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Media and culture


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Media and culture

  1. 1. Media &Nonverbal Cross Cultural Communication 1
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  3. 3. Media, What does it refer to ? refers collectively to all media technologies which are intended to reach a large audience via mass communication. 3
  4. 4. Broadcast mediaElectronic media transmit their informationelectronically 4
  5. 5. It comprise of television, film and radio, movies, CDs, DVDs and some other gadgets like cameras 5
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  8. 8. What is a CultureThe quality in a person or society that arises from aconcern for what is regarded as excellent in arts,letters, manners, scholarly pursuits, etc. 8
  9. 9. Culture is .A particular form or stage of civilization, as thatof a certain nation or period: Greek culture. 9
  10. 10. The behaviors and beliefs characteristic of a particular social, ethnicor age group: the youth culture; the drugculture, religious culture , marriage culture.. 10
  11. 11. Development or improvement of the mind by education or training. 11
  12. 12. Cultural Differences 12
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  14. 14. Cross-cultural communicationIs a field of study that looks at howpeople from differing culturalbackgrounds communicate, in similarand different ways amongthemselves, and how they Endeavourto communicate across cultures. 14
  15. 15. Media and CultureGlobal rise the globalization of mass media especially refers to the content – the cultural products –available globally. 15
  16. 16. Media and CultureThere are several parameters that may be perceived differently by people of different cultures 16
  17. 17. A cultural IconCan be a symbol,logo, picture, name,face, person, buildingor other image 17
  18. 18. Media and CultureIt is readily recognized and generally represents an object or concept with great cultural significance to a wide cultural group. 18
  19. 19. High and Low Context Cultures Edward T Hall.He refers to context as the stimuli, environment or ambiance surrounding the environment. 19
  20. 20. Depending on how aculture relies on thepoints to communicatetheir meaning, will placethem in either High orLow context cultures. 20
  21. 21. low-context culturesMust be given a lot of background information 21
  22. 22. High-Context culturesBe on time.Try to arrive few minutes early.It saves you from stress. very little background information has to beYoull be much relaxed & work better given. 22
  23. 23. Intercultural CommunicationIntercultural communicationoccurs when a member of oneculture produces a messagefor consumption by a memberof another culture. More Precisely, intercultural communication involves interaction between people whose cultural perceptions and symbols systems are distinct to alter the communication event. 23
  24. 24. Intercultural CommunicationIntercultural communicationoccurs when a member of oneculture produces a messagefor consumption by a memberof another culture. More Precisely, intercultural communication involves interaction between people whose cultural perceptions and symbols systems are distinct to alter the communication event. 24
  25. 25. Non Verbal CommunicationNon-Verbal contactinvolves everythingfrom something asobvious as eye contactand facial expressionsto more discrete formsof expression such asthe use of space. Non Verbal 25
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  27. 27. Non Verbal CommunicationKinesics to mean communicatingthrough body movement. Eye Contact and Facial Expressions. 27
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  31. 31. Nonverbal Intercultural Communication Arab Men often greet by kissing on both checks.In United States peoplegreet by shaking hands 31
  32. 32. Nonverbal Intercultural Communication In Japan they greet by bowing In Mexico they often embrace 32
  33. 33. Nonverbal Intercultural CommunicationIn Thailand to signal person to come near, one moves the fingersback and forth. With the palm down. In the United States, youbeckon someone to come by holding the palm up and moving thefingers toward your body. In Vietnam the same sign is used to calla dog. 33
  34. 34. Nonverbal Intercultural Communication In Most Middle east countries and Asian countries pointing with the index finger is consideredWhat does your culture say ? impolite. 34
