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Origini della lingua italiana

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Da dove proviene la lingua italiana, quali sono stati i primi usi nella lingua comune e nella letteratura. Dall'indovinello veronese al placito capuano, fino al Cantico delle Creature di San Francesco.

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Origini della lingua italiana

  1. 1. Origini della lingua italiana
  2. 2. La letteratura italiana è una forma di comunicazione e di espressione artistica trasmessa attraverso un codice preciso: la lingua italiana. I primi testi in lingua italiana, però, non sono testi letterari.
  3. 3. La storia della lingua italiana nasce come evoluzione della LINGUA LATINA. Il latino, infatti, nel corso dei secoli andò estinguendosi, a causa delle invasioni barbariche, ma anche per una naturale trasformazione che ogni lingua subisce quando è lingua dell’uso, cioè viene usata quotidianamente per comunicare. La lingua latina, comunque, non era mai stata una lingua del tutto unitaria, parlata in modo uniforme in tutto l’impero romano. Essa, invece, spesso non riusciva a sostituirsi del tutto alle lingue native dei popoli conquistati e così finiva per unirvisi, dando luogo a “dialetti” specifici di quelle aree geografiche.
  4. 4. L’italiano che noi conosciamo deriva direttamente dal latino VOLGARE, cioè dal latino parlato dal popolo (il volgo), da non confondere col latino classico (quello di Cicerone, per esempio). Mentre il latino classico ci è giunto attraverso i testi scritti, quelli della letteratura latina appunto, grazie al lavoro di copiatura nel corso dei secoli dei COPISTI AMANUENSI, il latino volgare è sopravvissuto nell’uso quotidiano, trasformandosi e dando vita alle cosiddette LINGUE ROMANZE.
  5. 5. COPISTI AMANUENSI
  6. 6. La Romània (da non confondersi con lo stato rumeno) è l’area in cui si sono sviluppate, dopo la caduta dell’impero romano, le lingue figlie del latino, cioè le LINGUE ROMANZE o NEOLATINE, che prendono il nome “romanze” dall'avverbio latino Ro m anice  riferito al parlare volgare (ro m anice lo q ui) rispetto al parlare in latino(latine lo q ui). Da Ro m anice  deriva la forma francese ro m anz , da cui l'italiano romanzo.
  7. 7. La Romània
  8. 8. Uno dei documenti più importanti che ci permette di conoscere questo passaggio dal latino volgare alla nuova lingua è la cosiddetta Appe ndix Pro bi, una sorta di manuale di grammatica redatto da un certo Valerio Probo tra il IV e il VI secolo d.C. Latino classico Latino volgare Italiano DOMINA DOMNA DONNA CALIDUM CALDUM CALDO OCULUM OCLUM OCCHIO NEBULA NEBLA NEBBIA IGNIS FOCUS FUOCO EQUUS CABALLUS CAVALLO OS BUCCA BOCCA
  9. 9. Come spesso accade nella trasformazione di una lingua parlata, alla fine l’errore prevalse e nei secoli seguenti divenne la norma per tutti i parlanti, dando vita alle lingue neolatine, ma assumendo anche influenze dall’esterno e cioè dalle lingue degli invasori barbari (fe de ra, g uanto , bio ndo , astio so no tutte paro le de rivanti dalg e rm anico ).
  10. 10. L’affresco della basilica di San Clemente Un altro documento che ci ricorda questo passaggio dal latino all’italiano, passando attraverso l’uso del volgare, è un affresco, risalente all’VIII-IX secolo d.C., che si trova a Roma. Leggendolo alla luce della nostra cultura potremmo definire questo affresco come un fumetto, dato che il pittore aveva aggiunto alle immagini anche delle brevi didascalie che indicavano i discorsi dei personaggi dell’affresco. Qui, il latino è usato dai personaggi più nobili, il volgare, invece, dai plebei, proprio come doveva accadere nella realtà quotidiana.
  11. 11. L’affresco della basilica di San Clemente Sisinium: «Fili de le pute, traite, Gosmari, Albertel, traite. Falite dereto co lo palo, Carvoncelle!», San Clemente: «Duritiam cordis vestri, saxa traere meruistis». Sisinnio: «Figli di…, tirate! Gosmario, Albertello, tirate! Carvoncello, spingi da dietro con il palo», San Clemente: «A causa della durezza del vostro cuore, avete meritato di trascinare sassi».
  12. 12. L’Indovinello Veronese Quello che è universalmente riconosciuto come il primo documento in lingua italiana, anche se in una forma ancora arcaica, è l’INDOVINELLO VERONESE. Si tratta di un indovinello contenuto in un codice (cioè in un libro) scritto in Spagna nell’VIII secolo. Il libro giunse poi a Verona dopo varie peregrinazioni e da qui prese il suo nome.
  13. 13. L’Indovinello Veronese Se pare ba bo ve s, alba pratàlia aràba e t albo ve rsò rio te ne ba, e t ne g ro sè m e n se m inaba Teneva davanti a sé i buoi, arava bianchi prati, e un bianco aratro tenevaQual è la soluzione? 
  14. 14. I Placiti cassinesi e il Placito capuano Un altro importantissimo documento per le origini della lingua italiana è il PLACITO CAPUANO. Si tratta di un documento notarile, redatto nel 960 d.C. a Capua, su pergamena, e serviva a dirimere una controversia nata riguardo al possesso di alcune terre. L’abate di Montecassino affermava che quelle terre erano utilizzate dal monastero da più di trent’anni e che quindi erano entrate nei loro domini, mentre Rodelgrimo di Aquino rivendicava le sue terre, occupate abusivamente dai monaci.
  15. 15. Il Placito di Capua «Sao ko ke lle te rre , pe r ke lle fini q ue ki co nte ne , tre nta anni le po sse tte parte Sancti Be ne dicti». So che quelle terre, entro quei confini di cui si parla, li ha posseduti per trent’anni l’abbazia di San Benedetto.
  16. 16. Mappa concettuale Letteratura italiana Lingua italiana Origini Lingua latina volgare La lingua parlata dal volgo, cioè dal popolo, diffusa nell’area geografica della Romània Nascono le lingue romanze o neolatine I primi documenti in lingua italiana Alcuni esempi del passaggio dal latino all’italiano: l’Appendix Probi e l’affresco della Basilica di San Clemente L’Indovinello Veronese Il Placito di Capua

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