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Luke 4:1-13 Sunday School Slides | Testing / Temptation of Jesus


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Divine Paternity Tests. All of Jesus' temptations were intended to disrupt Jesus' faithful, obedient, submissive relationship to the Father. We too, led by the Holy Spirit, can rely on Scripture when tested...

First shared by Danny Scotton Jr on 2.3.19 at Alpha Baptist Church in Willngboro, NJ

For translation, main points, sources and more: or

Published in: Spiritual
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Luke 4:1-13 Sunday School Slides | Testing / Temptation of Jesus

  3. 3. TEMPTATIONS ARE… TEMPTING • “saw that the fruit of the tree was good for food and pleasing to the eye” (Gen 3:6b, NIV) • Temptations often seem pleasing to the eye • Temptations often seem pleasing to our ears • Temptations often may even seem to be pleasing to God (i.e., in accordance with His word and His will) • We can’t just trust our own intuition (cf. Jer 17:9), but blessed is the one who trusts in the LORD (Jer 17:6 cf. Prov 3:5-6)
  4. 4. SON(S) OF GOD • 12 Yet to all who did receive him, to those who believed [faithed] in his name, he gave the right to become children of God… (Jn 1:12, NIV) • (Angel Gabriel to Mary): He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father David, and he will reign over Jacob’s descendants forever; his kingdom will never end.” (Lk 1:32-33, NIV) • (During Baptism) 22 and the Holy Spirit descended on him in bodily form like a dove. And a voice came from heaven: “You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased.” (Lk 3:21- 22, NIV) • (Genealogy ends): 38 the son of Enosh, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God. (Lk 3:38, NIV) • (Jesus’ first words in Luke): 48 When his parents saw him, they were astonished. His mother said to him, “Son, why have you treated us like this? Your father and I have been anxiously searching for you.” 49 “Why were you searching for me?” he asked. “Didn’t you know I had to be in my Father’s house?” (Lk 2:48-49, NIV; Edwards, 125). He was about the Father’s business
  5. 5. DIVINE PATERNITY TEST(S) • Satan tries to test Jesus’ obedient relationship with the Father as His Son (Green, 191; Edwards, 124, Stein, 144; Bock BECNT, 368; Garland, 176; Marshall, 167-8, etc.) • This is Christ’s final preparation before he begins His public ministry (Lk 4:16f; Green, 191; Stein, 144; Schreiner, 810) • Unlike past “sons” of God, the Son of God passes the divine paternity test. He succeeds where Adam and Israel failed (Green, 193; Bock BECNT, 366; Keener) • He succeeds by rightly citing and obeying Scripture; He cites Deuteronomy three times (Dt 8:3, 6:13, 6:16; Garland, 177; etc.)
  6. 6. GO, SEE/HEAR IT ON THE MOUNTAIN • In the OT, mountains are often places of divine revelation (Arnold, 404) • Moses saw the burning Bush at Mt. Horeb/Sinai (Ex 3:12) • The Ten Commandments were given at Mt. Sinai (Ex 19:23f.) • Moses saw the glory of the LORD at Mt. Sinai (Ex 24:23-34; Arnold, 404) • Elijah defeats the prophets of Baal on Mt. Carmel (1 Kings 18; Arnold, 404) • Elijah hears the “still, small voice” on Mt. Horeb/Sinai (1 Kings 19; Arnold 404) • In Matthew, mountains are also placed of divine revelation (Stein, 145) • Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5-7) • Transfiguration is on a mountain (Arnold, 404) w/ Moses & Elijah (Mt 17:1-13) • The Great Commission is on a mountain (Mt 28:16-20; Stein, 145, etc. )
