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www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh          E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                              mail...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh                  E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                          ...
www.IrPDF.com Mohammad Zakizadeh                  E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                         ...
www.IrPDF.com Mohammad Zakizadeh                    E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                       ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh                           E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                 ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh                   E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                         ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh            E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                                ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh                   E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                         ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh             E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                               ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh                  E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                          ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh              E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                              ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh                 E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                           ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh          E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                                  ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh        E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                                    ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh        E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                                    ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh          E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                                  ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh         E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                                   ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh             E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                               ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh               E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                             ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh              E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                              ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh                 E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                           ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh          E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                                  ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh             E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                               ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh                        E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                    ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh          E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                                  ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh                    E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                        ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh              E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                              ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh                             E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419               ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh                    E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                        ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh                E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                            ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh                       E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                     ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh                     E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                       ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh                 E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                           ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh                    E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                        ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh            E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                                ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh              E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                              ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh               E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                             ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh                          E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                  ...
www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh               E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419                             ...
English grammer but in farsi
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English grammer but in farsi

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گرامر زبان انگلیسی برای فارسی زبانان - خلاصه شده

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English grammer but in farsi

  1. 1. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 mail: Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 Phone: ‫ز نا‬ ‫ا‬ ( ‫زاد‬ ‫ز‬ )‫ه و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫زان در‬ ‫ن و دا‬ ‫ا دا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫از ن ارد‬ ‫ا ن دا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا س‬ ‫د‬ . ‫ا‬ ‫ددار‬ ‫ور‬ English Sentence Structure by: Robert Kohrn A Practical English Grammar by: Tomson & Mortinen Graded Exercise in English by: Robert J. Dixon DiNTCs Preparation for the TOEFL by: Mallade Broukal & Nolan n Nolan-Wood Cambridge Preparation for the TOEFL Test by: Jolen Gear Modern English by: Marcella Frank ‫ود‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن: د‬ (‫ر‬ ) ‫ز نا‬ ‫اش‬ ، ‫ز نا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫د‬ ‫ر‬ ، ‫ز نا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اد‬ ، ‫ز نا‬ ‫ا‬ ( ‫ا‬ ‫ ن‬PDF ‫ا و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ) 0 www.IrPDF.com
