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The Appeal of Grace, The Appeal of Faith | Luke 23:32-43 Bible Study Slideshow

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If "faith" without works is dead, did the "thief" on the cross have true faith if he had little time for works? I argue that -- perhaps in response to the gracious intercession of Christ -- the criminal has a change of heart and responds with a request -- an appeal of (true) faith. Thus, Jesus responds accordingly

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The Appeal of Grace, The Appeal of Faith | Luke 23:32-43 Bible Study Slideshow

  1. 1. THE APPEAL OF GRACE, THE APPEAL OF FAITH DANNY SCOTTON JR LUKE 23:32-43 BIBLE STUDY ALPHA BAPTIST CHURCH 1.16.19 HTTP://BIT.LY/APPEAL-OF-GRACE-FAITH
  2. 2. REVIEW: THE ONLY KIND OF FAITH THAT WORKS IS FAITH THAT WORKS • Belief that = intellectual agreement; Belief in = active trust • There is a difference between knowing about God and knowing God personally • We are able to have a relationship with God by responding to God’s grace with faith(fulness) • Grace (charis) and faith (pistis) were terms used in the first century system of patronage (patrons would do a client a favor (charis = grace); clients were to respond with loyalty, devotion, etc. (pistis = faith) • “Faith” that does not produce works (acts of godly obedience and mercy) is not true faith
  3. 3. DID THE CRIMINAL ON THE CROSS HAVE A FAITH THAT WORKS? • Can a deathbed confession demonstrate true faith? • What if someone has little time to for their faith to “work”? • How long does it take for salvation to “kick in”?
  4. 4. NAME THAT TUNE • “I’ve got sunshine…” • “My Girl” (The Temptations) • “I’m so in love with you” • “Let’s Stay Together (Al Green) • “Father, help your children” • “Jesus is Love” (Lionel Richie) • “Dark clouds may rise, strong winds may blow” • He’s Sweet I Know • “Morning by morning new mercies I see” • Great Is Thy Faithfulness • “There is a name I love to hear” • Oh, How I Love Jesus Many times, one line from a tune can remind us of the entire song
  5. 5. WHAT YOU KNOW ABOUT THAT OLD SCHOOL? PSALM 22 (NIV) 1 My God, my God, why have you forsaken e? Why are you so far from saving me, so far from my cries of anguish? 2 My God, I cry out by day, but you do not nswer, by night, but I find no rest. 3 Yet you are enthroned as the Holy One; you are the one Israel praises. 4 In you our ancestors put their trust; they trusted and you delivered them. 5 To you they cried out and were saved; in you they trusted and were not put to shame. 6 But I am a worm and not a man, scorned by everyone, despised by the people. 7 All who see me mock me; they hurl insults, shaking their heads. 8 “He trusts in the LORD,” they say, “let the LORD rescue him. Let him deliver him, since he delights in him.” 9 Yet you brought me out of the womb; you made me trust in you, even at my mother’s breast. 10 From birth I was cast on you; from my mother’s womb you have been my God. 11 Do not be far from me, for trouble is near and there is no one to help.
  6. 6. WHAT YOU KNOW ABOUT THAT OLD SCHOOL? PSALM 22 (NIV) 12 Many bulls surround me; strong bulls of Bashan encircle me. 13 Roaring lions that tear their prey open their mouths wide against me. 14 I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint. My heart has turned to wax; it has melted within me. 15 My mouth is dried up like a potsherd, and my tongue sticks to the roof of my mouth; you lay me in the dust of death. 16 Dogs surround me, a pack of villains encircles me; they pierce my hands and my feet. 17 All my bones are on display; people stare and gloat over me. 18 They divide my clothes among them and cast lots for my garment. 19 But you, LORD, do not be far from me. You are my strength; come quickly to help me. 20 Deliver me from the sword, my precious life from the power of the dogs. 21 Rescue me from the mouth of the lions; save me from the horns of the wild oxen.
