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Water Into Wine: A Taste of What's to Come | John 2:1-11 Lesson

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Given the context and Old Testament allusions, I argue that Jesus is giving a messianic taste of what's to come. As one scholar notes, "He changes water of Judaism into the wine of Christianity" (Morris, 155).

First shared at Alpha Baptist Church in Willingboro, NJ on Sunday 2.10.19

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Water Into Wine: A Taste of What's to Come | John 2:1-11 Lesson

  1. 1. WATER INTO WINE: A TASTE OF WHAT’S TO COME SUNDAY SCHOOL 2.10.19 DANNY SCOTTON JR ALPHA BAPTIST CHURCH TO DOWNLOAD, PLEASE VISIT: CATCHFORCHRIST.NET
  2. 2. OUT WITH THE OLD; IN WITH THE NEW
  3. 3. OUT WITH THE OLD IN WITH THE NEW
  4. 4. WHAT ABOUT THE OLD? FULFILLED BY THE NEW • 14 The Word became flesh and made his dwelling [Gk. tabernacled] among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth (Jn 1:14, NIV) • God’s glory was manifested in the tabernacle (Ex 40:34-38 cf. Kruse, 70) • 34 Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle. 35 Moses could not enter the tent of meeting because the cloud had settled on it, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle. 36 In all the travels of the Israelites, whenever the cloud lifted from above the tabernacle, they would set out; 37 but if the cloud did not lift, they did not set out—until the day it lifted. 38 So the cloud of the LORD was over the tabernacle by day, and fire was in the cloud by night, in the sight of all the Israelites during all their travels. (Ex 40:34-38, NIV)
  5. 5. WHAT ABOUT THE OLD? FULFILLED BY THE NEW • 18 Then Moses said, “Now show me your glory.” 19 And the LORD said, “I will cause all my goodness to pass in front of you, and I will proclaim my name, the LORD, in your presence. I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion. 20 But,” he said, “you cannot see my face, for no one may see me and live.” (Ex 33:18-20, NIV cf. Kruse, 70) • …5 Then the LORD came down in the cloud and stood there with him and proclaimed his name, the LORD. 6 And he passed in front of Moses, proclaiming, “The LORD, the LORD, the compassionate and gracious God, slow to anger, abounding in love and faithfulness (Ex 34:5-6, NIV cf. Kruse, 70, etc.) • Out of his fullness we have all received grace in place of grace already given. 17 For the law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 18 No one has ever seen God, but the one and only Son, who is himself God and is in closest relationship with the Father, has made him known. (Jn 1:16-18, NIV cf. Kruse, 74)
  6. 6. GRACE IN PLACE OF GRACE • Theme of Jn 2:1- 4:42: “old things have passed away; see the new has come (2 Cor 5:17)” (Beasley-Murray, 31 quoting C.H. Dodd cf. Whitacre, 77 cf. Osborne, 42; Carson, 166) • Wine in place of water (Jn 2:1-11) • New temple (Jn 2:14-19): Destroy this temple and in three days, I will raise it up (Jn 2:19) • New birth (“born again”) (Jn 3:1-21) • New well of “living water” (Jn 4:7-15) • New worship (Jn 4:16-26) • 21 “Woman,” Jesus replied, “believe me, a time [lit. hour] is coming when you will worship the Father neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem. 22 You Samaritans worship what you do not know; we worship what we do know, for salvation is from the Jews. 23 Yet a time is coming and has now come when the true worshipers will worship the Father in the Spirit and in truth, for they are the kind of worshipers the Father seeks. 24 God is spirit, and his worshipers must worship in the Spirit and in truth.” (Jn 4:21-24, NIV)
  7. 7. JOHN 2:1-5 (NIV) • 2 On the third day a wedding took place at Cana in Galilee. Jesus’ mother was there, 2 and Jesus and his disciples had also been invited to the wedding. 3 When the wine was gone, Jesus’ mother said to him, “They have no more wine.” 4 “Woman, why do you involve me?” Jesus replied. “My hour has not yet come.” 5 His mother said to the servants, “Do whatever he tells you.”