  2. 2. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207Tenses in English ‫درز ن ا‬ ‫ز‬ .‫زﻣﺎن ﺣﺎل ﺳﺎده:ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻴﺎن ﻛﺎرﻫﺎﻳﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻄﻮر ﺗﻜﺮاري اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫.... + ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺳﺎده ﻓﻌﻞ+ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬I go to school every day.They play football every evening.Do they play football every evening?She watches TV every night.Does she watch TV every night?Yes, she does. No, she does not. .‫زﻣﺎن ﺣﺎل اﺳﺘﻤﺮاري: ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻴﺎن ﻛﺎرﻫﺎﻳﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻻ دارد اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ +ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬am, is, are+ ‫ + ﻓﻌﻞ‬ing+ … + now -‫دارﻳﻢ‬ -‫دارم‬He is going home.Is he going home? -‫دارﻳﺪ‬ -‫داري‬Yes, he is. No, he is not. -‫دارﻧﺪ‬ -‫دارد‬They are washing their car. I am doing my homework. .‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫زﻣﺎن ﺣﺎل ﻛﺎﻣﻞ: ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻴﺎن ﻛﺎرﻫﺎﻳﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺒﻼ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﺪه و اﺛﺮ آﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺗﺮ از زﻣﺎن اﻧﺠﺎم آﻧﻬﺎ‬ ( yet, just, since, for, recently, lately, times : ‫از‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ز ن‬ ) ‫- اﻳﻢ‬ ‫- ام‬ ‫ + ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬have / has + P.P. +… ‫- اﻳﺪ‬ ‫- اي‬I have seen this film three times so far.She hasnt left home yet. ‫- اﻧﺪ‬ ‫- اﺳﺖ‬He has written the letter since 9 oclock.Have you eaten your lunch?Yes, I have. No, I have not. .‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫زﻣﺎن ﺣﺎل ﻛﺎﻣﻞ اﺳﺘﻤﺮاري: ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻴﺎن ﻛﺎرﻫﺎﻳﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ از ﻗﺒﻞ ﺷﺮوع ﺷﺪه و ﻫﻨﻮز ﺗﻤﺎم ﻧﺸﺪه‬ ‫ +ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬have / has been + ‫ + ﻓﻌﻞ‬ingIt has been raining since this morning.I have been working here since last week.Have you been working here since last week? 1 www.IrPDF.com
  3. 3. www.IrPDF.com Mohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207‫زﻣﺎن ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﺳﺎده: ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻴﺎن ﻛﺎرﻫﺎﻳﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺒﻼ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﺪه و ﺗﻤﺎم ﺷﺪه و در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ زﻣﺎن اﻧﺠﺎم ﻛﺎر ﻣﻬﻢ ﺗﺮ‬ .‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺪ زﻣﺎن ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ + …+زﻣﺎن ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ + ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬ We worked hard yesterday. Did you work hard yesterday. She went to Tehran last week. Did she go to Tehran last week?‫زﻣﺎن ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ اﺳﺘﻤﺮاري: ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻴﺎن اﺳﺘﻤﺮار ﻛﺎرﻫﺎﻳﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ در زﻣﺎن ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﺪه و ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺑﺎ ﻳﻚ زﻣﺎن‬ .‫ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﺳﺎده ﻫﻤﺮاه اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ + ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬waswere + ‫ + ﻓﻌﻞ‬ing+… + ‫ﻗﻴﺪ زﻣﺎن ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ‬ - ‫داﺷﺘﻴﻢ‬ - ‫داﺷﺘﻢ‬ I was writing a letter last night. - ‫داﺷﺘﻴﺪ‬ - ‫داﺷﺘﻲ‬ We were reading English yesterday. While I was washing the dishes, she arrived. - ‫داﺷﺘﻨﺪ‬ - ‫داﺷﺖ‬ I was washing the dishes when she arrived.‫زﻣﺎن ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ: ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻴﺎن ﻛﺎرﻫﺎﻳﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ در زﻣﺎن ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻛﺎر دﻳﮕﺮي اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﺪه و ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺑﺎ ﻳﻚ‬ .‫زﻣﺎن ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﺳﺎده ﻫﻤﺮاه اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ + ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬had + P.P. + … ‫- د‬ ‫- دم‬ They had left the station when I went there. ‫- د‬ ‫- د‬ Had they left the station when you went there? ‫- د‬ ‫- د‬ Yes, they had.‫زﻣﺎن ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ اﺳﺘﻤﺮاري: ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻴﺎن اﺳﺘﻤﺮار ﻛﺎرﻫﺎﻳﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ در زﻣﺎن ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﺪه و ﻃﻮل زﻣﺎن را‬ .‫ﻫﻢ ﺑﻴﺎن ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ‬ ‫ + ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬had been + ‫ + ﻓﻌﻞ‬ing + … I had been working for two hours before he came. Had you been working for two hours before he came? Before the war start, we had been living there for five years. 2 www.IrPDF.com
  4. 4. www.IrPDF.com Mohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 .‫زﻣﺎن آﻳﻨﺪه ﺳﺎده: ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻴﺎن ﻛﺎرﻫﺎﻳﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺮار اﺳﺖ در آﻳﻨﺪه اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ + ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬will + ‫ﻗﻴﺪ زﻣﺎن آﻳﻨﺪه + … + ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺳﺎده ﻓﻌﻞ‬I will go to park tomorrow.They will buy a house next week.Will they buy a house next week?Yes, they will. No, they wont.‫زﻣﺎن آﻳﻨﺪه اﺳﺘﻤﺮاري: ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻴﺎن ﻛﺎرﻫﺎﻳﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺮار اﺳﺖ در آﻳﻨﺪه اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد و از زﻣﺎن دﻗﻴﻖ اﻧﺠﺎم آن در‬ .‫آﻳﻨﺪه اﻃﻼع دارﻳﻢ‬ ‫ + ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬will be + ‫ + ﻓﻌﻞ‬ing + …We will be sitting for exam tomorrow at this time.I will be driving to Tehran tomorrow at this time. .‫زﻣﺎن آﻳﻨﺪه ﻛﺎﻣﻞ: ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻴﺎن ﻛﺎرﻫﺎﻳﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺮار اﺳﺖ درزﻣﺎن آﻳﻨﺪه ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻛﺎر دﻳﮕﺮي اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ + ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬will have + P.P. + …I will have finished this book by Peter come back.They will have written the letters before tomorrow.Will they have written the letters before tomorrow? .‫زﻣﺎن آﻳﻨﺪه ﻛﺎﻣﻞ اﺳﺘﻤﺮاري: ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻴﺎن ﻛﺎرﻫﺎﻳﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ درزﻣﺎن ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻲ در آﻳﻨﺪه ﻗﺮار اﺳﺖ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺷﻮد‬‫ + ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬will have been + ‫ + ﻓﻌﻞ‬ing + …By the time we get home, I will have been driving for three hours.By the end of this week, we will have been working here for six months. 3 www.IrPDF.com