  35. 35. Nonverbal Intercultural Communication Crossing ones legs in U.S is often a sign of being relaxed: 35
  36. 36. Nonverbal Intercultural CommunicationIn Korea it is a socialtaboo. 36
  37. 37. Nonverbal Intercultural Communication In Japan gifts are exchanged with both the hands …. So in many countries .. But among Muslims left hand is considered unclean and do Exchange of Gifts not eat or pass objects with it. 37
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  39. 39. Nonverbal Intercultural CommunicationBeing able to understand another culture is at theheart of becoming a competent Communicator. 39
  40. 40. Media and Culture Intercultural communication competence is the overall internal capability of an individual to manage key challenging features of intercultural communication: meaning analyzing the situation and selecting the correct mode of behaviour. 40
  41. 41. Commodification of cultureGiant industries discharge their messages into themainstream common consciousness. Channelsproliferate and new technologies pervade home andoffice 41
  42. 42. The Media are American Jeremy Tunstall provided a description of how American media entrepreneurs developed their strategy for creating universally attractive cultural commodities and succeeded internationally against strong competition from France and Britain. 42
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  44. 44. Understanding Western Culture 44
  45. 45. Western culture Western Film / TV (but does influence it) 45
  46. 46. Originates from Ancient Greece (Europe) 46
  47. 47. Spread by Roman Empire (1st Century BC) 47
  48. 48. Influenced by Christianity (4/5th Century) 48
  49. 49. New ideas: Scientific Revolution (17th Century) 49
  50. 50. Logic & Reason: Age of Enlightenment (18th Century) 50
  51. 51. Independence: American Revolution (Late 18th Century) 51
  52. 52. Industrial Revolution (19th Century) 52
  53. 53. Photo by Steve RhodesModern Civilization (Today) 53
  54. 54. Core Ideas & Reality- or fact-based thought and perception (Aristotle 384- Values 322 BC) nRecognizes the right o Emphasis on theof private ownership, individual person s acapital accumulation, e who isexchange and profit R independent and self-reliantIndividuals should beable to act on their Worldlyown reason without happiness shouldinterference from be the focus ofothers – i.e. each persons lifefreedom 54
  55. 55. We live in a multicultural world where cultures: Transcend geography and race (no connection) Exist worldwide in some form (usually mixed)55
  56. 56. Cultural West (US / Europe) East (China / EastDifferences* Asia) Logic Linear (direct Spiral (roundabout) associations) Communication Direct, verbal Indirect, implied Identity Individual, independent Group orientated Agreement / Argumentative, verbal Hard to say no, non- Disagreement verbal Punctuality Start and end on time Appointments flexible Respect Success, achievement Seniority, wisdomBusiness Relationship Economics come first Relationship comes first Decision Making Distributed, proactive Manager has final say Time Horizon Short term (per quarter) Long term (years ahead) Risk / Spending Risk-takers, spendthere are obvious exceptions * but of course Risk-avoiders, save 56
  57. 57. Uncomfortable Situations 57
  58. 58. Western Culture and Media influence in the New Culture of ConsumptionWith the ever increasing ethosof immediate gratification inthe media, youth today go onabsorbing the media message.Adolescents are more impulsive than adults and willing toexperiment with new behaviours, they are vulnerable to a hostof adverse outcomes. 58
  59. 59. Modern Culture and Media and social formationMusic Video as the distinct Medium 59
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  61. 61. In their most common format, music videos couple a singlepiece of music with images to create a short audiovisualproduction intended to promote sales of recorded music.The Themes of Music Videos: relationships with other genders,races and romantic partners; the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs;threats and violence towards others and themselves –correlate stronglywith the health risks and behaviours of this age group. ( Ashby &Rich,2005) 61
  62. 62. Media and CultureContent analyses of music videos : emergence andevolution of a youth culture Body Image… GenderRoles and Sexual Violence.For youth who areestablishing themselves asautonomous individuals …music videos portrays idealsof how males and females areexpected to look, act, andrelate to each other. 62
