Today we’re going to talk about culture and how cultural differences impact the way we interact and work with each other.Feel free to ask questions at anytime or tell me if you don’t understand something I say.Firstly we need to understand what culture is.Can anyone give me a definition of what the word culture means?
People’s first impression of western culture often comes from Western TV and movies but this can be misleading and enforces stereotypes.Whilst TV and movies reflect and influence culture to an extent they are not a good indicatorIf we believed everything on TV I’d think all Chinese are Kung Fu masters and you’d think Westerners have affairs all the timeThere are elements of truth in both but neither is an accurate depictionSo where does western culture come from?
The ancient philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle established the foundations of Western philosophy and first considered the meaning of lifeWho made me? Why am I here? What is my purpose in life?They started writing things down and developed early literature.Constructed monumental architecture to symbolize their power (Acropolis)Athens was the worlds first democracy with a cosmopolitanworld view (international culture).Developed political, military, social, and religious structuresFor all of their brilliant accomplishments, the Greeks were unable to rise above the divisions and rivalries that caused them to fight each other and undermine their own civilization.
The Romans (from Italy) conquer most of Europe and build roads everywhere – very efficient.Made achievements in language, law, engineering, and government (introduced coinage, long distance trade)Become gradually corrupt and stretched too thinlydue to invasions, civil wars, and economic decline.
Christianity grew and became widely accepted by the fourth century (from Jewish sect)It was made the official state religion of the Roman Empire.The Roman Catholic church played a crucial role in the growth of the new European civilization. The church developed an organized government under the leadership of the pope.
Rejection of old ideas, beginning to look for new ones. From flat earth to round earth. Religion -> Science/ReasonThe scientific revolution was a time when people began to look for the answers to questions regarding the make-up of the earth, and the people living on it. It was a period when new ideas in physics, astronomy, biology, human anatomy, chemistry, and other sciences led to a rejection of ideas from Ancient Greece and laid the foundation of modern science.Struck a conflict between ideas of individuals and the ideas of the church. From the shape of the world to the circulation of blood in a persons body many theories developed to find out how these things worked. Important people: Newton, Galileo, …
A period of time characterized by the importance of logic and reason“freedom to use one's own intelligence”Separation from King + ReligionCommon people got a voiceThey were greatly impressed with the accomplishments of the Scientific Revolution, and when they used the word reason they were advocating the application of the scientific method to the understanding of all life.Basic challenges to the authority of the king, freedom of speech, press, and religion, and the role of commoners in the government were revolutionary.
The American Revolution refers to the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies of North America overthrew the governance of the British Empire and then rejected the British monarchy to become the sovereign United States of America.
Advances in science and technology led to big changes in …The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 1800s and early 1900s when big changes in agriculture, manufacturing, production, and transportation had a huge effect on the conditions in Britain. The changes quickly spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world.Effort to build factories for massive production. Greatly altered economic and social systems.
Out culture is still changing and being recreated everydayObama is biggest event in recent history
These are core ideas and values which underlie western culture
There is no one “ideal” or “best” cultureWestern culture exists around the world in some form (inc. Japan, Korea & China)Cultures can be different not only between continents or nations, but also within the same company or even family.
This is my sister in Africa killing a goat which is customary when being invited as a guest to someone else's house!