  5. 5. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 ‫ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺟﻤﻼت ﻣﻌﻠﻮم ﺑﻪ ﻣﺠﻬﻮل‬ ‫م‬ : + +‫ل‬ + ‫ل‬ : + to be ‫ت‬ + PP + am/is/are ...................... ‫ل د‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ز‬ .1 was/were..................... ‫د‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ز‬ .2 will be ........................ ‫د‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ز‬ .3 (am/is/are) being ................. ‫ار‬ ‫لا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ز‬ .4 (was/were) being ............... ‫ار‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ز‬ .5 (have/has) been ....................... ‫ل‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ز‬ .6 had been ..................... ‫ن‬ ‫ز‬ .7 will have been......................... ‫ن‬ ‫ز‬ .8 1- She sees me every day. 1- I am seen every day. 2- Sona wrote a letter yesterday. 2- A letter was written yesterday. 3- I will clean the window tomorrow. 3- The window will be cleaned tomorrow. 4- They are painting the wall. 4- The wall is being painted. 5- She was washing the kitchen. 5- The kitchen was being washed. 6- He has broken the glass. 6- The glass has been broken. 7- We had bought some books for school. 7- Some books had been bought for the school. 8- He will have bought a new car by 2012. 8- A new car will have been bought by 2012. ‫ت‬ ‫دارا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت دو‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و ا‬ ‫از ا‬ : ‫و‬ / . ‫و ه‬ as + + asThis table is as big as that chair.This car is as expensive as that house. not so + + asToday is not so warm as yesterday. 4 www.IrPDF.com
  6. 6. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 : ‫ز‬ ‫در‬ ‫در‬ ‫ا‬Age, height, price, style, color, length, size, weight… the same + ‫ + ا‬asThis chair is the same color as that bike.Mary is the same age as her friend. : ‫ز‬ ‫ره‬Fresh fruit coast twice as much as canned fruit.We eat twenty times as much sugar as we did in 1800.We have half as many as we need. . ‫وت ه‬ ‫دارا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت دو‬ ‫ن‬ ‫) (: ا‬ + ertall taller big ‫رگ‬ bigger ‫ر‬This tree is taller than that tree.more +beautiful ‫ز‬ more beautiful ‫ز‬This house is more beautiful than that one. . ‫وت ه‬ ‫دارا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از دو‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ن‬ ‫(: ا‬ )The + + estfat ‫ق‬ the fattest ‫ق‬He is the fattest student in the class.The most +expensive ‫ان‬ the most expensive ‫ا‬This is the most expensive car here. 5 www.IrPDF.com
  7. 7. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 : ‫ول ز‬ ‫و‬ / ( ) ( ) Good/ well better The best Bad/ ill worst The worst little less The least Much/ many more The most far Farther The farthest further The furthest ‫ت‬ ‫ع اول‬ ‫ت‬ If + + ‫د‬ ‫ل‬ ‫+,ز ن‬ + will/can/may + ‫د‬ +… If Mary studies hard, she will/can/may pass the exam. If you go to the station, you will/can/may see your friend. If you would like to come, I will get a ticket for you. ( ‫دا‬ ) ‫ع دوم‬ ‫ت‬ If + + ‫د‬ ‫+, ز ن‬ + would/could/might+ ‫د‬ +… If Mary studied hard, she would/could/might pass the exam. If you went to the station, you would/could/might see your friend. ‫م‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ت‬ If + + ‫+ز ن‬ + (would/could/might) have + pp +… If Mary had studied hard, she would/could/might have passed the exam. If you had gone to the station, you would/could/might have seen your friend. If he had run all the way, he would have gotten there in time. If I had known of your arrival, I would have met you. If he had taken my advice, he would be a rich man now. 6 www.IrPDF.com
  8. 8. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 ‫د‬ were ‫م‬ ‫ ا‬to be ‫ع دوم‬ ‫ت‬ ‫• در‬ . ‫ ار‬was ‫ع دوم‬ ‫ت‬ ‫رت د در‬ If I were a doctor, I would help him. If today were off, we would go shopping. ‫رت ز‬ ‫ دا‬should ‫ و‬were, had ‫ت‬ ‫در‬ ‫• ا‬ :If I were rich, I would help him.Were I rich, I would help him.If Jack had come, we….Had Jack come, we ….If they should help, we …Should they help, we …Unless = if not Unless it rains, we will go shopping. : ‫ارد ز‬If we heat water, it will changes into steam.If he should come, give this book to him. ‫ر‬ ‫و د را‬ ‫ در ا‬ShouldIf you say Yes", I say No. Relative pronouns -‫- ا ن‬ /‫او‬ Who -‫را- ا ن‬ / ‫او را‬ Whom ‫و‬ -‫ا ن‬ -‫را‬ / /‫ن را‬ /‫ن‬ Which -‫ا ن‬ -‫ن‬ ‫ل ن- ا‬ / ‫ل‬ /‫ل او‬ Whose ‫ن‬ - Where 7 www.IrPDF.com
  9. 9. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207The boy who is coming is my friend.The girls who are dancing are my friends.The man whom you saw last night is my brother.The boys whom you met yesterday are in my class.The dog which is running is mine.The cars which you saw are ours.The girl whose bag is red is my friend Son.The table whose leg is broken is in the yard.The school where we study is big. ‫ل‬ ‫ت‬ Direct speech & indirect speech : ‫ت‬He said to me, "Eli goes to school".He told me that Eli went to school.She said, "I can drive my car".She said that she could drive her car. : / ‫تا‬The teacher said to me, "Write your name"The teacher told me to write my name.He said to the drivers, "don’t park your cars here"He told the drivers not to park their cars there. : ‫ت‬He asked Anna, "What time will you come bake?"He asked Anna what time she would come back.Jack asked me," what time is it?"Jack asked me what time it was.She asked me, "Can the pilots speak English?"She asked me if/whether the pilots could speak English.this that tonight that nightthese those today that dayhere there tomorrow the next dayago before Yesterday the day beforeNow then 8 www.IrPDF.com