  63. 63. From Twin Beds to Sex at Your Fingertips: TeenSexuality in Movies, Music, Television, and theInternetA Survey of adolescentsfound that four out offive youth report thattheir peers learn “someor a lot” about sex fromMedia. Since musicvideos are aimed at ayouth audience, sexualthemes and concernsfigure predominantly.(Kunkel, Cope & Biely1999) 63
  64. 64. From Twin Beds to Sex at Your Fingertips: TeenSexuality in Movies, Music, Television, and theInternetSeventh and tenth gradestudents who viewedMTV prior to completinga survey about sexualattitudes were muchmore likely to approve ofpremarital sex thanstudents who did notview music videosbeforehand (Greeson&Williams, 1986) 64
  65. 65. From Twin Beds to Sex at Your Fingertips: TeenSexuality in Movies, Music, Television, and theInternetHigh school students 14to 18 years old whowatched more musicvideos were found othavea higher level ofsexual experience thantheir peers. D.S Ward&Friedman, 2006). 65
  66. 66. Portrayal of Adolescent in the Media and itscultural impact The presence of adolescents has increased quite steadily since 1950 both in number of shows and number of characters. 66
  67. 67. Personal integrity is crucial. Tell nothing but the truth.Adolescent Body forgive and Eating Bosses can Image mistakesin thebut if you lie, youre gone. Media: Trendsand Implications for AdolescentHealth 67
  68. 68. Adolescents and Television Violence 68
  69. 69. Tobacco Portrayalsin U.S. Advertisingand EntertainmentMedia 69
  70. 70. The Changing Portrayal of Alcohol Use in Television Advertising70
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  72. 72. Portrayal of Women in Media A recent UNESCO report describesthe litany of common images ofwomen in the media: The glamoroussex kitten, the sainted mother, thedevious witch , the hard facedcorporate and political climber”. Thereport released in 2009, states thatat the current rate of progress onstereotyping will take another 75 years to achieve gender equality in media. 72
  73. 73. Media and Women CultureTelevision a culpritMost heroes and protagonists,particularly in prime timeprogramming, tend to be male.Studies indicate that nearlythree quarters of all femalecharacters in sitcoms areunderweight, and those thatare overweight are often thesubject of comments or jokesabout their bodies made bymale characters. 73
  74. 74. Media and Women CultureIn film industries the number ofroles for leading women is farbelow that of men.The use of body doubles foractresses who have less thanidealized body proportions isthought to contribute tounrealistic expectations bothmen and women have aboutwomen’s body. . 74
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  76. 76. Media and Culture What ever role, television, film and popular magazines are full of images of women and girls who are typically white, desperately thin and made up to the hilt. The majority of media is focused on the “Superskinny” Portrayal of ideal woman through ads, commercials, celebrities and the fashion industry. Ever since the dawn of media, women have been influenced by the way they were portrayed. 76
  77. 77. Media and women Culture With so many of these unrealistic women being portrayed by media …. Problems of low self esteem manic exercise, even starvation… sexual scandals .. Sexual abuses of minors. 77
  78. 78. Cultural ImperialismCultural Imperialism: Themedia, fitting in with thespread of global capitalism,push mainly American culturethat promote ideologies ofconsumption, instantgratification andindividualism.The cultural imperialism argues that media globalization willlead to a homogenization of culture. Many cultural consequencesare predicted to follow, especially the delocalizing of content andundermining of local cultures. 78
  79. 79. Cultural Imperialism and Hybridization of CultureThe Medium is the message Marshall McLuhanNew media technologies allow for media content to flow easilyacross borders and enable users to become producers, which inturn lead to hybrid media forms. 79
  80. 80. Media and CultureHybridization of culture becomes often athreat to cultural identity, autonomy and integrity.Thus the new culture is widely thought to beaccelerating to the process of Hybridization inthe global culture.Medium is the Message 80
  81. 81. Changes In Communication Technology : Inevitably Produce Profound Changes in Both Culture And Social Order 81
  82. 82. Modern Culture and MediaTo study Media in the context of the broaderexamination of modern cultural and social formations. 82