. To impart knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, treatment and prognosis of patients who regain spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest<br />3. To provide basic guideline for optimization of post-cardiac arrest care.<br />
  4. 4. GENERAL DATA<br />C. J.<br />7 yr old , female<br />From Project 7, Q.C.<br />Admitted last March 18, 2009<br />
  5. 5. Chief Complaint<br /> difficulty of breathing<br />
  6. 6. INTERVAL HISTORY<br />Patient is a diagnosed case of bronchial asthma since 4 years old<br />On Salbutamol nebulization PRN basis<br />Usual triggers : URTI, climate changes, dust<br />Last attack was January 2009<br />
  7. 7. HISTORY OF PRESENT ILLNESS<br />2 days PTA- cough, colds, no fever<br /> given Ambroxol. No consult done<br /> 1 day PTA- symptoms persisted<br />difficulty of breathing <br /> Salbutamol nebulization (total of 9 doses)<br /> DOA - DOB persisted<br /> consult at St. Agnes Hosp <br /> 2 doses of Salbutamol + Ipratropium Br nebulization<br /> Advised admission , opted THOC.<br /> PCMC<br />
  8. 8. FAMILY HISTORY<br />30<br />30<br /> Construction worker<br /> Housewife<br />(+) asthma<br />(+) asthma<br />3/12<br />
  9. 9. BIRTH AND MATERNAL HISTORY<br />Born to a 23 y/o primigravid, NABD, RPNCU <br /> c/o LHC, (+)MVS, Feso4<br />No illnesses during pregnancy<br />No exposure to teratogen, viral exanthem <br /> nor radiation<br />Del FT via NSD at EAMC, BW- 2.7kg, good cry and activity at birth<br />No fetomaternal complications noted<br />Discharged after 1 day <br />
  10. 10. NUTRITIONAL HISTORY<br />Breastfed x few weeks of life<br />Shifted to MF (Alacta – alactamil-<br /> alactagen)<br />Complementary feeding: started at <br /> 3-4 mos old<br />
  11. 11. IMMUNIZATION HISTORY<br />BCG<br />DPT/OPV x 3 doses with booster<br />Hepa B x 3 doses<br />Hib x 1<br />Measles<br />
  12. 12. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT<br />At par with age<br />Grade 2 average student at San Antonio Elementary School<br />
  13. 13. PAST MEDICAL HISTORY<br />No history of previous hospitalization<br />No known food or drug allergy<br />
  14. 14. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION<br /><ul><li>Awake, irritable, in respiratory distress</li></ul>CR- 130/min RR- 68/min T- 36.7 <br /><ul><li>SKIN: warm, no rashes
  15. 15. HEENT: pink palpebral conjunctiva, white sclera, </li></ul> (-)alar flaring<br /><ul><li>NECK: supple, (-) CLAD
  16. 16. CHEST/ LUNGS: symmetrical chest expansion, (+)subcostal, intercostal retractions, tight air entry
  17. 17. HEART: adynamicprecordium, tachycardic, regular rhythm, no murmur</li></li></ul><li>PHYSICAL EXAMINATION<br />ABDOMEN: Flat, normoactive bowel sounds, soft, no organomegally<br />EXTREMITIES: poor distal pulses, <br /> cyanotic nailbeds<br /> CRT 2-3 secs <br />
  18. 18. SEQUENCE OF Events...<br /> RESPIRATORY FAILURE <br /> HYPOXEMIA<br /> HYPERCARBIA & ACIDOSIS<br /> HYPOTENSION<br /> PEA<br />ASYSTOLE<br />irritable<br />tachycardia<br />tachypnea<br />subcostal, intercostal retractions, tight air entry<br />cyanotic nailbeds<br />poor distal pulses<br />
  19. 19. Cause of Cardiac Arrest: VF or Asphyxia? <br />Asphyxia- most common cause <br /> in children: 80-90%<br />VF- 5-15% of children<br />R.W.Hickey,M.D., M.J.Painter M.D., Brain Injury from Cardiac Arrest in Children; Neurol Clin 24 (2006) 147-158<br />
  20. 20. Adult and Pediatric Differences...<br />Adults: Common <br /> Causes<br /><ul><li>cardiac diseases
  21. 21. non-cardiac </li></ul> diseases<br />Pediatrics: Common Causes<br /><ul><li>respiratory disorders (eg, airway obstruction, smoke inhalation, drowning, infection, sudden infant death syndrome).