  10. 10. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207Much, many, few, a few, little, a little, a lot of, a great deal of….. . ‫و‬ ‫رش- ا‬ ‫- ا ا‬ / :Few/ a few . ‫د‬ ‫رش- ا و‬ ‫- ا ا‬ / :Little/a little ‫و ا ا‬ ‫رش- ا و‬ ‫: ار ز د - ا ا‬A lot of . ‫د‬ ‫رش- ا و‬ . -‫رش‬ ‫ : ار ز د - ا ا‬Many . ‫د‬ -‫رش‬ ‫: ا ا‬Much • I have a few friends. • There are a few books on the table. • There is only a little milk in the bottle. • There are a lot of cars in the street. • There is a lot of bread in the basket. • He didnt eat much fruit. • I dont have many friends here. • She doesnt have much money.Neither/ either/ so/ too . ‫ت‬ ‫ :در‬neither & either‫اول‬ , and + neither + +Alex cant drive a car, and neither can I.Mary shouldnt go there, and neither should you.‫اول‬ , and + + + eitherAlex cant drive a car, and I cant either.Mary shouldnt go there, and you shouldnt either. ‫ت‬ ‫: در‬so & too‫اول‬ , and + so + +Alex can drive a car, and so can I.Mary should go there, and so should you.Sara works hard, and so does her sister. 9 www.IrPDF.com
  11. 11. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207‫اول‬ , and + + + tooAlex can drive a car, and I can too.Mary should go there, and you should too.Sara works hard, and her sister does too.She went to park, and I did too. ‫تز‬ ‫ر د‬Too/ so/ such a, an/ enough/ very…. + too + adj + (for sb) + to + V + ….. /This tea is too hot (for me) to drink.Today is too hot for Sona to wear a coat.….+ so + adj + that + /This problem is so difficult that I cant solve it.This movie is so exciting that we want to watch it again.So + much/ many/ little/ fewThere is so much food in the refrigerator.…. + such (a/an) + (adj) + N + that +…She is such a polite girl that everybody likes her.It was such an exciting book that I read it completely.It was such good news that I told them immediately.Have you ever seen such a thing?... + enough + N + … … + adj + enough + …She has enough money to buy that book. (N)He is strong enough to lift this box. (adj) 10 www.IrPDF.com
  12. 12. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207… + very + adj + …I am very happy to hear that.He is very clever. + is used to + V + ing + … ‫دت‬He is used to smoking cigarette.I am used to reading newspaper before I go to bed. + used to + ‫د‬ +… ‫دت‬He used to smoke cigarette when he was young.She used to smoke, but she no longer does so. ‫را‬ ‫« د و‬ ‫»د‬ No longer I wish ‫رد‬ ‫در‬ ‫ا‬ : I wish ‫ل‬ ‫در ز ن‬I wish I had her phone number now. : I wish ‫لو‬ ، ‫ا ز ن‬I wish we had left there earlier yesterday. : ‫در‬ I wish ‫در ز ن‬I wish it would rain.I wish you wouldnt make so many noises. .‫د‬ were ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ I wish ‫ در‬to be :I wish today were off.I wish I were a doctor. .‫رود‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ ا‬I wish If onlyIf only he didnt drive so fast.If only the rain would stop. . ‫ ه‬I wish ‫ ه‬As if / as thought/ its timeIts time we went. 11 www.IrPDF.com
  13. 13. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 : the ‫ف‬ ‫رد‬ ‫در‬ ‫ا‬ :‫د‬ the ‫ار د‬ ‫ر در‬ ‫ا دو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ I bought a book; the book I bought is about war. . the ... ‫ه‬ ، ‫ت، ا‬ ‫ره ،ا‬ ،‫ر ه‬ ‫از ا‬ I live in Iran. the ... ‫ا دو‬ ، ، ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از ا‬ ‫:و‬ They live in the Great Britain. . the ...‫ه و‬ ، ‫ا‬ ،‫ه‬ ، ‫، در ه ، روده‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از ا‬ The Atlantic Ocean The Caspian Sea The Alps the ‫و‬ ، ، ‫ر‬ ‫از ا‬ The moon is beautiful. The sun rises every day. the ‫از دو‬ The bigger the box, the heavier it will be. The more, the better. : ‫ارد ز‬ The most interesting The first / the second/ the third… The opera/ the concert/ the theater/ the cinema In the morning/ in the afternoon/ in the evening All the students All over the world The teacher/ the professor Gold is precious but: The gold which is found in Iran is precious. He speaks English but: He speaks the English language. Negation :‫ت‬ ‫دن‬ ‫رد‬ ‫در‬ ‫ا‬ It is a book. It is not a book. He has a book. He does not have a book. has have She bought something. She did not buy anything. some any I have my lunch. I do not have my lunch. She has already left the class. She has not left the class yet. already yet 12 www.IrPDF.com
  14. 14. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 He still works here. He does not work here anymore. still anymore Lets go home. Lets not go home. Open the door. Dont open the door. Would you please open the door? Would you please not open the door? Would you mind closing the window? Would you mind not closing the window? Tag ending/ question tag Mary can speak English, cant she? Marta isnt absent today, is she? They could practice yesterday, couldnt they? The women help in the farm, dont they? I am teaching English, arent I? Open the door please, will you? Lets speak English, shall we? in / on / at / by / with / … ‫وف ا‬ ‫رد‬ ‫در‬ ‫ا‬ : ‫ارد ز‬ In: in January in 1980 in summer in the afternoon in Iran/Tehran in the sky in the morning in ink in order to in my presence in my absence in spite of in the end in front of interested in believe in fall in love with On: on my birthday on Friday on foot on bicycle on my vacation on the whole on time on the contrary insist on depend on based on spend on rely on concentrate on congratulate on on vacation on the phone on business At: at ten oclock at night at play at sunset at Christmas at first at full speed at the table at the door at war/peace at down at sunrise smile at look at laugh at 13 www.IrPDF.com
  15. 15. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 By: (mostly for transportation) by walk by mistake by chance by my watch by heart by check by the sea by night by the air by bus by tomorrow by the way With: (mostly for tools) with spoon with his friend with eye/ear with white hair with blue eyes with pleasure satisfied with happy with wrong with trouble with angry with covered with in accordance with fall in love with stay/keep in touch with To: lead to belong to complain to grateful to apologize to next to listen to related to invite to owing to send to introduce to For: apply for a job search for ask for wait for sorry for pay for be used for From: away from absent from borrow from escape from import from prevent from protect from far from different from Of: proud of shy of ashamed of found of instead of in spite of in front of in search of at the end of in need of ‫فا‬ ‫ا ل ون‬ ‫:ا‬ to answer (…answer this question) to attend a place to ask (… he asked me…) to approach to reach to allow to go abroad to marry to go home to affect to defend to enter to obey to consult 14 www.IrPDF.com