  7. 7. WHAT YOU KNOW ABOUT THAT OLD SCHOOL? PSALM 22 (NIV) 22 I will declare your name to my people; in the assembly I will praise you. 23 You who fear the LORD, praise him! All you descendants of Jacob, honor him! Revere him, all you descendants of Israel! 24 For he has not despised or scorned the suffering of the afflicted one; he has not hidden his face from him but has listened to his cry for help. 25 From you comes the theme of my praise in the great assembly; before those who fear you I will fulfill my vows. 26 The poor will eat and be satisfied; those who seek the LORD will praise him— may your hearts live forever! 27 All the ends of the earth will remember and turn to the LORD, and all the families of the nations will bow down before him, 28 for dominion belongs to the LORD and he rules over the nations. 29 All the rich of the earth will feast and worship; all who go down to the dust will kneel before him— those who cannot keep themselves alive. 30 Posterity will serve him; future generations will be told about the Lord. 31 They will proclaim his righteousness, declaring to a people yet unborn: He has done it!
  8. 8. NAME THAT TUNE • 34 And at three in the afternoon Jesus cried out in a loud voice, “Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?” (which means “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”) (Mk 15:34, NIV cf. Ps 22:1) (Goldingay, 341) • Soldiers divvy up Jesus’ clothes by casting lots (Mk 15:24 cf. Ps 22:18) (Goldingay, 341 cf. Lk 23:35, Longman, 133) • Those who passed by hurled insults at him, shaking their heads… (Mk 15:29a, NIV cf. Ps 22:7b) (Goldingay, 341 cf. Lk 23:35-37) • 5 Into your hands I commit my spirit; (Ps 31:5a, NIV cf. Lk 23:46) • “The psalm [of David (Evans, 337)] which began with the cry of dereliction ends with the word he has [done] it, an announcement not far removed from our Lord’s great cry, ‘It is finished’” (Ps 22:31, Kidner, 127; cf. Jn 19:30, Watson (my NT professor)
  9. 9. STRESSED BEFORE STRETCHED • 42 “Father, if you are willing, take this cup from me; yet not my will, but yours be done.” 43 An angel from heaven appeared to him and strengthened him. 44 And being in anguish, he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat was like drops of blood falling to the ground (Lk 22:42-44, NIV) • Medical condition called hematidrosis (Metherell, in Strobel, 195). • Not common, but it’s associated with a high degree of psychological stress. • “What happens is that severe anxiety causes the release of chemicals that break down the capillaries in the sweat glands. As a result, there’s a small amount of bleeding into these glands, and the sweat comes out tinged with blood. “ • Skin would be very fragile by the time Jesus was flogged
  10. 10. MORE SEVERE THAN A SWITCH • Roman flogging usually consisted of at least 39 lashes with a scourge • Scourges were whips of braided leather thongs woven with metal balls (Strobel, 195), and even bone (Douglas, 1067). • These attachments would cause deep bruises that would eventually break open with repeated blows – as well as severe cuts (Metherell in Strobel, 195) • After flogging, sometimes a person’s spine would be exposed. Muscle fibers, veins, and even the bowels of a victim were laid bare. Many people died from just the flogging – or at least went into hypovolemic shock (Metherell in Strobel, 195-96) • “First, the heart races to try to pump blood that isn’t there; second, the blood pressure drops, causing fainting or collapse; third, the kidneys stop producing urine to maintain what volume is left; and fourth, the person becomes very thirsty as the body craves fluids to replace the lost blood volume.”(Metherell in Strobel, 196 cf. “I am thirsty” (Jn 19:28b, NIV))
  11. 11. TAKE UP YOUR CROSS • 23 Then he said to them all: “Whoever wants to be my disciple must deny themselves and take up their cross daily and follow me (Lk 9:23, NIV cf. Lk 23:26 (Stein)) • 26 As the soldiers led him away, they seized Simon from Cyrene, who was on his way in from the country, and put the cross on him and made him carry it behind Jesus (Lk 23:26, NIV) • Cyrene was in North Africa (Bock, IVP), in region that is now Libya (Keener) • “Condemned criminals normally bore their own crosses (i.e., the horizontal beam of the cross)” (Keener cf. Morris, 342) • Without sleeping and after being flogged, Jesus needs help carrying the cross (Bock, NIVAC, 593 cf. Keener). • Crucifixion not just about public execution, but public humiliation. The condemned person’s agonizing death was meant to deter others (Green, 810). Romans would pick places with maximum traffic (Green, 819); people often died naked (Edwards, 685)
  12. 12. DEATH ON A CROSS • Crucifixions could last for days and bodies could be left to rot, but the Jews had to wrap things up (literally) before the Sabbath started at sundown (Keener, Jn 19:31). • Spikes (five to seven inches) would be nailed through the wrists, locking the hand in place, and crushing the median nerve • Funny bone = ulnar nerve. “…picture taking a pair of pliers and squeezing and crushing that nerve…” (above from Metherell in Strobel, 197 cf. Jn 20:25, (and feet) 24:39, Morris, 344). • Once suspended, his shoulders likely would have been dislocated (Metherell in Strobel, 197 cf. Ps 22:14b “all my bones are out of joint” (NIV)) • Death by asphyxiation (lack of oxygen). Breaking legs would speed the process (Keener) • Hypovolemic shock would have led to heart failure, leading to a collection of fluid around the heart (pericardial effusion) and the lungs (pleural effusion) (Metherell in Strobel, 198 cf. “blood and water” from his pierced side (Jn 19:34, NIV cf. Carson, 623-24).