  8. 8. JOHN 2:6-11 (NIV) • 6 Nearby stood six stone water jars, the kind used by the Jews for ceremonial washing, each holding from twenty to thirty gallons. 7 Jesus said to the servants, “Fill the jars with water”; so they filled them to the brim. • 8 Then he told them, “Now draw some out and take it to the master of the banquet.” They did so, 9 and the master of the banquet tasted the water that had been turned into wine. He did not realize where it had come from, though the servants who had drawn the water knew. Then he called the bridegroom aside 10 and said, “Everyone brings out the choice wine first and then the cheaper wine after the guests have had too much to drink; but you have saved the best till now.” • 11 What Jesus did here in Cana of Galilee was the first of the signs through which he revealed his glory; and his disciples believed in him.
  9. 9. THE THIRD DAY? • In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 2 Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters. (Gen 1:1-2, NIV) • 2 By the seventh day God had finished the work he had been doing; so on the seventh day he rested from all his work. 3 Then God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it he rested from all the work of creating that he had done. (Gen 2:2-3, NIV) • In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 He was with God in the beginning. 3 Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made (Jn 1:1-3, NIV)
  10. 10. THE THIRD DAY? • New creation week? (Klink, 160; Milne, 63; Carson, 167; Burge (?), 1119) • Day 1: Jn 1:19-28:  John the Baptist confesses that he is not the Messiah (Klink, 160) • Day 2: Jn 1:29-34  John the Baptist testifies about Christ  29 The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him and said, “Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! (Jn 1:29, NIV cf. Klink, 160) • Day 3: Jn 1:35-43 35  John the Baptist’s disciples follow Christ: The next day John was there again with two of his disciples (Jn 1:35, NIV cf. Klink, 160). • Day 4: Jn 1:43-51  Jesus calls Nathaniel and Philip: 43 The next day Jesus decided to leave for Galilee. Finding Philip, he said to him, “Follow me.” (Jn 1:43, NIV cf. Klink, 160). • Day 6: Jn 2:1f. On the third day a wedding took place at Cana in Galilee. Jesus’ mother was there (Jn 2:1, NIV cf. Klink, 160; Carson counts seven days,). • After Andrew and the unnamed disciple (Jn 1:35) spend the entire day with Jesus (after 4:00PM, Jn 1:39), perhaps then Andrew tells Simon about Jesus the day after  seven days total (Carson, 168 cf. Morris, 156). • In John, Jesus does redemptive work on the Sabbath (Jn 5:16; 7:21-24, etc. cf. Carson, 168)
  11. 11. THE THIRD DAY? • Idiom?: Common expression could simply mean “day after tomorrow” (Keener, 497) • Inclusio? (Bookends): 19 Jesus answered them, “Destroy this temple, and I will raise it again in three days.” (Jn 2:19, NIV cf. Keener IVP; Keener, 496) • The possible inclusio could signal to readers that the cleansing of the temple account is somehow related to the account of turning water into wine in jars used for ritual cleansing (Keener, 497) • Third day could allude to Jesus’ death and resurrection (Keener, IVP) • 20 They replied, “It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and you are going to raise it in three days?” 21 But the temple he had spoken of was his body. 22 After he was raised from the dead, his disciples recalled what he had said…(Jn 2:20-22a, NIV cf. Keener, 497).