  16. 16. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 : ‫ارد ز‬ and …………………both My pen and book both have been lost. both………………..and Both my pen and book have been lost. either………………….or She plays either tennis or golf. nether………………nor Neither the driver nor the passengers knew what had happened. whether……………….or Whether you teach or your friend, it makes no different. not only………………….but also She speaks not only French but also English. NO/ Not He has no money, no friend. (…no + N….) Peter has no black car. (…no + adj + N…) I have no more money. (…no + comparative adj …) Not + (much – many – any – enough) There is not any paper on the desk. Would you please not open the door? Would you mind not opening the door? Not much time / not many girls / not enough chairs / not often / not now/ not yet Not many girls were there in the party. Among / Between The soldiers divided the food among themselves. His car is between two trees. Each other/ one another These two students help each other. Those three students help one another. 15 www.IrPDF.com
  17. 17. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 Until / till / as far as He studied until/till morning. (‫" " ا ز ن‬ ) She walked as far as her home. (‫ن‬ ‫" " ا‬ ) Affect / effect His job has affected badly on his study. (Verb) The patient felt the effects of the medicine immediately. (Noun) Advise / advice I advised him to continue his study abroad. My advice didnt work. Beside / besides He sat beside me. ( ‫) ر‬ A man besides his friends went into the club. (‫و‬ ) Leave / forget I have left my bag at home. ( ‫در‬ ‫) ا ش دن‬ She always forgets my phone number. ( ‫در ذه‬ ‫) ا ش دن‬ Pour / spill (pour intentionally) , (spill unintentionally) She poured the tea into the cup. ( ‫/اراد‬ ‫)ر‬ She spilt/spilled the milk on her new T-shirt. ( ‫اراد‬ / ‫)ر‬ So that + N / so as + V Please be quiet so that the baby can sleep. (N) I went there so as to see him. (V) I came here quietly so as not to wake the child. (V) Remember / remind I try to remember his name. (‫دن‬ ) Please remind me to take my pill. (‫دن‬ ‫) د ور‬ 16 www.IrPDF.com
  18. 18. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 Neither/ either Neither of these two books is mine. (‫ام‬ ‫)ه‬ Either of those two students is ready to answer. ( ‫)ه دو‬ Rather/ fairly She is rather angry. ( ) She is fairy beautiful. ( ) Number/ amount A large/ small number of students from other countries attended state university. A large/ small amount of rain is expected tomorrow. In / into The money is in the drawer. He threw the money into the drawer. Bath / bathe I will have a hot bath and go to bed. (N) (‫م‬ / ) Bathe you eyes with hot water. (V) ( ) Cloth / clothe I need a cloth to clean the table. (N) ( ‫ر‬ ) Can you please bathe and clothe the baby? (V) (‫ن‬ ‫) س‬ Lie, lay, rise, raise, sit, set Lie – rise – sit intransitive verbs Lay – raise – set transitive verbs The cat always lies in front of the fire place. (‫ن‬ ‫)دراز‬ He always lays his bag on the table. (‫) ار دادن‬ The sun rises in the east. ( ‫ر‬ ) She raised her hand to ask a question. (‫دن‬ ) He sits at his desk. ( ) He set the book on the desk. (‫ن‬ /‫) ار دادن‬ 17 www.IrPDF.com
  19. 19. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 ( ‫تا‬ ).‫ه‬ ‫دن دو‬ ‫روش و‬ : ‫د‬ ‫ ا‬that ‫از‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ان‬ ‫را‬ ‫اه‬ ‫ا‬ I think … John is a doctor. I think that John is a doctor. : ‫دو‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ان‬ ‫را‬ ‫اه‬ ‫ا‬ :‫د‬ ‫وع‬ I want to know… What time is it? I want to know what time it is. Mother wants to know…. Where did you go last night? Mother wants to know where you went last night. :‫د‬ ‫وع‬ I want to know…….. Is jack a student? I want to know if/ whether Jack is a student. ‫دو‬ ‫ا‬ + + ‫ار‬ + ‫ا‬ + ‫ل‬ + ‫ل‬ + +‫ن‬ +‫ز ن‬ ‫د‬ ‫رت‬ ‫از ا ل‬ : ‫ا ل‬ Am, is, are, was, were, can, could, will, would, may, might, shall, should, must, have, has, had, ought to … :‫ار‬ ‫ه‬ Often, usually, never, always, sometimes, occasionally, seldom, rarely, scarcely…. :‫د‬ to ‫دوم‬ ، ‫دو‬ ‫ا در‬ I want to buy a new bag They have decided to change their house. 18 www.IrPDF.com
  20. 20. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 :‫د‬ -ing ، ‫از ا ل ز‬ ‫اول‬ ‫ا‬ Enjoy finish avoid risk Imagine mind consider keep Dislike deny stop appreciate Admit fancy forbid succeed Omit propose suppose pretend Attempt continue escape excuse Intend get through be busy be worth Feel like look forward to be/get accustomed to I enjoy watching TV. Would you mind closing the door? Keep doing good jobs. Sona is busy washing the dishes. I look forward to hearing from you as soon as possible. You will soon get used to standing in line/ queue. Its no use Its no use going there, its too late. Its no good Its no good laughing at strangers. Cant resist Cant stand Cant help : to ‫ر‬ ‫رت‬ to be ‫از‬ ‫رز‬ ‫در‬ It is + adj + (for sb) + to + V It is important for me to study English. It is essential to stand in line. It is + adj + that + sb + to ‫ون‬ ‫د‬ /s ‫م‬ I felt that it was important that John write to his family as soon as possible. :‫د‬ -ing to ، ‫وف ا‬ ‫از‬ For, of, before, after, in, on, at, without…. Before using the machine read the instruction manual. 19 www.IrPDF.com
  21. 21. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 :‫د‬ -ing ‫فا‬ ‫از ا ل‬Interested in , insist on , fond of , think of , count on , tired ofWe are tired of sitting here.I am fond of reading story books. : - ing ‫رت د‬ ‫ا ه‬ ‫از ا ل‬ See, watch, hear, notice, seem, feel, taste I saw him lock the door. I saw him locking the door. I heard him tell his class what to do in case of fire. (‫م‬ ‫او داد‬ ‫را‬ ‫را‬ ‫د‬ ) I heard him telling his class what to do in case of fire. (‫از ن را‬ ‫ام‬ ‫رات را‬ ‫مد‬ ‫) رو‬ : ‫ارد ز‬ I think that it will rain. I thought that it would rain. He sees that he has made a mistake. He saw that he had made a mistake. He has done all that is necessary. He had done all that was necessary. He wants to go to London. He wanted to go to London. I hope that he will have finished before we get back. I hoped that he would have finished before we got back. ‫و‬ ‫و‬ V + ing + ……….. , + …………. Entering the school, I saw my friend. ( ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫)ه دو ر ه ز ن ا‬ Passing the street, she met her friend. Having + PP + ……., + …….. Having written the letter, he posted it. ( ‫ر‬ ، ‫م‬ ‫را‬ ‫)اول‬ Having done her homework, she went to bed. 20 www.IrPDF.com
  22. 22. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 ‫و‬ ‫را‬ : ‫د‬ ‫از‬ Somebody someone something Anybody anyone anything Nobody no one nothing Everybody every one every thing Listen! Somebody is knocking at the door. Nobody has listened to music. Everybody is OK. How is everybody? : ‫د‬ ‫تز‬ ‫از‬ Audience, class, committee, faculty, family, group, public, staff, team This class is active. Committee wants to change its chairman. : ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫تز ا‬ ‫از‬ one of/ either of/ neither of One of my friends is a teacher. Neither of them is here. : ‫تز‬ ‫از‬ Both, few, a few, man, some, several, those, these, people, the rest Both of them are here. People are shocked with the news. : ‫ارد ز‬ The number of students is playing now. A number of students are playing now. 1000 miles is a long distance. Mathematics is not very difficult lesson. There are glasses on the table. There is a pair of glasses on the table. There are two pairs of glasses on the table. 21 www.IrPDF.com