  13. 13. SON OF MAN ON A MISSION: THE ROAD TO THE CROSS • 33 The child’s father and mother marveled at what was said about him. 34 Then Simeon blessed them and said to Mary, his mother: “This child is destined to cause the falling and rising of many in Israel, and to be a sign that will be spoken against, 35 so that the thoughts of many hearts will be revealed. And a sword will pierce your own soul too.” (Lk 2:34-35 cf. Wilcock, 199). • 22 And he said, “The Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests and the teachers of the law, and he must be killed and on the third day be raised to life.” (Lk 9:22, NIV cf. Wilcock, 199) • 30 Two men, Moses and Elijah, appeared in glorious splendor, talking with Jesus. 31 They spoke about his departure [ἔξοδος | exhodos], which he was about to bring to fulfillment at Jerusalem (Lk 9:30-31, NIV cf. Wilcock, 199) • The First Exodus was the prime example of God’s salvation in the OT; the Second Exodus at the Cross is the quintessential example of God’s salvation in the NT (cf. Longman, 289, Edwards, 679)
  14. 14. SON OF MAN ON A MISSION: THE ROAD TO THE CROSS • 31 Jesus took the Twelve aside and told them, “We are going up to Jerusalem, and everything that is written by the prophets about the Son of Man will be fulfilled. 32 He will be delivered over to the Gentiles. They will mock him, insult him and spit on him; 33 they will flog him and kill him. On the third day he will rise again.” (Lk 18:31-33, NIV cf. 17:25 Wilcock, 199) • 13 “In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence. 14 He was given authority, glory and sovereign power; all nations and peoples of every language worshiped him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed (Dn 7:13-14, NIV) • Again the high priest asked him, “Are you the Messiah, the Son of the Blessed One?” 62 “I am,” said Jesus. “And you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven” (Mk 14:61-62, NIV) • 27 A large number of people followed him, including women who mourned and wailed for him. (Lk 23:27, NIV). Theme of procession to the cross (Edwards, 679)
  15. 15. LUKE 23:32-39 (NIV) • 32 Two other men, both criminals, were also led out with him to be executed. 33 When they came to the place called the Skull, they crucified him there, along with the criminals—one on his right, the other on his left. 34 Jesus said, “Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing.” And they divided up his clothes by casting lots. • 35 The people stood watching, and the rulers even sneered at him. They said, “He saved others; let him save himself if he is God’s Messiah, the Chosen One.” • 36 The soldiers also came up and mocked him. They offered him wine vinegar 37 and said, “If you are the king of the Jews, save yourself.” • 38 There was a written notice above him, which read: THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS. 39 One of the criminals who hung there hurled insults at him: “Aren’t you the Messiah? Save yourself and us!”
  16. 16. LUKE 22:40-43 (NIV) • 40 But the other criminal rebuked him. “Don’t you fear God,” he said, “since you are under the same sentence? 41 We are punished justly, for we are getting what our deeds deserve. But this man has done nothing wrong.” • 42 Then he said, “Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom.” • 43 Jesus answered him, “Truly I tell you, today you will be with me in paradise.”