  12. 12. WEDDING WEEK • and Jesus and his disciples had also been invited to the wedding (Jn 2:2, NIV) • Disciples = Andrew, Simon Peter, Philip, Nathaniel, and unnamed disciple (Klink, 162 cf. John 1; not “Twelve” until 6:67 – Carson, 169) • Weddings often lasted a week (Kruse, 93; Milne, 63; Morris, 157; Osborne, 42; Carson, 169; Keener, IVP) or two! (Borchert, 154). Each day, more people would often show up (Kruse, 93). • Entire towns could be invited (Keener, 499; Klink, 162); Considered impolite to decline (Klink, 162) – even if you didn’t like them! (Keener, 499). • The bridegroom had the responsibility/obligation to make sure all of the guests had enough food and drink (Kruse, 93; Carson, 169). Presents were given; food and wine was expected in return (Borchert, 154). Gifts were considered loans and could be recovered in court (Keener, 502) • If they ran out, the bridegroom would face public humiliation (Milne, 63; Borchert, 154, etc.). The bridegroom could be sued! (Milne, 63; Morris, 158; Osborne, 42)
  13. 13. WHERE HAS ALL THE WINE GONE? • When the wine was gone, Jesus’ mother said to him, “They have no more wine.” (Jn 2:1-3, NIV) • This was not unfermented grape juice (Keener, 499); hard to prevent fermentation without refrigeration. • Wine was usually diluted with water: 2-4 parts water per every part wine (Keener, 500). Usually less strong than US beer. Undiluted wine was considered “strong” and was frowned upon (Carson, 169) • “Wine was a standard part of daily life in the ancient Mediterranean world” (Keener, 500) and an important part of weddings (Klink, 163). Wine was also useful for settling stomachs & preventing dysentery (1 Tim 5:23 Keener IVP) • Scripture condemns drunkenness (18 Do not get drunk on wine, which leads to debauchery. Instead, be filled with the Spirit – Eph 5:18, NIV cf. Prov 23:20-21, etc.) not drinking • Women – who were usually separated from the men (Keener, 503) – would be seated near the place where wine was stored; perhaps that is how Mary found out (Keener, IVP) • Maybe Mary was used to relying on Jesus; Joseph may have died (Milne, 63; Morris, 156; Osborne, 43; Carson, 169)
  14. 14. WOMAN • 4 “Woman, why do you involve me?” Jesus replied. “My hour has not yet come.” (Jn 2:4, NIV) • Mary is never named in John (Klink, 162; Kruse, 93; Keener, 501). • “Woman” does not carry the sting it does in our society; same term he used when he addressed her while on the cross (Jn 19:26 cf. Kruse, 93; Borchert, 154; Carson, 170) • Still unusual for a son to address a mother with this term (Morris, 158; Keener, 504) • Jesus clarifies the parameters of their relationship – it is secondary to that of Him and the Father (Milne, 64; Morris, 158; Borchert, 155; Osborne, 43) • No human (not even family cf. Jn 7:3-9) was going to interfere with His divine mission (Morris, 155 cf. Mk 3:33-35; Lk 2:49 Whitacre, 78) • “She approached him not as her son but as a miracle worker; he replies not as her son but as her Lord.” (Keener, 505 cf. Carson, 171)
  15. 15. OUR PROBLEM? • 4 “Woman, why do you involve me?” Jesus replied. “My hour has not yet come.” (Jn 2:4, NIV) • Lit: “What [is it] to me and to you, woman?” (Kruse, 93). “Not our problem”? (Osborne, 43) • Elsewhere in Scripture, this Semitic expression always indicates some form of rebuke (Kruse, 93) or distancing (cf. demons Mt 8:29; Mk 1:24, 5:7l Lk 4:34; 8:28 Carson, 170 cf. Klink, 164) • 30 By myself I can do nothing; I judge only as I hear, and my judgment is just, for I seek not to please myself but him who sent me. (Jn 5:30, NIV cf. Borchert, 155) • 34 “My food,” said Jesus, “is to do the will of him who sent me and to finish his work. (Jn 4:34, NIV) • Jesus speaks on a another level than his hearers (e.g., “born again,” “living water”)