  22. 22. trauma
  23. 23. poisoning
  24. 24. cardiac diseases </li></li></ul><li>Etiology of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in children<br />Cause of arrest n (%) Survival to hosp d/c<br />Sudden infant death syndrome 136 (23) 0<br />Trauma 118 (20) 5<br />Respiratory 96 (16) 21<br />Submersion 73 (12) 17<br />Cardiac 48 (8) 8 <br />Central nervous system 35 (6) 3<br />Burn 6 (1) 0<br />Poisoning 6 (1) 17<br />Other 63 (10) 10<br />Unknown 0 (3) 6<br /> Data from Young KD, Gausche-Hill M, McClung CD, et al. A prospective, population based<br /> study of the epidemiology and outcome of out-of-hospital pediatric cardiopulmonary<br /> arrest. Pediatrics 2004;114(1):157–64<br />
  25. 25. Do the differences between asphyxial-mediated and cardiac-mediated injury have clinical relevance?<br />
  26. 26. Clinical implication...<br />Asphyxial injuries- more severe<br />Both: selective vulnerability and delayed neuronal death<br />Asphyxial injuries respond similarly to neuroprotective strategies<br />R.W.Hickey,M.D., M.J.Painter M.D., Brain Injury from Cardiac Arrest in Children; Neurol Clin 24 (2006) 147-158<br />
  27. 27. Comparison of injury from ventricular fibrillation versus asphyxial cardiac arrest<br />R.W.Hickey,M.D., M.J.Painter M.D., Brain Injury from Cardiac Arrest in Children; Neurol Clin 24 (2006) 147-158<br />
  28. 28. Return of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC)<br />an unnatural pathophysiological state<br /> created by successful CPR<br />
  29. 29. Postresuscitation Disease<br /> 1970’s Dr. Vladimir Negovsky- <br /> recognized pathology caused by whole body ischemia and reperfusion that had a clearly definable cause, time course and constellation of pathological processes.<br />
  30. 30. Postresuscitation Disease<br />“resuscitation”- treatment of shock states in w/c circulation has not ceased<br />“postresuscitation”- the resuscitation has ended<br />
  31. 31. Post-Cardiac Arrest Syndrome<br /> Dr. Negovsky- a second, more complex <br /> phase of resuscitation begins when px regain spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest.<br />
  32. 32. Phases of Post-Cardiac Arrest syndrome<br />Immediate Postarrest<br />Early Postarrest<br />Intermediate Phase<br />Recovery Phase<br />-Early interventions are most effective<br />-limit ongoing injury<br />-organ support<br />-prevent recurrence<br />-Injury pathways are still active<br /><ul><li>Aggressive treatment instituted
  33. 33. same goals</li></ul>-Prognostication reliable<br />- Outcomes more Predictable<br />
  34. 34. Going back to pxC.J. ...<br />Spontaneously revived after 5 mins<br /> of CPR<br />onset of seizures, anisocoric<br />hypotensive<br />Wheezes, BLF<br />
  35. 35. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY<br />4 Key Components:<br />Post-cardiac arrest brain injury<br />Post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction<br />Systemic ischemia/perfusion response<br />Persistent precipitating pathology<br />-seizures, anisocoria,<br />posturing<br />-peristent hypotension<br />-wheezes BLF<br />R.W. Neumar, M.d., PhD,, ILCOR Consensus Statement Post-Cardiac Arrest syndrome; Circulation Oct. 2008; 118:2452-2483<br />
  36. 36. 4 Key Components:<br />Severity of these disorders is based upon:<br /> - severity of theischemic insult<br /> - the cause of cardiac arrest<br /> - patient’sprearrest state of health<br />Post-cardiac arrest brain injury<br />Post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction<br />Systemic ischemia/perfusion response<br />Persistent precipitating pathology<br />R.W. Neumar, M.d., PhD,, ILCOR Consensus Statement Post-Cardiac Arrest syndrome; Circulation Oct. 2008; 118:2452-2483<br />
  38. 38. Post-cardiac arrest brain injury...<br />Common cause of morbidity and mortality<br />68% of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests<br />23% of in-hospital cardiac arrests <br />