  17. 17. THREE: IT’S A MESSIANIC NUMBER • Peter denies Jesus three times (Lk 22:54-62 Edwards, 679) • Pilate declares Jesus innocent three times (Lk 23:4, 14, 22 Edwards, 679) • Jesus is mocked as Messiah three times (Lk 23:35, 37, 39 Edwards, 679 cf. Schreiner, 838; cf. “save yourself” (Stein, 589); Bock (IVP)) • Criminals called criminals three times (Lk 22:32, 33, 39 Edwards, 679) • “Jesus makes three declarations” (Lk 23:34, 43, 46 Edwards, 679) • “Repetitions of three, in particular, often connote completeness or finality in Judaism” (Edwards, 679). Everything must be completed/fulfilled (Lk 18:31, 22:37, 24:44) (Edwards, 679).
  18. 18. CRIMINALS, THIEVES, AND/OR REBELS? OH MY! • 32 Two other men, both criminals, were also led out with him to be executed (Lk 23:32, NIV) • Luke: criminals (κακοῦργος | kakourgos); Matthew and Mark (more specifically): “thieves” (Morris, 344) or “rebels” (λῃστής | lēstēs) (Garland, 920). Can mean robber or revolutionary (NIDTTE, Bock (IVP); Stein, 588) • Rebels who were considered threats to the Roman state were often crucified (Green, 819). Less work for soldiers to execute multiple people at the same time (Keener, LK 23:32) • 37 It is written: ‘And he was numbered with the transgressors’; and I tell you that this must be fulfilled in me. Yes, what is written about me is reaching its fulfillment (Lk 22:37, NIV) • 12 Therefore I will give him a portion among the great, / and he will divide the spoils with the strong, / because he poured out his life unto death, / and was numbered with the transgressors. / For he bore the sin of many, / and made intercession for the transgressors (Is 53:12 cf. Bock (BECNT), 1848; Garland, 920, etc.) • 5 But he was pierced for our transgressions / he was crushed for our iniquities; / the punishment that brought us peace was on him, / and by his wounds we are healed (Is 53:5)
  19. 19. NUMBERED WITH THE TRANSGRESSORS AT CALVARY • 33 When they came to the place called the Skull, they crucified him there, along with the criminals—one on his right, the other on his left (Lk 23:33, NIV) • Name That Tune: Years I spend in Vanity and pride / caring not my Lord was crucified / Knowing not it was for me He died… • The Skull – Aramaic: “Golgotha”; Latin: “Calvaria” (Calvary) • ( ?) Hill outside city where executions took place looked like a skull (Bock (NIVAC), 594; probably at site of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem cf. Stein, 588; Edwards, 684). • “Jesus is the bridge by which the unrighteous can become the righteous.” (Bock, NIVAC, 595) • …one mediator between God and mankind, the man Christ Jesus, (1 Tim 2:5b, NIV) • 20 “My prayer is not for them alone. I pray also for those who will believe in me through their [the disciples] message (Jn 17:20, NIV cf. Is 53:12)
  20. 20. INTERCESSION FOR THE TRANSGRESSORS • Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing.” And they divided up his clothes by casting lots (Lk 23:34, NIV cf. Ps 22:18 (Green, 820; etc.)). • Textual issues aside, there’s good reason to believe Jesus uttered this unbelievable statement (Morris, 344; Stein, 589; Edwards, 687; Garland, 922; Marshall, 868; contra Metzger, 154) • 60 Then he fell on his knees and cried out, “Lord, do not hold this sin against them.” (Ac 7:60a, NIV); Luke parallels Jesus and Stephen (Keener, Lk 23:34 cf. Bock (BECNT), 1849) • “Them” probably both the Jews who had him arrested and Romans who had him crucified (Morris, 344; Green, 819; though maybe primarily to the Jews (Bock (BECNT), 1849) contra only to the Jews in Evans, 388) • 48 But the one who does not know and does things deserving punishment will be beaten with few blows. From everyone who has been given much, much will be demanded; and from the one who has been entrusted with much, much more will be asked (Lk 12:48 cf. Green, 819 cf. Lev 4:2, Num 15:25-26 (Edwards, 688). With greater knowledge comes greater culpability. • They know what they are doing to Jesus, but they don’t know what God is doing through Jesus (Edwards, 688)