Media and culture
Media &Nonverbal Cross Cultural Communication 1
Cross-cultural communicationIs a field of study that looks at howpeople from differing culturalbackgrounds communicate, in similarand different ways amongthemselves, and how they Endeavourto communicate across cultures. 14
Media and CultureGlobal rise the globalization of mass media especially refers to the content – the cultural products –available globally. 15
Media and CultureThere are several parameters that may be perceived differently by people of different cultures 16
A cultural IconCan be a symbol,logo, picture, name,face, person, buildingor other image 17
Media and CultureIt is readily recognized and generally represents an object or concept with great cultural significance to a wide cultural group. 18
High and Low Context Cultures Edward T Hall.He refers to context as the stimuli, environment or ambiance surrounding the environment. 19
Depending on how aculture relies on thepoints to communicatetheir meaning, will placethem in either High orLow context cultures. 20
low-context culturesMust be given a lot of background information 21
High-Context culturesBe on time.Try to arrive few minutes early.It saves you from stress. very little background information has to beYoull be much relaxed & work better given. 22
Intercultural CommunicationIntercultural communicationoccurs when a member of oneculture produces a messagefor consumption by a memberof another culture. More Precisely, intercultural communication involves interaction between people whose cultural perceptions and symbols systems are distinct to alter the communication event. 23
Intercultural CommunicationIntercultural communicationoccurs when a member of oneculture produces a messagefor consumption by a memberof another culture. More Precisely, intercultural communication involves interaction between people whose cultural perceptions and symbols systems are distinct to alter the communication event. 24
Non Verbal CommunicationNon-Verbal contactinvolves everythingfrom something asobvious as eye contactand facial expressionsto more discrete formsof expression such asthe use of space. Non Verbal 25
Nonverbal Intercultural Communication Arab Men often greet by kissing on both checks.In United States peoplegreet by shaking hands 31
Nonverbal Intercultural Communication In Japan they greet by bowing In Mexico they often embrace 32
Nonverbal Intercultural CommunicationIn Thailand to signal person to come near, one moves the fingersback and forth. With the palm down. In the United States, youbeckon someone to come by holding the palm up and moving thefingers toward your body. In Vietnam the same sign is used to calla dog. 33
Nonverbal Intercultural Communication In Most Middle east countries and Asian countries pointing with the index finger is consideredWhat does your culture say ? impolite. 34
Nonverbal Intercultural Communication Crossing ones legs in U.S is often a sign of being relaxed: 35
Nonverbal Intercultural CommunicationIn Korea it is a socialtaboo. 36
Nonverbal Intercultural Communication In Japan gifts are exchanged with both the hands …. So in many countries .. But among Muslims left hand is considered unclean and do Exchange of Gifts not eat or pass objects with it. 37
Nonverbal Intercultural CommunicationBeing able to understand another culture is at theheart of becoming a competent Communicator. 39
Media and Culture Intercultural communication competence is the overall internal capability of an individual to manage key challenging features of intercultural communication: meaning analyzing the situation and selecting the correct mode of behaviour. 40
Commodification of cultureGiant industries discharge their messages into themainstream common consciousness. Channelsproliferate and new technologies pervade home andoffice 41
The Media are American Jeremy Tunstall provided a description of how American media entrepreneurs developed their strategy for creating universally attractive cultural commodities and succeeded internationally against strong competition from France and Britain. 42
Photo by Steve RhodesModern Civilization (Today) 53
Core Ideas & Reality- or fact-based thought and perception (Aristotle 384- Values 322 BC) nRecognizes the right o Emphasis on theof private ownership, individual person s acapital accumulation, e who isexchange and profit R independent and self-reliantIndividuals should beable to act on their Worldlyown reason without happiness shouldinterference from be the focus ofothers – i.e. each persons lifefreedom 54
We live in a multicultural world where cultures: Transcend geography and race (no connection) Exist worldwide in some form (usually mixed)55
Cultural West (US / Europe) East (China / EastDifferences* Asia) Logic Linear (direct Spiral (roundabout) associations) Communication Direct, verbal Indirect, implied Identity Individual, independent Group orientated Agreement / Argumentative, verbal Hard to say no, non- Disagreement verbal Punctuality Start and end on time Appointments flexible Respect Success, achievement Seniority, wisdomBusiness Relationship Economics come first Relationship comes first Decision Making Distributed, proactive Manager has final say Time Horizon Short term (per quarter) Long term (years ahead) Risk / Spending Risk-takers, spendthere are obvious exceptions * but of course Risk-avoiders, save 56