  23. 23. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 causative ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫د‬ ‫د‬ ، ‫ده‬ ‫م‬ ‫د ر را ا‬ ‫ود‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ن‬ ‫) ا‬ ( ‫ر را ا م ده‬ + have/ has/ get + ‫ل‬ + ‫م‬ ‫ز ن‬ I had my car repaired last week. We will get our house painted next month. I had my tooth extracted. She had her hair dyed. + have/make + ‫ل‬ + ‫د‬ I made the mechanic repair my car. His mother made him take the medicine. Our English teacher had us give oral report. I had everybody fill in/out the form. He will make them clean the kitchen. + get + ‫ل‬ + to ‫ر‬ I got the mechanic to repair the car. She got Mary to wash the dishes. :‫ق‬ ‫ره‬ ‫ا‬ Get him to stay for dinner if you can. Try to get the car going. Lets get him to buy us lunch. :‫رود‬ ‫ر‬ to‫ر ون‬ ‫ و‬that ‫از ا ل ز‬ …. + that + + ‫د‬ Ask / demand / desire / insist / prefer / recommend / require / suggest The doctor suggested that she not smoke. She insisted that they give her a receipt. ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از‬ Five hundred word composition Ten year old boy 22 www.IrPDF.com
  24. 24. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 ‫ده ، در‬ ‫ه ر‬ ‫را‬ ‫و دو‬ ‫ ا‬conjunction as : ‫از ا‬ ‫ ا و‬preposition like (as) like every other nation, the united state… ‫ا‬ ، ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫در‬ : ‫ا‬ Mr. Smith, with his wife and daughter, is returning from a vacation. : parallel ‫از‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ In respond to this question I should say that I enjoy modern art, classical music, and literature. (To read literature) : to ‫ر ون‬ would rather ‫از‬ I would rather drive. I would rather not drive. :‫د‬ ‫ن‬ ‫دو‬ ‫ و‬that would rather ‫از‬ ‫ا‬ I would rather that you drove. I would rather that you didnt drive. : . ‫از‬ ‫و‬ ‫را‬ ‫ا ا‬ = + -ly Careful = carefully He drives carefully. Beautifully she dances beautifully. : ‫وه‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ه‬ ، ‫ار‬ ‫تز‬ ‫ و‬well ‫د‬ good : Fast, hard, low, late, early, straight, enough, soon He speaks English well. The medication relieve headache fast. He drives fast. Please come soon. She works hard. 23 www.IrPDF.com
  25. 25. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 He is a good driver. : ‫نا‬ good ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ ا‬driver ‫• در ا‬ He drives well. : ‫نا‬ well ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ drive ‫• در ا‬ : ‫از ا ل ز‬ • Feel ‫ن‬ , look ‫ر ن‬ , taste ‫دادن‬ ,smell ‫دادن‬ , Sound ‫ا دادن‬ , seem ‫ر ن‬ This meal tastes good / well. You look good/ well. . ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از ا اد‬ ‫در ن ر‬ Valentines Day is on the fourteenth of February. . ‫رو‬ ‫ر‬ ‫در‬ ‫ا‬ did ‫ و‬do, does ‫ا ل‬ She does know him, even though she may say she doesnt. Do sit down and rest for a while. Do come back and stay with us. He did receive a medal. ‫د‬ ‫ ا‬how ‫« از‬ » « » ‫ و در‬what ‫در »ا « از‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ . What beautiful eyes she has! What a pretty girl! How well she swims! How tall he is! How quickly the summer has passed! : be supposed to ‫ح‬ ‫د از ا‬ ‫ا‬ Jack is supposed to return any moment. ‫د‬ ‫ار ه‬ You are supposed to be at home now, what are you doing here? The ship was supposed to arrive last night. They were supposed to deliver the goods yesterday. : ‫ه ا ر دا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ار‬ ‫لا‬ ‫ز ن‬ I am meeting a friend at six. We are going to France this summer. 24 www.IrPDF.com
  26. 26. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 :‫ر ود‬ ‫ا ل ز در ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ز ن‬ open/ close , begin/ end , arrive/ leave The meeting begins at ten. She arrives at 7pm on Sunday. ‫ر‬ ‫ا لا‬ ….. +( must, might, should, could) + have + PP+ …. :‫رود‬ ‫ر‬ ‫در‬ ‫رد‬ ‫در‬ ‫ن‬ ‫: ا‬Must They must have known him. :‫رود‬ ‫ر‬ ‫در‬ ‫م‬ ‫لا‬ ‫نا‬ ‫: ا‬Might They might have heard us. : ‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د در‬ ‫ن ر ا‬ ‫: ا‬ShouldThey should have studied. (but they didnt) : ‫م اد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫در ا م ر ا‬ ‫ن ا‬ ‫: ا‬CouldThey could have played tennis. (but they didnt) modal auxiliary : ‫ا ل‬Will future time ‫ن ر در‬ ‫ا‬Can ability ‫ن ا‬ ‫ا‬May permission ‫نا ز‬ ‫ا‬Might possibility ‫ن‬ ‫نا‬ ‫ا‬Should obligation ‫ر‬ ‫نا‬ ‫ا‬ Desirability ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬Must inference ‫نا ج‬ ‫ا‬ Probability ‫نا ل‬ ‫ا‬ Necessity ‫ورت‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ 25 www.IrPDF.com
  27. 27. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207The student can smoke in the hall. (ability)The student may smoke in the hall. (permission)John may receive a letter today. (possibility)John might receive a letter today. (possibility)John should study every day. (obligatory)My grandmother shouldnt spend so much time alone in her home. (desirability)He must be about 40 years old. (inference)My grandma must take several kind of medicine. (necessity) :‫ت‬Book booksWatch watches (sh , ch , s , x , z , o )City cities (Y ies)Baby babiesBoy boysToy toysF , fe vesShelf shelves leaf leavesWife wives knife knivesff , oof , ief sRoof roofs cuff cuffsCliff cliffs chief chiefsBut:Thief thieves hoof hoovesMan men woman womenchild children foot feetTooth teeth goose geeseMouse mice louse liceOx oxenSheep sheep deer deerFish fish swine swineTeapot teapots classroom classroomsNotebook notebooks father in law fathers in lawCrisis crises basis basesAnalysis analyses axis axes 26 www.IrPDF.com
  28. 28. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 ‫؟‬ ‫و‬ Adjective clause‫در ر ن‬ ‫د را‬ ‫از‬ ‫وا‬ ‫از‬ ‫ه‬ . ‫ده‬[who, whom, which, whose, that]The man who is standing over there is from Iran.Did you know the man to whom you were speaking is Italian?The place where they like is very dangerous.I saw the man who helped you. (N) (adj-clause) ‫؟‬ ‫رت و‬ Adjective phrase . ‫و ن را‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از‬ ‫و‬ ‫وع‬ ed ing ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬I saw the man living in your apartment. (N) (adj-phrase)I saw the man called Tom. ( ‫ا‬ 7 ‫) ا‬ that ‫ و‬who, which ‫و‬ ‫د‬ ‫از‬ ‫ه‬ .I know the girl who/ that studies in this college. (N) (adj – clause)I have the book which/ that contains the information. (N) (adj- clause) Adjective Phrase Adjective-Clause ‫ه ا‬ ‫را‬ ‫ا‬ to be ‫از‬ ‫ا‬‫رت‬ ‫م‬ ‫:ا‬ ‫رت دو‬ ‫در ا‬ ‫ ف‬to be ed ‫رت و‬ ‫ل‬ ‫و‬ ‫دوا‬ ‫وع‬ ing ‫و‬ .‫وع د‬ to beThe man who is talking to me is from USA. (N) (Adj-clause) (active)The man talking to me is from USA. (Adj – Phrase) to beThe pictures which are presented in this exhibition are beautiful. (N) (Adj- clause) (passive) 27 www.IrPDF.com