  21. 21. CHIASTIC (X) MOCKING OF CHRIST A)The leaders mock, “Let him save himself, if this one is God’s Messiah” (23:35b) B The soldiers mock, “If you are the king of the Jews” (23:36–37) B′ The titulus announcing: “This one is the king of the Jews” (23:38) A′) One evildoer taunts: “Are you not the Messiah? Save yourself and us” (23:39) • (quoted and adapted from Garland, 923 cf. Stein, 590) • Sarcastically but appropriately, by the Jews he is called “Messiah”; by the Romans he is called “King of the Jews” (Green, 821) • Ironically, they are both correct! (Bock (IVP) cf. Garland, 923)
  22. 22. SAVE YOURSELF! • 35 The people stood watching, and the rulers even sneered at him. They said, “He saved others; let him save himself if he is God’s Messiah, the Chosen One.” (Lk 23:35 cf. Ps 22:7-8 (in LXX, Bock (BECNT), 1851) • All who see me mock me; / they hurl insults, shaking their heads. / 8 “He trusts in the LORD,” they say, / “let the LORD rescue him. / Let him deliver him, / since he delights in him.” (Ps 22:7-8, NIV cf. Stein, 589, etc.) • Devil: “If you are the Son of God…” (Lk 4:3, 6-9) (Keener; Stein, 589) • Jesus “saved” (σῴζω | sōzō) = “save,” “make well,” etc. (NIDTTE)) others. 36 Those who had seen it told the people how the demon-possessed man had been cured [sōzō] (Lk 8:36, NIV) • 48 Then he said to her, “Daughter, your faith has healed [sōzō] you. Go in peace.” (Lk 8:48, NIV) Jairus’ daughter (Lk 8:50) and the blind man are “healed” (Lk 18:42); Lepers’ faith “made him well” (Lk 17:19); “saves” woman who anointed Jesus (Lk 7:50, all from NIV) (Stein, 589; Garland, 923) • Irony: Jesus is saving (Keener). “It is precisely because Jesus is the Savior…that he must suffer and fulfill what the Scriptures said (Stein, 589).
  23. 23. COCKTAIL FOR A CROOK • 36 The soldiers also came up and mocked him. They offered him wine vinegar 37 and said, “If you are the king of the Jews, save yourself.” (Lk 23:36-37, NIV) • Wine vinegar = cheap wine (Morris, 345; Bock (BECNT), 1852, etc.), maybe mixed with water and egg (Garland, 924) • Psalm 69 (of David) is a psalm of lament in which a righteous sufferer (e.g., Ps 69:9 cf. Jn 2:17) wishes his enemies to be cursed – before he ends in praise (cf. Longman, 262; Edwards, 689) • 21 They put gall in my food / and gave me vinegar for my thirst. (Ps 69:21 cf. Green, 821; Stein, 590 cf. LXX - Kidner, 266; Bock (BECNT), 1852, etc.) • May be to give him strength so that he could suffer longer (Garland, 924) • Like serving Kool-Aid to a president. Esteemed guests should get the “good china”
  24. 24. IRONIC INSCRIPTION • 38 There was a written notice above him, which read: THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS. (Lk 23:38, NIV) • Many of the Jews read this sign, for the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city, and the sign was written in Aramaic, Latin and Greek. (Jn 19:20, NIV cf. Morris, 345) • Condemned people often carried their charge on a placard (Latin: titulus) to their execution (Keener, Lk 23:38 cf. Stein, 590) to deter others (Green, 821) • Jesus did not really threaten the rule of the emperor (Green, 821), but at the same time he was a king who was ushering in His kingdom • 32 He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father David, 33 and he will reign over Jacob’s descendants forever; his kingdom will never end. (Lk 1:32-33, NIV cf. Stein, 590 – Lk 19:38 cf. “Son of David” - Lk 2:4)
  25. 25. LOOK WHO’S TALKIN’ • 39 One of the criminals who hung there hurled insults at him: “Aren’t you the Messiah? Save yourself and us!” (Lk 23:39, NIV) • Hurled insults (lit: “blaspheme” Stein, 592; Edwards, 690) • “Even a dying criminal makes a dig” (Bock (BECNT), 1854). • Third repetition of “save yourself” (Garland, 924) A)The leaders mock, “Let him save himself, if this one is God’s Messiah” (23:35b) B The soldiers mock, “If you are the king of the Jews” (23:36–37) B′ The titulus announcing: “This one is the king of the Jews” (23:38) A′) One evildoer taunts: “Are you not the Messiah? Save yourself and us” (23:39) (Garland, 923).