  39. 39. From the ER to the PICU...<br />Phenobarbital<br />Phenytoin<br />Midazolam drip<br />Head cooling measures<br />Head elevation- 30 degrees<br />Mannitol <br />Insulin drip<br /><ul><li>had episodes of hypotension, but was eventually stabilized
  40. 40. continued to have seizures </li></ul> Status epilepticus<br /><ul><li>Febrile during the initial hours of stabilization
  41. 41. hyperglycemic</li></ul>-GCS 6 (E1V1M4)<br /><ul><li>Pupils mid-dilated, NRTL
  42. 42. (+) papilledema</li></li></ul><li>PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: BRAIN INJURY<br />CARDIAC ARREST<br />Cardiac arrest<br />Global Ischemia<br />GLOBAL ISCHEMIA<br />DIRECT CELLULAR DAMAGE<br />EDEMA FORMATION<br />ICP<br />CBF<br />
  43. 43. Cellular Mechanisms <br />Excitotoxicity<br />Disturbances in calcium hemostasis<br />Oxidative stress<br />Energy failure<br />Release of subs. triggering cell- death pathways <br />
  44. 44. CEREBRAL PERFUSION<br />Phase IV: Normal Blood Flow<br />
  45. 45. CEREBRAL PERFUSION<br />
  46. 46. CEREBRAL PERFUSION<br />
  47. 47. CEREBRAL PERFUSION<br />
  48. 48. CEREBRAL PERFUSION<br />9 pxs post-arrest...CBF values ranged from 12 to 56 mL/100 g brain tissue/min. <br />2 Children ...clinically brain dead at the time of the study were 0.2 and 2 mL/100 g brain tissue/min.<br />Ashwal S, et al, Xenon Computed tomography measuring cerebral blood flow in the determination of brain death in chlidren. Ann Neurol 1989; 25:539-546<br />CBF values of <10 ml/100 g brain tissue: brain death<br />CBF: >10-15 ml/100 g- potential for survival<br />poor prognosis<br />
  49. 49. Roger’s Textbook of Intensive Care 4th edition<br />
  50. 50.
  51. 51. Other Issues:<br />Pyrexia<br />Hyperglycemia<br />Seizures<br />
  52. 52. Other Issues:<br />In a small case series..patients with temperatures >39°C in the first 72 hoursafter out-of-hospital cardiac arrest had a significantly increasedrisk of brain death..<br />Takasu A, Saitoh D, et al, Hyperthermia: is it an ominous sign after cardiac arrest? Resuscitation. 2001; 49: 273–277.<br />Pyrexia<br />Hyperglycemia<br />Seizures<br />
  53. 53. When serial temperatures were monitored in 151 patients for 48 hours after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest…the risk of unfavorable outcome increasedfor every degree Celsiusthat the peak temperature exceeded 37°C…<br />Zeiner A. et al, . Hyperthermia after cardiac arrest is associated with unfavorable neurologic outcome. Arch intern. Med. 200; 161: 2007-2012<br />Other Issues:<br />Pyrexia<br />Hyperglycemia<br />Seizures<br />
  54. 54. Other Issues:<br />A multicenter retrospective study of patients admittted for out-of-hospitalcardiac arrest reported that a maximal recorded temperature>37.8°C was associated with increased in-hospital mortality...<br />Langhelle A, et al. In-hospital factors associated with improved outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a comparison between four regions in Norway. Resuscitation. 2003; 56: 247–263<br />Pyrexia<br />Hyperglycemia<br />Seizures<br />
  55. 55. Other Issues:<br />Hyperglycemiais common in post-cardiac arrest patient and is associated with a poor neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.<br />. <br />Langhelle A, et al. In-hospital factors associated with improved outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a comparison between four regions in Norway. Resuscitation. 2003; 56: 247–263<br />Pyrexia<br />Hyperglycemia<br />Seizures<br />
  56. 56. Other Issues:<br />Animal studies suggest that elevatedpostischemic blood glucose concentrations exacerbate ischemicbrain injury and this effect can be mitigated by intravenous insulin therapy..<br />KatzLM, Wang Y, Ebmeyer U, Radovsky A, Safar P. Glucose plus insulin infusion improves cerebral outcome after asphyxial cardiac arrest. Neuroreport. 1998; 9: 3363–3367.<br />Pyrexia<br />Hyperglycemia<br />Seizures<br />