Western Culture and Media influence in the New Culture of ConsumptionWith the ever increasing ethosof immediate gratification inthe media, youth today go onabsorbing the media message.Adolescents are more impulsive than adults and willing toexperiment with new behaviours, they are vulnerable to a hostof adverse outcomes. 58
Modern Culture and Media and social formationMusic Video as the distinct Medium 59
In their most common format, music videos couple a singlepiece of music with images to create a short audiovisualproduction intended to promote sales of recorded music.The Themes of Music Videos: relationships with other genders,races and romantic partners; the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs;threats and violence towards others and themselves –correlate stronglywith the health risks and behaviours of this age group. ( Ashby &Rich,2005) 61
Media and CultureContent analyses of music videos : emergence andevolution of a youth culture Body Image… GenderRoles and Sexual Violence.For youth who areestablishing themselves asautonomous individuals …music videos portrays idealsof how males and females areexpected to look, act, andrelate to each other. 62
From Twin Beds to Sex at Your Fingertips: TeenSexuality in Movies, Music, Television, and theInternetA Survey of adolescentsfound that four out offive youth report thattheir peers learn “someor a lot” about sex fromMedia. Since musicvideos are aimed at ayouth audience, sexualthemes and concernsfigure predominantly.(Kunkel, Cope & Biely1999) 63
From Twin Beds to Sex at Your Fingertips: TeenSexuality in Movies, Music, Television, and theInternetSeventh and tenth gradestudents who viewedMTV prior to completinga survey about sexualattitudes were muchmore likely to approve ofpremarital sex thanstudents who did notview music videosbeforehand (Greeson&Williams, 1986) 64
From Twin Beds to Sex at Your Fingertips: TeenSexuality in Movies, Music, Television, and theInternetHigh school students 14to 18 years old whowatched more musicvideos were found othavea higher level ofsexual experience thantheir peers. D.S Ward&Friedman, 2006). 65
Portrayal of Adolescent in the Media and itscultural impact The presence of adolescents has increased quite steadily since 1950 both in number of shows and number of characters. 66
Personal integrity is crucial. Tell nothing but the truth.Adolescent Body forgive and Eating Bosses can Image mistakesin thebut if you lie, youre gone. Media: Trendsand Implications for AdolescentHealth 67
Portrayal of Women in Media A recent UNESCO report describesthe litany of common images ofwomen in the media: The glamoroussex kitten, the sainted mother, thedevious witch , the hard facedcorporate and political climber”. Thereport released in 2009, states thatat the current rate of progress onstereotyping women.it will take another 75 years to achieve gender equality in media. 72
Media and Women CultureTelevision a culpritMost heroes and protagonists,particularly in prime timeprogramming, tend to be male.Studies indicate that nearlythree quarters of all femalecharacters in sitcoms areunderweight, and those thatare overweight are often thesubject of comments or jokesabout their bodies made bymale characters. 73
Media and Women CultureIn film industries the number ofroles for leading women is farbelow that of men.The use of body doubles foractresses who have less thanidealized body proportions isthought to contribute tounrealistic expectations bothmen and women have aboutwomen’s body. . 74
Media and Culture What ever role, television, film and popular magazines are full of images of women and girls who are typically white, desperately thin and made up to the hilt. The majority of media is focused on the “Superskinny” Portrayal of ideal woman through ads, commercials, celebrities and the fashion industry. Ever since the dawn of media, women have been influenced by the way they were portrayed. 76
Media and women Culture With so many of these unrealistic women being portrayed by media …. Problems of low self esteem manic exercise, even starvation… sexual scandals .. Sexual abuses of minors. 77
Cultural ImperialismCultural Imperialism: Themedia, fitting in with thespread of global capitalism,push mainly American culturethat promote ideologies ofconsumption, instantgratification andindividualism.The cultural imperialism argues that media globalization willlead to a homogenization of culture. Many cultural consequencesare predicted to follow, especially the delocalizing of content andundermining of local cultures. 78
Cultural Imperialism and Hybridization of CultureThe Medium is the message Marshall McLuhanNew media technologies allow for media content to flow easilyacross borders and enable users to become producers, which inturn lead to hybrid media forms. 79
Media and CultureHybridization of culture becomes often athreat to cultural identity, autonomy and integrity.Thus the new culture is widely thought to beaccelerating to the process of Hybridization inthe global culture.Medium is the Message 80
Changes In Communication Technology : Inevitably Produce Profound Changes in Both Culture And Social Order 81
Modern Culture and MediaTo study Media in the context of the broaderexamination of modern cultural and social formations. 82