  7. 7. LUKE: SON OF MAN ON A MISSION… TO JERUSALEM • Luke emphasizes Jesus’ mission that would be accomplished in Jerusalem – which he mentions over ten times (between Lk 9:31 and 19:28; Edwards, 126). • 30 Two men, Moses and Elijah, appeared in glorious splendor, talking with Jesus. 31 They spoke about his departure [ἔξοδος | exhodos], which he was about to bring to fulfillment at Jerusalem (Lk 9:30-31, NIV; Edwards, 126) • 51 As the time approached for him to be taken up to heaven, Jesus resolutely set out for Jerusalem (Lk 9:51, NIV; Evans, 65; Edwards, 126; cf. Lk 19:11; Garland, 177; cf. Lk 10:30;13:4, 34) • surely no prophet can die outside Jerusalem! (Lk 13:33b, NIV; Evans, 65; Edwards, 126) • 31 Jesus took the Twelve aside and told them, “We are going up to Jerusalem, and everything that is written by the prophets about the Son of Man will be fulfilled. 32 He will be delivered over to the Gentiles. They will mock him, insult him and spit on him; 33 they will flog him and kill him. On the third day he will rise again.” (Lk 18:31-33, NIV cf. 13:22, 17:11, 19:26; Edwards, 126)
  8. 8. NUMBERS CHRIST-CROSSED? • Matthew (4:1-11): (1) bread, (2) temple, (3) kingdoms (Evans, 65) • 8 Again, the devil took him to a very high mountain and showed him all the kingdoms of the world and their splendor. 9 “All this I will give you,” he said, “if you will bow down and worship me.” (Mt 4:8-9, NIV) • Luke (4:1-13): (1) bread, (2) kingdoms, (3) temple (Evans, 65) • Luke ends with Jerusalem – the place of the climax of Christ’s mission (Evans, 65; Edwards, 126; Bock BECNT, 366; Marshall, 167) • Luke follows the order of the temptations mentioned in Psalm 106 (Garland, 178) • (1) Live not on bread alone (Ps 106:14-15 cf. Num 11:4; Garland, 178) • (2) False worship (Ps 106:19-20 cf. Exodus 32; Garland, 178) • (3) Do not put the LORD to the test (Ps 106:32-33 cf. Num 20:2-13; Garland, 178)
  9. 9. DIVINE PATERNITY TEST #1 NOT ON BREAD ALONE • 4 Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, left the Jordan and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness, 2 where for forty days he was tempted by the devil. He ate nothing during those days, and at the end of them he was hungry. 3 The devil said to him, “If you are the Son of God, tell this stone to become bread.” 4 Jesus answered, “It is written: ‘Man shall not live on bread alone.’ (Lk 4:1-4, NIV) • 21 When all the people were being baptized, Jesus was baptized too. And as he was praying, heaven was opened 22 and the Holy Spirit descended on him in bodily form like a dove. And a voice came from heaven: “You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased.” (Lk 3:21-22, NIV) • 38 the son of Enosh, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God (Lk 3:38, NIV)
  10. 10. WANDERING FOR FORTY • After the Exodus, Moses sent 12 spies to explore the Promised Land. “25 At the end of forty days they returned from exploring the land.” (Num 13:25, NIV) • All but Joshua and Caleb thought the people in the land were too mighty to be defeated (Num 13:31-14:10) • 22 not one of those who saw my glory and the signs I performed in Egypt and in the wilderness but who disobeyed me and tested me ten times— 23 not one of them will ever see the land I promised on oath to their ancestors.”(Num 14:22-23, NIV) • 34 For forty years—one year for each of the forty days you explored the land—you will suffer for your sins and know what it is like to have me against you.’ 35 I, the LORD, have spoken, and I will surely do these things to this whole wicked community, which has banded together against me. They will meet their end in this wilderness; here they will die. (Num 14:34-35, NIV cf.