  57. 57. Other Issues:<br />...Seizures in the post–cardiac arrestperiod are associated with worse prognosis and are likely tobe caused by, as well as exacerbate, post–cardiac arrestbrain injury…<br />Krumholz A, Stern BJ, Weiss HD. Outcome from coma after cardiopulmonary resuscitation: relation to seizures and myoclonus. Neurology. 1988; 38: 401–405.[<br />Pyrexia<br />Hyperglycemia<br />Seizures<br />
  58. 58. Post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction<br />
  59. 59. Post-Cardiac Arrest Myocardial Dysfunction<br />Contributes also to low survival rate<br />Transient global dysfunction<br />Time to recovery: 24-48 hours<br />Kern KB, Hilwig RW, Rhee KH, Berg RA. Myocardial dysfunction after resuscitation from cardiac arrest: an example of global myocardial stunning. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996; 28: 232–240<br />
  60. 60. …The responsiveness of post–cardiacarrest global myocardial dysfunction to inotropic drugs is welldocumented in animal studies<br />Ruiz-BailénM, et Reversible myocardial dysfunction after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation. 2005; 66: 175–181<br />..Cardiac index values reachnadir at 8 hours, improved by 24 hours, return to normal by 72 hours among patients who survived out-of-hospital cardiac arrest..<br />Laurent I, et. Reversible myocardial dysfunction in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. J Am CollCardiol. 2002; 40: 2110–2116<br />
  61. 61. Post-Cardiac Arrest Myocardial Dysfunction<br />the severityand duration of post–cardiac arrest myocardial stunningin pediatric animal models are substantially less than in adult<br />
  66. 66. SYSTEMIC ISCHEMIA/ PERFUSION RESPONSE<br />Myocardial dysfunction, pressor-dependent hemodynamic instability<br />Microcirculatory failure<br />INADEQUATE O2 DELIVERY<br />MULTIPLE ORGAN FAILURE<br />INFECTION<br />DEATH<br />ENDOTHELIAL ACTIVATION<br />SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION<br />OXYGEN DEBT<br />
  68. 68. PERSISTENT PRECIPITATING PATHOLOGY<br />Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease<br />Asthma <br />pneumonia<br />
  69. 69. PERSISTENT PRECIPITATING PATHOLOGY<br />Cardiac arrest secondary to pulmonary physiology<br />worse pulmonary physiology<br />PULMONARY EDEMA<br />INCREASED ALVEOLAR-ARTERIAL OXYGEN GRADIENTS<br />
  70. 70. PERSISTENT PRECIPITATING PATHOLOGY<br />Other precipitating causes requiring specific treatment:<br /> - drug overdose, intoxication<br /> - hypothermia<br />
  71. 71. Therapeutic stRAtegies<br />
  72. 72. THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES<br />Time-sensitive<br />Occurs in and out the hospital<br />Multiple diverse teams of healthcare providers<br />In all cases, treatment must focuson reversing the pathophysiological manifestations of the post–cardiacarrest syndrome with proper prioritization and timely execution.<br />
  73. 73. THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES<br />Monitoring<br />Early Hemodynamic Optimization<br />Oxygenation <br />Ventilation<br />Precipitating Pathologies<br />Other Treatment Strategies<br />Long Term Management<br />
  74. 74. Post–Cardiac Arrest Syndrome: Monitoring Options<br />1. General intensive care monitoring<br />    Arterial catheter<br />    Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry<br />    Continuous ECG<br />    CVP<br />    ScvO2<br />    Temperature (bladder, esophagus)<br />    Urine output<br />    Arterial blood gases<br />    Serum lactate<br />    Blood glucose, electrolytes, CBC, and general blood sampling<br />    Chest radiograph<br />2. More advanced hemodynamic monitoring<br />    Echocardiography<br />    Cardiac output monitoring (either noninvasive or PA catheter)<br />3. Cerebral monitoring<br />    EEG (on indication / ) : early seizure detection and treatment<br />    CT/MRI<br />