  29. 29. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207The pictures presented in this exhibition are beautiful. (Adj-phrase) ‫د و‬ ‫ف‬ ‫را‬ to be ‫از‬ ‫ا‬ : ing ‫ن را‬We know the man who works in this office. (N) (Adj- clause)We know the man working in this office. (Adj- phrase) ‫؟‬ Noun clause . ‫از‬ ‫ا ا‬I don’t know where Bob went last night.I cant understand why she has left the children alone.I dont believe what they said about you yesterday.Subordinate conjunctions/ subordinators which introduce noun clauses:who which how how muchwhoever whichever however how manywhom where whose how longwhomever wherever why how oftenwhat when whether (or not) how soonwhatever whenever thatThat he had lied to us was unbelievable.That we accepted his apology, made him feel better. : ‫ارد ز‬ ‫ار در‬I am studying English in Denver; however, my best friend is in Houston.I am studying English in Denver. However, my best friend is in Houston.I am studying English in Denver. My best friend, however, is in Houston.I am studying English in Denver. My best friend is in Houston, however. : ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫تو‬ 28 www.IrPDF.com
  30. 30. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207As a student he had lived on bread and water. (as a student = ‫) ه م دا‬As a married man he had to think of the future. (as a … =‫ه د‬ )We had to walk all the way as we had no money for the fare. (as = )As you get older, your flexibility decreases. ( as = ‫ر‬ ‫)ه‬NeedHe needs to go. ( )He needs not to go.He doesnt need to go.I need a book. ( ‫ا‬ )I dont need a book.MustYou must clean your own boots. ( ‫ا‬ ‫)ا ر از ف‬You will have to clean your boots when you join the army. ( ‫ر‬ )May/ mightMay/can I use your phone? ( ‫) د‬Might I use your phone? ( ‫اب‬ ‫ل در‬ ‫)ا‬You might post this for me. ( ‫ر او را ا م ده‬ ‫دارد‬ )Could you show me the way? ( ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬would you ‫د‬ Could you) ‫را‬ ‫از‬ ‫د‬ ‫د‬ ‫ن ر ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫نا‬ ‫ا ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ان در‬ may / might ‫از‬ . ‫د‬ ‫ ا‬is he likely/ do you thinkAre we likely to meet any shark?Is he likely to come today?Do you think it will rain?He is sure to succeed. ( ‫اه‬ ‫او‬ ‫ا‬ )He is sure that he will succeed. ( ‫اه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دش‬ ‫)او‬….it is / it was + adj + of you/ of him…It is good of you to help him. ( .... / ‫)از‬It was clever of him to find his way here. ( ..... ‫او د‬ ‫)از ه‬I should like to have seen it. (but it wasnt possible) ( ‫) رزو ا م‬We neednt to have hurried; now we are too early. ( ‫ور‬ ‫) ن‬He must have come this way; here are his footprints. (‫ج‬ ‫) نا‬I stop to buy cigarette. ‫م‬ ‫ر‬ ‫دم‬I stop buying cigarette. ‫دم‬ ‫ن را‬ ‫ر‬ 29 www.IrPDF.com
  31. 31. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207Would you mind moving your car? ‫ده ؟‬ ‫ن را‬Would you mind my moving your car? ‫ده ؟‬ ‫ن را‬ :‫ا ن ا اد‬3713 = three thousand, seven hundred and thirteen(year) 1957 = nineteen hundred and fifty seven = nineteen, fifty seven1500 BC (before Christ) = one thousand five hundred BC = fifteen hundred2006 = two thousand (and) six⅔ = two third$ 100.99 = one hundred dollars ninety nine000 = triple oh0.8% = zero point eight percentHe is angryHa must be angry ‫ل 59 در‬ ‫ا‬He may be angry ‫ل 05 در‬ ‫ا‬He might be angry ‫ل 53 در‬ ‫ا‬ :‫ت‬ ‫س در‬ ‫ا‬Education (N) ‫زش‬ Education (V) ‫زش دادن‬ :‫د‬ ‫ار‬ ‫دوم‬ ‫س رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت دو‬ ‫در‬Turn on turn off :‫ار دارد‬ self ‫س رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫در‬Myself herself himself : ‫س در ا اد‬ ‫ا‬forty fifty fourteenJust ‫م‬ ‫ز‬I just finished it.Already ‫م‬She has already left the class. : ‫از ا‬ ‫ت‬ + ‫+ ا از‬ + ‫+ر‬ + + ‫ا‬ 30 www.IrPDF.com
  32. 32. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 Expensive long new red French silk skirt ‫ل‬ ‫د از ا‬ ‫نا‬ ‫را‬ : ‫دار‬ ‫دو ع‬ .‫دن‬ /‫دن‬ ‫دن/ ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫وا‬ -1 ‫رگ و از‬ ‫از‬ ( ‫)ا از‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ -2 . ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ . ‫دور ه‬ ‫از ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت وا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬Expensive long red French skirt : ‫ا‬ ‫ا ل دو‬ + ‫وف ا‬ + ‫وف ا‬Look at talk about similar to sorry aboutLook for wait for interested in responsible forSearch for keep from afraid of aware ofListen to look after concern about worried aboutTalk to worry about free from based onConsist of thank for ashamed of full of : ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫از‬ ‫از ا ل‬Take off turn downPut on leave outWrite down put offGive back call offFind out wake upTurn up throw outTurn off look up ‫ا‬ ‫ا ل‬ ‫.ا‬ ‫ ا‬out ‫ و‬on, off , up, back ‫دوم‬ ‫ا ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ . ‫ه‬ : ‫از ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫1- و‬I took off my coat.I took my coat off. 31 www.IrPDF.com
  33. 33. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 : ‫از‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل از‬ ‫2- و‬I took off it.I took it off. AS ‫ا اع‬ ‫ز ن‬ ‫فر‬ As I was crossing the street, I saw my friend.As As she is tired, I do the dishes. ‫از‬ ‫ر‬ As I practice more, I become strongerAs soon as: ‫ا‬As soon as they arrived, we will leave.As long as: ‫، ز‬ ‫دا‬I will never go there, as long as I live.As far as:As far as I am concern, they have changed their house.In addition: ‫و‬They changed their house; in addition they bought a new car.In addition to: ‫و‬ + N/ IngIn addition to teaching, she works in a restaurant as well.Besides: ‫و‬ + N/ ingTen students besides their teachers went into the class.Furthermore: ‫+ و‬It is very cold outside; furthermore, it is late.Raise: ‫دن‬ ‫ح‬ ، ‫دن‬ ‫دادن ، رگ‬ ‫دن ، ا ا‬Raise your hand if you have a question. ‫دن‬They raised their prices. ‫ا ا دادن‬I was born and raised in Tehran. ‫رگ ن‬You raised a good question. ‫ح دن‬Contain: ‫ن‬The library contains a number of valuable books.Content: ‫ا/ را‬He was a good friend and I was content.She kept the content of the letter secret.In other word: ‫رت د‬He is economical too much; in other word, he is stingy. 32 www.IrPDF.com