  11. 11. PREPARING FOR FORTY • 27 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Write down these words, for in accordance with these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israel.” 28 Moses was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights without eating bread or drinking water. And he wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant—the Ten Commandments. (Ex 34:27-28, NIV; Stein, 146; Evans, 65 cf. Ex 24:18; Bock BECNT, 370; Arnold, 360). • 9 When I went up on the mountain to receive the tablets of stone, the tablets of the covenant that the LORD had made with you, I stayed on the mountain forty days and forty nights; I ate no bread and drank no water. (Dt. 9:9, NIV; Stein, 146; Evans, 65; Marshall, 169). • 8 So he [Elijah] got up and ate and drank. Strengthened by that food, he traveled forty days and forty nights until he reached Horeb, the mountain of God. (1 Ki 19:8, NIV; Stein, 146; Evans, 65; Bock BECNT, 370; Marshall, 169; Arnold, 360) • Before they proclaimed the word of God, Moses and (perhaps) Elijah both fasted forty days and forty nights (Evans, 65; Luke uses similar wording to Moses (LXX) – Marshall, 169)
  12. 12. THE MISREPRESENTER, TESTING • Ever have someone try to disrupt your relationship? • Luke uses the Gk. word διάβολος (diabolos) (like diabolical) instead of Satan (“‫ן‬ ָׂ‫ט‬ ָׂ‫ש‬ (śāṭān) adversary”) (TWOT, 874). Diablos means: (hostile) accuser, slanderer (NIDNTTE, 691) or “misrepresenter” (Edwards, 127). • The misrepresenter attempts to lead God’s children astray and disrupt their relationship with the Father (Edwards, 127; Garland, 180) – through disobedience • “Tempt” (πειράζω | peirazō) also means “to try, test, put on trial” (NIDNTTE, 694). • God tested His people to “assess the reality of their faith[fulness]” (Marshall, 169) • 4 Then the LORD said to Moses, “I will rain down bread from heaven for you. The people are to go out each day and gather enough for that day. In this way I will test them and see whether they will follow my instructions (Ex 16:4, NIV; Marshall, 169)
  13. 13. HUNGRY? • Do you ever find yourself in a bad mood when you are hungry? • After fasting 40 days, Jesus is hungry (Lk 4:2) and likely more vulnerable (Garland, 180) • 3 The devil said to him, “If you are the Son of God, tell this stone to become bread.” 4 Jesus answered, “It is written: ‘Man shall not live on bread alone.’” (Lk 4:3-4, NIV) • 2 Remember how the LORD your God led you all the way in the wilderness these forty years, to humble and test you in order to know what was in your heart, whether or not you would keep his commands. 3 He humbled you, causing you to hunger and then feeding you with manna, which neither you nor your ancestors had known, to teach you that man does not live on bread alone but on every word that comes from the mouth of the LORD (Dt. 8:3, NIV; Green, 192; etc.)
  14. 14. DIVINE PATERNITY TEST #1 NOT ON BREAD ALONE • Devil doesn’t doubt that Jesus is the Son of God; he tries to get Jesus to act like He is not the Son of God – by acting independently for His own purposes (Green, 194; Stein, 146; Edwards, 127; Bock BECNT, 372; Garland, 181; Marshall, 170; Bock NIVAC, 128). • 22 Then say to Pharaoh, ‘This is what the LORD says: Israel is my firstborn son, 23 and I told you, “Let my son go, so he may worship me.” (Ex 4:22-23a, NIV; Green, 192; Arnold, 359) • Israel, son of God, (Ex 4:22-23) failed the test in the wilderness (Garland, 179) • Adam, son of God, (Luke 3:38), failed the test in the Garden (Bock BECNT, 371cf. Gen 3:1f) • Jesus, the Son of God (Lk 1:32-33, 3:21-22), passes the test (Bock BECNT, 371) • “Israel was tested with hunger so that she would learn dependence on God, but failed to do so. Jesus depends wholly on God for his sustenance.” (Arnold, 359; Stein, 146 cf. Jn 1:12) • “for Jesus, life is doing God’s will, not providing for self.” (Bock BECNT, 374)
  15. 15. DIVINE PATERNITY TEST #2 FALSE WORSHIP • 5 The devil led him up to a high place and showed him in an instant all the kingdoms of the world. 6 And he said to him, “I will give you all their authority and splendor; it has been given to me, and I can give it to anyone I want to. 7 If you worship me, it will all be yours.” 8 Jesus answered, “It is written: ‘Worship the Lord your God and serve him only.’” (Lk 4:5-8, NIV) • Worship (προσκυνέω | proskyneō) = “to express in attitude or gesture one’s complete dependence on or submission to a high authority figure, (fall down and) worship… prostrate oneself before…” (BDAG, 882)
  16. 16. (LIMITED) WORLDLY POWER • Though God is ultimately in control, the devil has worldly power (Stein, 147; Edwards, 128) • Even Caesar had power for a census through the entire world (Lk 2:1; Edwards, 128) • 19 We know that we are children of God, and that the whole world is under the control of the evil one. (1 Jn 5:19, NIV; Bock BECNT, 375) • 4 The god of this age has blinded the minds of unbelievers, so that they cannot see the light of the gospel that displays the glory of Christ, who is the image of God (2 Cor 4:4, NIV; Bock BECNT, 375; Arnold, 360). • The devil is also called the “the ruler of the kingdom of the air, the spirit who is now at work in those who are disobedient” (Eph 2:2, NIV; Bock BECNT, 375; Arnold, 360) • 31 Now is the time for judgment on this world; now the prince of this world will be driven out. 32 And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself.” (Jn 12:31–32, NIV; cf.14:30,16:11; Bock BECNT, 375; Edwards, 128; Garland, 182).