  16. 16. MY HOUR HAS NOT YET COME! • 4 “Woman, why do you involve me?” Jesus replied. “My hour has not yet come.” (Jn 2:4, NIV) • The hour = hour of the cross (Keener, 507) – death, resurrection, glorification (Kruse, 94; Borchert, 155) • 30 At this they tried to seize him, but no one laid a hand on him, because his hour had not yet come (Jn 7:30, NIV cf. Keener, 507; Klink, 164; etc.) • 20 He spoke these words while teaching in the temple courts near the place where the offerings were put. Yet no one seized him, because his hour had not yet come. (Jn 8:20, NIV cf. Keener 507; Jn 7:6, 8) • 23 Jesus replied, “The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified (Jn 12:23, NIV cf. Keener, 507) • 32 And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself.” 33 He said this to show the kind of death he was going to die. (Jn 12:32-33, NIV cf. Keener, 507; 13:1, 17:1 Carson, 171) • If he started doing miracles, Jesus knew he was going accelerate his journey to the cross (Keener,
  17. 17. LISTEN TO MARY: LISTEN TO JESUS! • 5 His mother said to the servants, “Do whatever he tells you.” (Jn 2:5, NIV) • These are the only words of instruction by Mary that are recorded in Scripture (Kruse, 94) • Shows that she did not see Jesus’ response as an outright refusal to act (Kruse, 94; Morris, 160; Klink, 165) • “Mary approaches Jesus as his mother, and is reproached; … she responds as a believer, and her faith is honoured.” (Milne, 64 quoting Carson). New relationship (Morris, 160) • Model disciple (Osborne, 44; Carson, 173): Doesn’t know exactly what Jesus will do, but believes He is able. She leaves it in His hands (Carson, 173)
  18. 18. A JARRING MIRACLE • 6 Nearby stood six stone water jars, the kind used by the Jews for ceremonial washing, each holding from twenty to thirty gallons. (Jn 2:6, NIV) • Stone jars contained the water Jews would use for ceremonial (ritual) purification (Kruse, 94-5) • Hands were to be ceremonially washed before meals; vessels were to be cleansed as well (Milne, 64). Servants would pour the water over the hands of the guests (Klink, 166) • 3 (The Pharisees and all the Jews do not eat unless they give their hands a ceremonial washing, holding to the tradition of the elders. 4 When they come from the marketplace they do not eat unless they wash. And they observe many other traditions, such as the washing of cups, pitchers and kettles.) (Mk 7:3-4, NIV cf. Milne, 64) • Stone jars did not contract ceremonial uncleanliness as easily as did clay pots (Lev 11:29- 38 cf. Milne, 64; Borchert, 156; Carson, 173; Keener, IVP; Keener, 509)
  19. 19. WATER INTO WINE • 7 Jesus said to the servants, “Fill the jars with water”; so they filled them to the brim. 8 Then he told them, “Now draw some out and take it to the master of the banquet.” They did so, 9 and the master of the banquet tasted the water that had been turned into wine. He did not realize where it had come from, though the servants who had drawn the water knew. Then he called the bridegroom aside 10 and said, “Everyone brings out the choice wine first and then the cheaper wine after the guests have had too much to drink; but you have saved the best till now.” (Jn 2:7-10, NIV)
  20. 20. • Jesus: Fill it up! The time for ceremonial washings has been fulfilled (Carson, 174) • Servants do what they are told, risking great embarrassment (Kruse, 95) • We do not know when or where the miracle occurred (Kruse, 95; Morris, 161) • “Master of the banquet” was probably a guest who was appointed to be in charge of the festivities (Morris, 161; Borchert, 156) – who would supervise over the distribution and quality of the wine (Klink, 167; Keener, IVP) • Custom: serve best wine first and then the lesser wine less when people may have already been a bit tipsy (Kruse, 95; Osborne, 44; Carson, 174) WATER INTO WINE