  26. 26. CHANGE OF HEART • 40 But the other criminal rebuked him. “Don’t you fear God,” he said, “since you are under the same sentence? 41 We are punished justly, for we are getting what our deeds deserve. But this man has done nothing wrong.” (Lk 23:40-41, NIV) • Herod (Antipas – son of Herod the Great who ruled when Jesus was born (Myers, 62) and Pilate have declared Jesus innocent (Lk 23:14-15 cf. Wilcock, 201, etc.). • Now a third declaration of innocence: the criminal (Bock (BECNT), 1856) • The criminal confesses that he is a sinner (Green, 822); an “integral part of repentance” (Stein, 592 cf. Bock (BECNT), 1856)
  27. 27. THE APPEAL OF GRACE • 44 In the same way the rebels who were crucified with him also heaped insults on him. (Mt 27:44, NIV cf. Bock (IVP), Lk 23:26) • Those crucified with him also heaped insults on him. (Mk 15:32b, NIV cf. Bock (IVP), Lk 23:26) • At the beginning, both criminals taunt Jesus; but one has a change of heart. Why? • The gracious intercessory prayer (?!) (Garland, 925) Jesus: Father, forgive them for they know not what they do (Lk 23:34)
  28. 28. THE APPEAL OF FAITH • Then he said, “Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom”(Lk 23:42, NIV) • Remember = “act to save” (Stein, 592 cf. Ps 106:4; Bock (BECNT), 1856) • Cupbearer: 14 But when all goes well with you, remember me and show me kindness; mention me to Pharaoh and get me out of this prison (Gen 40:14, NIV) • Unlike the others, the criminal believes that Jesus is the Messiah, that Jesus can save (Green, 822 cf. Marshall, 872), and that Jesus will reign as King (Bock (NIVAC), 596). • He asks for salvation not in this world, but in the world to come (Garland, 925) when Jesus begins his reign (Schreiner, 838) – in the future (Bock (IVP)) • The criminal makes an “appeal” to Jesus (Marshall, 872). “He confesses his guilt and casts himself on Jesus’ mercy and saving power.” (Bock (IVP))
  29. 29. THE APPEAL OF FAITH • Do you go to the bank and ask for French fries? • Do you go to the gym and ask for an oil change? • Do you ask people with no money for a loan? • Do you ask for salvation from someone with no power to save? • Do you ask for forgiveness from someone with no power to forgive? • Do you ask for healing from one with no power to heal? • Believing that the police can help is not the same as calling 911 • Believing that Jesus can save, is not the same as calling on the name of Jesus • The criminal makes an “appeal of faith”
  30. 30. MORE THAN HE ASKED FOR • 43 Jesus answered him, “Truly I tell you, today you will be with me in paradise.” (Lk 23:43, NIV) • Ever ask someone for a dollar and they give you a twenty? • Truly = ἀμήν (amēn) from a Hebrew adjective meaning “trustworthy” (‫ן‬ ֵ‫מ‬ ָ‫)א‬ • Jews expected deliverance came on the Last Day (cf. Bock (BECNT), 1856 cf. final resurrection, 1857) • The criminal asked to be in Jesus’ kingdom some day in the future; Jesus says today (cf. Lk 4:21, 19:9 – “immediacy” Green, 822; Edwards, 692; Bock (BECNT), 1857; “salvation available immediately” cf. Lk 2:11; 5:26 –Garland, 926) • Paradise = παράδεισος (paradeisos) meaning “garden, park, paradise” (NIDTTE) (e.g., the garden of Eden (LXX Gen 2:8 cf. Stein, 593) • Eventually, the “final abode of the righteous” (Stein, 593) in the coming world (Morris, 346) was called “paradise” (Ezek 31:8; 2 Cor 12:4; Rev 2:7 – Stein, 593 cf. Keener; Evans, 341, etc.)