  17. 17. TRUE POWER • The devil may be deluded or at least overselling his authority. He is the father of lies (Jn 8:44; Bock BECNT, 376; Bock IVP; Arnold, cf. Dan 4:32; Keener) • 33 In the synagogue there was a man possessed by a demon, an impure spirit. He cried out at the top of his voice, 34 “Go away! What do you want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are—the Holy One of God!” (Lk 4:33-34, NIV; Bock BECNT, 376) • Jesus has the authority to drive out demons (cf. Lk 8:26-39; Bock BECNT, 376) • Jesus came to proclaim the good news of the kingdom of God (Lk 4:43); the devil is talking about kingdoms of the world • The angel Gabriel already promised Mary that Jesus would have a never-ending kingdom (Lk 1:32-33; Garland, 182) • Devil offers a “shortcut” (Stein, 147, etc.) – a crown without a cross (Morris, 122; Stein,147)
  18. 18. CHANGED THAT TUNE? • When the night has come, and the land is dark, and the moon, is the only, light we’ll see… • Stand by Me (Ben E. King, 1961) • If anybody asks you, where I’m going… • Goin Up Yonder (Walter Hawkins, Tramaine Hawkins, Love Center Choir, 1975) • The Messianic king, the Son of God, is promised power in Psalm 2 (Bock BECNT, 376; Marshall, 172; Green, 194 ) • 7 I will proclaim the LORD’s decree: / He said to me, “You are my son; / today I have become your father. / 8 Ask me, / and I will make the nations your inheritance, the ends of the earth your possession. (Ps 2:7-8, NIV cf. Dn 7:13-14; Bock BECNT, 376; Marshall, 172 cf. Mt 28:18)
  19. 19. FALSE PROMISE, FALSE WORSHIP • 7 If you worship me, it will all be yours.” (Lk 4:7, NIV) • God is going to grant Jesus all authority and an everlasting kingdom. Why settle for a temporary, earthly one? (cf. Ac 10:42, 17:31; Bock BECNT, 378) • Again, the devil tries to disrupt Jesus’ faithful, obedient relationship with the Father. He wants Jesus’ allegiance. (Bock BECNT, 378; Green, 194; Garland, 182) • 13 Fear the LORD your God, serve him only (Dt 6:13a, NIV cf. Ex 20:3; Edwards, 129). Only God is worthy of our allegiance. (Bock IVP) • Shema (Dt. 6:4-5, etc.) 4 Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one. 5 Love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength (Dt 6:4-5, NIV; Bock IVP; Bock NIVAC, 129)
  20. 20. DIVINE PATERNITY TEST #2 FALSE WORSHIP • Israel, son of God (Ex 4:22-23), engaged in idolatry and served other gods. • Then the LORD told me, “Go down from here at once, because your people whom you brought out of Egypt have become corrupt. They have turned away quickly from what I commanded them and have made an idol for themselves.” (Dt 9:12, NIV; Arnold, 359; Garland, 182) • 5 The Israelites lived among the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites. 6 They took their daughters in marriage and gave their own daughters to their sons, and served their gods (Jdg 3:5-6, NIV; Arnold, 359; Garland, 182) • Jesus, the Son of God (Lk 3:21-22), succeeds where Israel failed • Adam is given dominion but wants more – to be like God (Gen 1:26-28; 3:5). Jesus is offered dominion but declines (Garland, 188)
  21. 21. DIVINE PATERNITY TEST #3 TESTING THE LORD • 9 The devil led him to Jerusalem and had him stand on the highest point of the temple. “If you are the Son of God,” he said, “throw yourself down from here. 10 For it is written: “ ‘He will command his angels concerning you to guard you carefully; 11 they will lift you up in their hands, so that you will not strike your foot against a stone.’” 12 Jesus answered, “It is said: ‘Do not put the Lord your God to the test.’”(Lk 4:9-12, NIV) • Because the LORD is my shepherd, I have everything I need… • Safe in His Arms (Milton Brunson, 1986) • The devil may have alluded to Psalm 2 in the previous test, but he quotes Psalm 91 explicitly