  21. 21. WATER OF JUDAISM  WINE OF CHRISTIANITY • “He changes water of Judaism into the wine of Christianity…” (Morris, 155 cf. Milne, 64; Carson, 173) • “In the OT abundant wine (and oil or milk) are signs of the age of fulfilment” (Kruse, 96) • 12 They will come and shout for joy on the heights of Zion; they will rejoice in the bounty of the LORD— the grain, the new wine and the olive oil, the young of the flocks and herds. (Jer 31:12, NIV cf. Kruse, 96) • 18 “In that day the mountains will drip new wine, and the hills will flow with milk; all the ravines of Judah will run with water. (Joel 3:18, NIV cf. Kruse, 96) • ‘The days are coming,’ declares the Lord, ‘when the reaper will be overtaken by the ploughman and the planter by the one treading grapes. New wine will drip from the mountains and flow from all the hills. I will bring back my exiled people Israel; they will rebuild the ruined cities and live in them. They will plant vineyards and drink their wine; they will make gardens and eat their fruit.’ (Amos 9:13–14, NIV cf. Kruse, 96; Carson, 172) • 6 On this mountain the LORD Almighty will prepare a feast of rich food for all peoples, a banquet of aged wine— the best of meats and the finest of wines. (Is 25:6, NIV cf. Hos 14:7 Osborne, 45)
  22. 22. WATER OF JUDAISM  WINE OF CHRISTIANITY • Grace in place of grace (Jn 1:16 cf. Milne, 64) • The Law could point the way to ceremonial purification through repeated rituals. Christ came to purify once for all (Heb 10:14; 7:25; Rom 5:1, 8:1 cf. Milne, 65) • “The modest water saw its God and blushed.” (Milne, 66 quoting Temple) • John the Baptist baptized with water; Jesus was to baptize with the Holy Spirit (Jn 1:33); Christ’s baptism is greater than Jewish purification rites (Keener, 509) • 17 Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, the new creation has come: The old has gone, the new is here (2 Cor 5:17, NIV cf. Milne, 65) • The Old is fulfilled by the New
  23. 23. THEY SAW HIS GLORIOUS SIGN • 11 What Jesus did here in Cana of Galilee was the first [or primary] of the signs through which he revealed his glory; and his disciples believed [faithed] in him. (Jn 2:11, NIV) • 14 The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth. (Jn 1:14, NIV cf. Morris, 163; Osborne, 45) • Many say John records six or seven signs culminating with the Resurrection of Lazarus (Carson, 175 cf. Jn 2:1–11; 4:43–54; 5:1–18; 6:1–15; 9:1–41; 11:1–57 Klink, 169 ) • “In John a sign is more than just a wonder; it is a powerful act for the one who has eyes to see because it points to the reality of who Jesus is.” (Borchert, 157; Carson, 175) • 30 Jesus performed many other signs in the presence of his disciples, which are not recorded in this book. 31 But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name (Jn 20:30-31, NIV cf. Kruse, 97; Morris, 163; Osborne, 45)
  24. 24. OT SIGNS • One of Moses’ first signs: turning water into blood (Ex 7:20, NIV cf. Keener, IVP) • 12 And God said, “I will be with you. And this will be the sign to you that it is I who have sent you: When you have brought the people out of Egypt, you will worship God on this mountain.” (Ex 3:12, NIV) • 8 Then the LORD said, “If they do not believe you or pay attention to the first sign, they may believe the second. 9 But if they do not believe these two signs or listen to you, take some water from the Nile and pour it on the dry ground. The water you take from the river will become blood on the ground.” (Ex 4:8-9, NIV) • 31 And when the Israelites saw the mighty hand of the LORD displayed against the Egyptians, the people feared the LORD and put their trust in him and in Moses his servant (Ex 14:31, NIV cf. Keener, 516) • 14 Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign: The virgin will conceive and give birth to a son, and will call him Immanuel. (Is 7:14, NIV)
  25. 25. MESSIANIC WEDDING (OT) • The messianic age was often portrayed in marital terms • 16 “In that day,” declares the LORD, “you will call me ‘my husband’; you will no longer call me ‘my master.’ (Hos 2:16, NIV cf. Hos 2:17-23 Osborne, 45) • 5 For your Maker is your husband— the LORD Almighty is his name— the Holy One of Israel is your Redeemer; he is called the God of all the earth. (Is 54:5, NIV cf. Is 54:4-8 Whitacre, 80) • 5 As a young man marries a young woman, so will your Builder marry you; as a bridegroom rejoices over his bride, so will your God rejoice over you. (Is 62:5, NIV cf. Whitacre, 80)