  75. 75. II. Early Hemodynamic Optimization<br /><ul><li>Preload
  76. 76. Arterial Oxygen Content
  77. 77. Afterload
  78. 78. Contractility
  79. 79. Systemic O2 Utilization</li></li></ul><li>II. Early Hemodynamic Optimization<br />Goals:<br />CVP: 8-12 mm Hg<br />MAP: 65-100 mm Hg<br />ScvO2 >70%<br />Hct >30% or Hgb >8g/dL???<br />U/O > 1 ml/kg/hr<br />O2 Delivery Index >600mL/min/m2<br />
  80. 80. II. Early Hemodynamic Optimization<br />Primary Therapeutic Tools:<br />Intravenous fluids<br />Inotropes<br />Vasopressors<br />Blood Transfusion<br />
  81. 81. II. Oxygenation<br /><ul><li>Use of FiO2 of 1.0
  82. 82. Hyperoxia harms postischemic neurons, by oxidative stress</li></ul>Most relevant to post–cardiac arrest care, ventilationwith 100% oxygenfor the first hour after ROSC resulted in worseneurological outcomethan immediate adjustment of the FIO2 toproduce an arterial oxygen saturation of 94% to 96%<br />BalanIS,et al, Oximetry-guided reoxygenation improves neurological outcome after experimental cardiac arrest. Stroke. 2006; 37: 3008–3013<br />
  83. 83. IV. Ventilation<br />Hyperventilation<br /> - cerebral ischemia<br /> - inc. intrathoracic pressure<br />Hypoventilation<br /> - hypoxia & hypercarbia ICP<br /> - metabolic acidosis <br />Ventilationshould be adjusted to achieve normocarbia and should be monitoredby regular measurement of arterial blood gas values.<br />
  84. 84. V. Other Persistent Precipitating Pathologies<br />Pulmonary embolism<br />Sepsis<br />Hypoxemia<br />Hypovolemia<br />Hyperkalemia<br />Metabolic disorders<br />Accidental hypothermia<br />Tension pneumothorax<br />Cardiac tamponade<br />Toxins<br />Intoxication<br />Cerebrovascular catastrophes<br />
  85. 85. VI. Other Treatment Modalities<br />Therapeutic Hypothermia<br /><ul><li>Promising strategy in adult patients
  86. 86. Class IIb recommendation from the AHA
  87. 87. Benefits in pediatrics: remains to be determined</li></ul>Benefits:<br />-decreases CBF<br />-suppresseive effects on excitatory neurotransmission and O2 radicals<br />
  88. 88. Evidence in support of the use of therapeutic hypothermia (32-34°C for 12-24 hrs) immediately after resuscitation from cardiac arrest<br />Rogers Textbook of Pediatric Intensive Care 4th Edition<br />
  89. 89. VI. Other Treatment Modalities<br />2. Sedation and Neuromuscular blockade<br /> - reduces oxygen consumption<br />3. Seizure Control and Prevention<br /> - prevent cerebral injury<br />4. Glucose Control<br /> -tight control:4.4-6.1 mmol/L or 80-110mg/dL.<br />
  90. 90. VI. Other Treatment Modalities<br />5. Adrenal Dysfunction<br /> - use of steroids? : no evidence yet<br />6. Renal Failure<br /> - indications for use of RRT’s: same with that of critically ill patients in general<br />7. Infection<br /> - pneumonia by aspiration or mech. Vent.<br />
  91. 91. VII. Long Term Management<br />cardiac and neurologicalrehabilitation and psychiatric disorders<br />nutrition<br />family counseling<br />
  92. 92. Algorithm for the management and treatment of post-circulatory arrest syndrome in infants and children<br />..<br />Roger’s Textbook of Pediatric Intensive care 4th ed<br />
  93. 93. Findings of Prognostic Value<br />Absence of pupillary light reflex<br />Corneal reflex<br />Facial Movements<br />Eye movements<br />Gag<br />Cough<br />Motor Response to painful stimuli<br />
  94. 94. Findings of Prognostic Value<br />Absence of pupillary light reflex<br />Corneal reflex<br />Facial Movements<br />Eye movements<br />Gag<br />Cough<br />Motor Response to painful stimuli<br />
  95. 95. SUMMARY<br />
  96. 96. THANK YOU!<br />