  31. 31. THE APPEAL OF GRACE, THE APPEAL OF FAITH (LK 23:32-43) • Son of Man on a Mission: Jesus endures an painful, public, humiliating death on the cross while being mocked and insulted – despite his righteousness and innocence • Name That Tune: Jesus fulfills Scriptures written in the Psalms (e.g., 22, 31, 69) • Jesus fulfills the prophecy of the Suffering Servant in Isaiah 53 (starting at 52:13) who was pierced for our transgressions (Is 53:5) while numbered with the transgressors (Is 53:12), and graciously making intercession for the transgressors (cf. Is 53:12) • Perhaps one criminal finds his gracious intercession so appealing, he has a change of heart • The criminal then makes an appeal of faith – not only believing that Jesus can save him, but believing in Jesus to save him • He puts his faith into action by confessing his sin and asking the King for mercy • May we also graciously intercede for others • May our gracious actions be so appealing, that others make an appeal of faith (cf. Mt 5:16)
  32. 32. BIBLIOGRAPHY • Bock, Darrell L. Luke. The IVP New Testament Commentary Series. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1994. • Bock, Darrell L. Luke: 9:51–24:53. Vol. 2. Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 1996. • Bock, Darrell L. Luke. The NIV Application Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1996. • Carson, D. A. The Gospel according to John. The Pillar New Testament Commentary. Leicester, England; Grand Rapids, MI: Inter-Varsity Press; W.B. Eerdmans, 1991. • Douglas, J. D., and F. F. Bruce. “Scourging, Scourge.” Edited by D. R. W. Wood, I. H. Marshall, A. R. Millard, J. I. Packer, and D. J. Wiseman. New Bible Dictionary. Leicester, England; Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1996. • Edwards, James R. The Gospel according to Luke. Edited by D. A. Carson. The Pillar New Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI; Cambridge, U.K.; Nottingham, England: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company; Apollos, 2015. • Evans, Craig A. Luke. Understanding the Bible Commentary Series. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1990. • Garland, David E. Luke. Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament: . Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2012. • Goldingay, John. Baker Commentary on the Old Testament: Psalms 1–41. Edited by Tremper Longman III. Vol. 1. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2006. • Green, Joel B. The Gospel of Luke. The New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1997. • Keener, Craig S. The IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993. • Kidner, Derek. Psalms 1–72: An Introduction and Commentary. Vol. 15. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1973. • Longman, Tremper, III. Psalms: An Introduction and Commentary. Edited by David G. Firth. Vol. 15–16. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Nottingham, England: Inter-Varsity Press, 2014. • Marshall, I. Howard. The Gospel of Luke: A Commentary on the Greek Text. New International Greek Testament Commentary. Exeter: Paternoster Press, 1978. • Marshall, I. Howard. “Luke.” In New Bible Commentary: 21st Century Edition, edited by D. A. Carson, R. T. France, J. A. Motyer, and G. J. Wenham, 4th ed., 978–1020. Leicester, England; Downers Grove, IL: Inter- Varsity Press, 1994. • Metzger, Bruce Manning, United Bible Societies. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, Second Edition a Companion Volume to the United Bible Societies’ Greek New Testament (4th Rev. Ed.). London; New York: United Bible Societies, 1994. • Myers, Allen C. The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1987. • Schreiner, Thomas R. “Luke.” In Evangelical Commentary on the Bible, 3:799–839. Baker Reference Library. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1995. • Silva, Moisés, ed. New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology and Exegesis. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2014. • Strobel, Lee. The Case for Christ: A Journalist's Personal Investigation of the Evidence for Jesus. Zondervan. Kindle Edition, 1998. • Wilcock, Michael. The Savior of the World: The Message of Luke’s Gospel. The Bible Speaks Today. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1979.

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