  26. 26. MESSIANIC WEDDING (NT) • 22 Jesus spoke to them again in parables, saying: 2 “The kingdom of heaven is like a king who prepared a wedding banquet for his son (Mt 22:1-2f., NIV cf. Morris, 155) • 25 “At that time the kingdom of heaven will be like ten virgins who took their lamps and went out to meet the bridegroom (Mt 25:1f., NIV cf. Lk 12:36; Morris, 155) • 19 Jesus answered, “How can the guests of the bridegroom fast while he is with them? They cannot, so long as they have him with them. 20 But the time will come when the bridegroom will be taken from them, and on that day they will fast. (Mk 2:19-20, NIV cf. Morris, 155; Jn 3:29 Klink, 168) • 9 Then the angel said to me, “Write this: Blessed are those who are invited to the wedding supper of the Lamb!” And he added, “These are the true words of God.” (Rev 19:9, NIV cf. Osborne, 45 cf. Rev 19:7-9 Klink, 167; Eph 5:25)
  27. 27. A TASTE OF WHAT’S TO COME CONCLUSION • More than just a miraculous account; it’s an epiphany of Jesus’ glory (Borchert, 157) • Jesus is not going to let anyone – no matter how close – interfere with His mission and His coming hour. His relationship with the Father is primary • Jesus’ first sign demonstrates how The Old is fulfilled by the New (grace in place of grace) • “He changes water of Judaism into the wine of Christianity…” (Morris, 155) • 17 Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, the new creation has come: The old has gone, the new is here! (2 Cor 5:17, NIV) • This is a taste of what’s to come: messianic new wine and wedding banquet for all who faith (verb) in Jesus
  28. 28. BIBLIOGRAPHY • Arndt, William, Frederick W. Danker, Walter Bauer, and F. Wilbur Gingrich. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. • Balz, Horst Robert, and Gerhard Schneider. Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1990–. • Beasley-Murray, George R. John. Vol. 36. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word, Incorporated, 2002. • Burge, Gary M., and Andrew E. Hill, eds. The Baker Illustrated Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2012. • Carson, D. A. The Gospel according to John. The Pillar New Testament Commentary. Leicester, England; Grand Rapids, MI: Inter-Varsity Press; W.B. Eerdmans, 1991. • Gangel, Kenneth O. John. Vol. 4. Holman New Testament Commentary. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2000. • Guthrie, Donald. “John.” In New Bible Commentary: 21st Century Edition, edited by D. A. Carson, R. T. France, J. A. Motyer, and G. J. Wenham, 4th ed., 1021–65. Leicester, England; Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 1994. • Keener, Craig S. The IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993. • Keener, Craig S. The Gospel of John: A Commentary & 2. Vol. 1. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2012. • Klink, Edward W., III. John. Edited by Clinton E. Arnold. Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2016. • Kruse, Colin G. John: An Introduction and Commentary. Vol. 4. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2003. • Louw, Johannes P., and Eugene Albert Nida. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains. New York: United Bible Societies, 1996. • Milne, Bruce. The Message of John: Here Is Your King!: With Study Guide. The Bible Speaks Today. Leicester, England; Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993. • Morris, Leon. The Gospel according to John. The New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1995. • Osborne, Grant, Philip W. Comfort. Cornerstone Biblical Commentary, Vol 13: John and 1, 2, and 3 John. Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 2007. • Silva, Moisés, ed. New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology and Exegesis. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2014.

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