  22. 22. PSALM 91 (NIV) 1 Whoever dwells in the shelter of the Most High will rest in the shadow of the Almighty. 2 I will say of the LORD, “He is my refuge and my fortress, my God, in whom I trust.” 3 Surely he will save you from the fowler’s snare and from the deadly pestilence. 4 He will cover you with his feathers, and under his wings you will find refuge; his faithfulness will be your shield and rampart. 5 You will not fear the terror of night, nor the arrow that flies by day, 6 nor the pestilence that stalks in the darkness, nor the plague that destroys at midday. 7 A thousand may fall at your side, ten thousand at your right hand, but it will not come near you. 8 You will only observe with your eyes and see the punishment of the wicked.
  23. 23. PSALM 91 (NIV) 9 If you say, “The LORD is my refuge,” and you make the Most High your dwelling, 10 no harm will overtake you, no disaster will come near your tent. 11 For he will command his angels concerning you to guard you in all your ways; 12 they will lift you up in their hands, so that you will not strike your foot against a stone. 13 You will tread on the lion and the cobra; you will trample the great lion and the serpent. 14 “Because he loves me,” says the LORD, “I will rescue him; I will protect him, for he acknowledges my name. 15 He will call on me, and I will answer him; I will be with him in trouble, I will deliver him and honor him. 16 With long life I will satisfy him and show him my salvation.”
  24. 24. “HIGHEST POINT” OF THE TEMPLE • “Highest point” is derived from Gk. the word meaning “wing” (BDAG, 895; EDNT, 191; Edwards, 129; Marshall, 171). The “wingtip” of the Temple complex (Garland, 183) • Shelter of the Most High (Ps 91:1) can refer to the Temple (Green, 195; Garland, 183) • under his wings you will find refuge; (Ps 91:4b, NIV) (? contra Marshall, 172) • “Wing” thought to be the Royal Portico in the SE corner (Arnold, 360; Stein, 147; Edwards, 129; Marshall, 172) overlooking Kidron Valley 450 ft. down; could get dizzy (Bock IVP)
  25. 25. DON’T LOOK DOWN
  26. 26. STRAIGHT OUTTA CONTEXT • Ever have to take a test you thought was stupid? • After being shot down with it twice, the devil tries to use Scripture (Marshall, 173) • Psalm 91 concerns to those who already trust in the LORD (Green, 195; Ps 91:2). Why test the LORD if one already considers Him trustworthy? (Marshall, 173) • If (since) you are the Son of God, God will protect you, right? (Bock BECNT, 380) • He wants Jesus to test God to fulfill God’s promise of protection (Stein, 148) – when He doesn’t need even protection (Bock BECNT, 381). Protection on demand (Bock IVP) • Devil tries to twist Scripture to suit his purpose (Morris, 122). • “…knowing Scripture is not enough; one must interpret it correctly” (Stein, 148) • One can use God’s words and still fail to convey God’s will (Bock BECNT, 380)
  27. 27. TESTING THE LORD • After manna and quail came from heaven (Exodus 16), the Israelites cried out because they had no water • 3 But the people were thirsty for water there, and they grumbled against Moses. They said, “Why did you bring us up out of Egypt to make us and our children and livestock die of thirst? (Ex 17:3, NIV; Keener) • The LORD had Moses strike a rock and water began to flow from it (Ex 17:5-6) • 7 And he called the place Massah [which means testing (NIV mg.)] and Meribah [which means quarreling (NIV mg.)] because the Israelites quarreled and because they tested the LORD saying, “Is the LORD among us or not?” (Ex 17:7, NIV; Keener) • 16 Do not put the LORD your God to the test as you did at Massah. (Dt 6:16, NIV)
  28. 28. DIVINE PATERNITY TEST #3 TESTING THE LORD • Israel tested God in the wilderness (Ex 17:1-7; Green, 195; Bock BECNT, 381; Marshall, 173) • Jesus refused to test God in the wilderness (Lk 4:12 cf. Dt. 6:16) • 13 When the devil had finished all this tempting, he left him until an opportune time. (Lk 4:13) • The number three often signifies completion (Green, 195)