  34. 34. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207On the other hand: ‫از ف د‬I don’t like to eat out; on the other hand, I should save money. ‫ت‬ ‫تو‬ ‫ا‬MakeMake an attempt: ‫ش دن‬ Make friend: ‫ا دن‬ ‫دو‬Make a mistake: ‫دن‬ ‫ا‬ Make money: ‫دن‬ ‫ل‬Make an appointment: Make the most of: ‫ا ا د را دن‬Make a presentation: ‫دن‬ Make the bed: ‫دن‬ ‫اب را‬ ‫ر‬Make progress: ‫دن‬ Make noise: ‫و ا دن‬Make a speech: ‫دن‬ ‫ا‬ Make a gesture: ‫ا ء و ا ر دن‬Make a difference: ‫ق دن‬ / ‫ا‬ Make a decision:Concern: ‫ا‬Growing concern: ‫ر‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ come about: ‫ا ق ا دن‬Major concern: ‫/ا‬ ‫ا‬ come across: ‫رد دن‬ ‫د‬ ‫ر‬Express concern: ‫دن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا از‬ come back:Concern about: ‫دن‬ ‫ان‬ come from: ‫دن‬ ‫اه‬ come out: ‫ن‬Role contactHave a role: ‫دا‬ close contact: ‫س د‬Play a role: ‫دن‬ ‫ا‬ direct contact: ‫س‬Important role: ‫ا س‬ face to face contact: ‫ار ط رو در رو‬Key role: in contact with: ‫در س‬Major role: keep in contact: ‫در س دن‬Central role: ‫/ا‬Plan: ‫دا‬ /‫ح‬ consist ofPlane: ‫ه ا‬ to be composed of ‫ن‬Plant: / Include= contain ‫ن از‬Planet: ‫ر‬ to be made up ofPlain: / ‫د‬Plate: ‫ب‬In relation to: ‫در ار ط‬ raise an issue: ‫ح دن‬ ‫ا را‬In comparison to: ‫در‬ avoid an issue: ‫ا ا ب دن‬ ‫از‬In contrast to: ‫د‬ ‫در‬ important/key/major issue: ،In favor of: complex issue:In accordance with: political issues:In contact with: ‫در س‬ social issues: ‫ا‬In spite of: ‫ر‬ environmental issues: 33 www.IrPDF.com
  35. 35. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207Rob … rob + sb + from + sth….. ‫از‬ ‫دن‬ ‫وم‬They have robed the women from right of freedom. . ‫ا‬ ‫زاد را از ز‬Extreme: extreme: ‫ل‬Extreme poverty: extreme example:‫ل‬Extreme care: ‫ا‬ extreme condition:‫ل‬ ‫ا‬Provide + sth + for + sb ‫دن‬ ‫اه‬ ‫را ا‬Provide + sb + with + sthThis library is made to provide new books for students.This library is made to provide students with new books.Under the condition: ‫ا‬ steal: ‫دزد ن‬ thief:‫دزد‬Under the pressure: ‫ر‬ rob: ‫د زدن‬ ‫دن/ د‬Under the observation: mug: ‫ن‬ mugger:‫پ‬Under the supervision: ‫ا‬ pilfer: ‫دن‬ ‫د دزد‬ pilferer:‫د دزد‬Under the protection: burgle: ‫دزد از‬ burglar: ‫دزد‬Under the construction: ‫در د‬ hijack: ‫دزد ن ه ا‬ hijacker: ‫ه ا ر‬Under the impression: pirate: ‫دزد در‬Under the influence: ‫ذ‬ ‫ز‬ abduct: ‫دم دزد ن‬Under the discussion: ‫ر‬ abduction: ‫دم ر‬Under the control: ‫ل‬ kidnap: ‫دزد ن‬Under the education: kidnapper: ‫دم ر‬In spite of = despiteThey went to the beach in spite of rainy weather.Despite our effort, they decided to close the school. 34 www.IrPDF.com
  36. 36. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207Hot: ‫داغ‬ warm: ‫م‬This tea is too hot to drink. The weather was warm yesterday.It is very hot today. The food is not quite warm.Cold:‫د‬ cool:I have a cold and fever. It is getting coolI feel very cold. Keep it in a cool place.Great:‫ر‬ by name: ‫ا‬He is a great man. by degree: ‫ر‬What a great artist. by the way: ‫در‬ by ship:Large: ‫ظ‬ ‫رگ از‬ by all means: ‫ل‬This is a large sea. by chance:Your classroom is large. by night: ‫در‬ by land: ‫از را‬Big: ‫ظ‬ ‫رگ از‬ by air: ‫از را ه ا‬This box isnt big enough. by error: ‫ا ه‬This book is too big for my pocket. by heart: ‫از‬ by oneself: by letter: ‫از‬See:‫د ن‬ by way of: ‫از را‬I see her every day. by hand: ‫د‬ by bus: ‫ا س‬Look: ‫دن‬ by post:Look at me. by car: by surprise: ‫از رو‬Watch: ‫دن‬ by day: ‫روزا‬I like watching TV. by sight: ‫از رو‬ day by day: ‫روز روز‬Hear: ‫ن‬ one by one:Can you hear me? step by step: ‫م‬ ‫م‬ side by side: ‫در ر ه‬Listen: ‫ش دادن‬I am listening to the radio. 35 www.IrPDF.com
  37. 37. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207Hard/ hardlyHard: / (adj/ adv)He was hit hard.Hardly: ‫ر‬ /‫رت‬The baby can hardly walk.Cause/ reasonCause: ( ‫د ن ا‬ ‫) ا‬ /This is the cause (not reason) of his illness.Reason: ( / ‫د ) ا‬What is the reason of your coming late?Centre/ middleCentre:Centre of the circle is shown by a dot.Middle: ‫در ا اف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬I stood in the middle of the room.Shade/ shadowShade: . ‫ر‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ر ب‬You can get shade under the tree.Shadow: ‫ا‬He saw his shadow in the water.Further/ fartherFurther:« »I want to get further information.Farther:« ‫» دور‬New York is farther than London.Rarely/ scarcelyRarely: «‫» رت‬He rarely comes here.Scarcely: « »I had scarcely finished when he came.Lately/ lateLately:«‫»ا ا‬I havent been here lately.Late:« ‫» د‬Last night I went to bed late. 36 www.IrPDF.com
  38. 38. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207Nearly/ about/ almostNearly: « ‫از ا از رد‬ ‫»ا‬He is nearly six feet tall.About: « ‫از ا از رد‬ ‫»ا‬I am about six feet tall.Almost:. ‫ده‬ ‫« را‬ »‫د و‬ ‫د‬He almost reached to top.Customer/ client/ patient ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ client ،‫د‬ ‫ز‬ Customer .‫د‬ ، ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ر‬ patientBusiness/ work/ job ‫ا ن‬ ، ‫ا‬ ، ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ Business ‫رت‬ ‫دو‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ، ‫را‬ work ، ‫ا‬ ‫روز از ا‬ .‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ job ‫و‬Latter/ late ‫ )او‬former ‫و در‬ ‫ا‬ ‫» دو « از دو‬ latter ‫«و‬ ‫»د‬ Later .‫ار دارد‬ ( ‫از دو‬I have two friends, Mary and Jack, the former is a student and the latter is an engineer.See you later.Fall fell fallen ‫ا دن‬Fell felled felled ‫دن‬Feel felt felt ‫ا س دن‬Fill filled filled ‫دن‬ 37 www.IrPDF.com
  39. 39. www.IrPDF.comMohammad Zakizadeh E-mail: Zakialfa90@yahoo.com TEL: 0281- 3666419 Cell-Phone: 0919 659 0207 :‫رش‬ ‫ا‬ butter, meat, bread : ‫اه‬ • iron, wood :‫ه ر رود‬ ‫د‬ ‫در‬ ‫اد‬ • water, milk, oxygen, smoke : ‫ت، زه‬ • rice, sugar : ‫ه ر‬ • furniture, luggage, baggage, clothing : ‫دار‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ • Arabic, English, Japanese : ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ • beauty, ignorance, ugliness -ness, -ty, -nc : ‫رش‬ ‫ا‬ • ing ‫ا‬ • : ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ • Advice, anger, damage, equipment, homework, information, money, music ‫ول ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رش‬ ‫رش‬ work ‫ره‬ ‫ر‬ glass ‫ان‬ light ‫ر‬ time ،‫، ر‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ToSo as to +V ‫ر‬In order toSo thatIn order that +N ‫ر‬To get there in time we have to take a taxi.So as to visit him I went to the park.In order to improve your listening skill, you have to practice a lot.I wrote the address so as not to/ in order not to become ill.Be quiet so that/ in order that the baby can sleep. ‫ ق در ا‬E-mail ‫ن را از‬ ‫ا‬ ، ‫دا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ ا‬Pdf 38 www.IrPDF.com

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