  29. 29. DIVINE PATERNITY TEST(S) CONCLUSION • Temptations are… tempting. Especially when we are vulnerable. What seems pleasing and/or convenient to us can be contrary to God’s will. But we must trust in the LORD, the only one worthy of our trust, our worship, our service. • Jesus succeeded where Adam and Israel failed – concerning food (priorities), false worship, and testing the LORD. • Jesus demonstrated His faithful obedience and loyalty to the Father, confirming that He truly has the qualities of God’s Son (Green, 195; Evans, 67; Bock BECNT, 383) • Because of the sacrifice of God’s one and only Son (Jn 3:16) all can become sons and daughters of God by believing (faithing) in His name (Jn 1:12). The primary characteristic of a child of God is humble, obedient faithfulness to God • All of the tests were intended to disrupt His relationship with the Father. The devil also wants to disrupt our faithful relationship with the Father (cf. Eph 6:12; Garland, 185) – by tempting us to be unfaithful and independent. • Jesus uses Scripture to combat the devil’s tests. Led by the Holy Spirit and armed with the Sword of the Spirit (Eph 6:17; Stein, 146) we too can resist. Yet, misinterpreting, misapplying, and distorting God’s word is diabolical (cf. Gen 3:1)
  30. 30. BIBLIOGRAPHY • Arndt, William, Frederick W. Danker, Walter Bauer, and F. Wilbur Gingrich. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. • Arnold, Clinton E. (Mark Strauss’s Chapter on Luke in) Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary: Matthew, Mark, Luke. Vol. 1. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2002. • Balz, Horst Robert, and Gerhard Schneider. Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1990–. • Bock, Darrell L. Luke. The IVP New Testament Commentary Series. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1994. • Bock, Darrell L. Luke. The NIV Application Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1996. • Bock, Darrell L. Luke: 1:1–9:50. Vol. 1. Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 1994. • Edwards, James R. The Gospel according to Luke. Edited by D. A. Carson. The Pillar New Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI; Cambridge, U.K.; Nottingham, England: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company; Apollos, 2015. • Evans, Craig A. Luke. Understanding the Bible Commentary Series. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1990. • Garland, David E. Luke. Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament: . Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2012. • Green, Joel B. The Gospel of Luke. The New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1997. • Johnsson, William G. Jesus of Nazareth: His Life, His Message, His Passion. Vol. 1 & 2. Silver Spring, MD: Biblical Research Institute; Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2015. • Keener, Craig S. The IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993. • Knecht, Frederick Justus. A Practical Commentary on Holy Scripture. London; St. Louis, MO: B. Herder, 1910. • Louw, Johannes P., and Eugene Albert Nida. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains. New York: United Bible Societies, 1996. • Marshall, I. Howard. The Gospel of Luke: A Commentary on the Greek Text. New International Greek Testament Commentary. Exeter: Paternoster Press, 1978. • Marshall, I. Howard. “Luke.” In New Bible Commentary: 21st Century Edition, edited by D. A. Carson, R. T. France, J. A. Motyer, and G. J. Wenham, 4th ed., 978–1020. Leicester, England; Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 1994. • Morris, Leon. Luke: An Introduction and Commentary. Vol. 3. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1988. • Schreiner, Thomas R. “Luke.” In Evangelical Commentary on the Bible, 3:799–839. Baker Reference Library. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1995. • Silva, Moisés, ed. New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology and Exegesis. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2014. • Stein, Robert H. Luke. Vol. 24. The New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1992. • Wilcock, Michael. The Savior of the World: The Message of Luke’s Gospel. The Bible Speaks Today. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1979.