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What *is* a library in an 'open' future

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Keynote presentation to the 16th Health Libraries Inc Conference: "Collections, Technology & the Future: curating for our clients in interesting times" Friday 13th September 2019, Melbourne, Australia.
The talk covers the current political landscape, future publishing, the changing relationship with publishers, future libraries, future workforce needs and future opportunities.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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What *is* a library in an 'open' future

  1. 1. What is an academic library in an open access world?​ Health Libraries Conference William Angliss Conference Centre Melbourne Friday 13 September 2019 Tweets on #hliconf2019 Dr Danny Kingsley, Scholarly Communication Consultant, @dannykay68 Slides available CC-BY: Attribution Danny Kingsley
  2. 2. Hold onto your hats! • Current political landscape • Future publishing​ • Future libraries​ • Changing relationship with publishers​ • Future workforce​ • Future Opportunities
  3. 3. The past 4.5 years in Cambridge Images by Danny Kingsley
  4. 4. CURRENT POLITICAL LANDSCAPE https://thenorwichradical.com/2017/01/12/post-truth-politics-and-the-war-on-intellect/
  5. 5. Normative Structure of Science Robert K Merton, “The Normative Structure of Science”, 1942 essay in The Sociology of Science edited by Norman W Storer, published 1973 http://www.collier.sts.vt.edu/5424/pdfs/merton_1973.pdf
  6. 6. This was 77 years ago • “Incipient and actual attacks upon the integrity of science have led scientists to recognize their dependence on particular types of social structure. Manifestos and pronouncements by associations of scientists are devoted to the relations of science and society. An institution under attack must re-examine its foundations, restate its objectives, seek out its rationale. Crisis invites self-appraisal. Now that they have been confronted with challenges to their way of life, scientists have been jarred into a state of acute self-consciousness: consciousness of self as an integral element of society with corresponding obligations and interests.”
  7. 7. During the Brexit discussion https://www.ft.com/content/3be49734-29cb-11e6-83e4-abc22d5d108c
  8. 8. Who is the expert? https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/26/opinion/pruitt-attack-science-epa.html “Scott Pruitt, the administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, has announced that he alone will decide what is and isn’t acceptable science for the agency to use when developing policies that affect your health and the environment.” Mr Pruitt is a lawyer.
  9. 9. The incident of “the black pen on the map” https://www.cbsnews.com/news/trump-hurricane-map- briefing-today-shows-dorian-tracker-seemingly-altered- with-black-pen-or-sharpie-marker-2019-09-04/ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us- politics/trump-map-hurricane-dorian-sharpie-fake-doctored-alabama- noaa-storm-a9092521.html
  10. 10. 6th September https://www.cbsnews.com/news/trump-campaign-starts-selling-black- pens-after-trumps-map-misstatements/ Janice Dean, a meteorologist at Fox News, later tweeted: “Just so everyone is clear. This forecast cone was from 5 days ago. Alabama was NEVER in the official cone from the [National Hurricane Center]. https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/n ews/inaccurate-misleading-and-fake-fox- meteorologist-rips-trump-over-doctored- hurricane-map
  11. 11. 6th September https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/sep/07/sharpiegate-trump-alabama-hurricane-dorian
  12. 12. 10th September https://talkingpointsmemo.com/news/wilbur-ross-noaa-hurricane-dorian-alabama-trump
  13. 13. The credibility of science is under threat • “Speaking as a scientist, cherrypicking evidence is unacceptable,” Hawking said [in March 2018]. “When public figures abuse scientific argument, citing some studies but suppressing others, to justify policies that they want to implement for other reasons, it debases scientific culture.” • https://www.theguardian.com/science/2018/mar/14/i-would-not-have-survived- nhs-enabled-stephen-hawking-to-live-long-life
  14. 14. This is fueling the problem https://www.livescience.com/64353-top-retracted-papers-2018.html
  15. 15. Is Open Research a solution? https://www.cam.ac.uk/6000thThesis
  16. 16. The statement https://osc.cam.ac.uk/open-research/open-research-position-statement
  17. 17. Open Research is addressing this problem The only thing that counts in academia is publication of novel results in high impact journals Data gathering Analysis Writing PublishingDissemination Reuse Assessment
  18. 18. Mechanisms for achieving OR • Making research outputs openly accessible • Robust research data management • Registering trials • Using systems like the CRediT taxonomy for author contributions https://www.cell.com/pb/assets/raw/shared/guidelines/CRediT-taxonomy.pdf • Open peer review • Publishing null results • Research integrity training – integrity of the researcher and of the research
  19. 19. Fightback - Reproducibility
  20. 20. Fightback - Integrity https://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a- z/commons-select/science-and-technology-committee/inquiries/parliament- 2017/research-integrity-17-19/publications/
  21. 21. Fightback - Replicability https://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a- z/commons-select/science-and-technology-committee/inquiries/parliament- 2017/research-integrity-17-19/publications/
  22. 22. Fightback - (back to) Reproducibility https://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a- z/commons-select/science-and-technology-committee/inquiries/parliament- 2017/research-integrity-17-19/publications/
  23. 23. Breaking news in UK https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/uks-plan-mandatory-research-ethics-training-dropped
  24. 24. Breaking news in Australia https://theconversation.com/there-is-a-problem-australias-top-scientist-alan-finkel-pushes-to-eradicate-bad-science-123374 “I strongly believe the overall quality of research in Australia would be strengthened by research integrity training for all researchers.”
  25. 25. FUTURE PUBLISHING They have seen the writing on the wall and are diversifying Image: Pixabay
  26. 26. Publishing in an internet age “The most successful early entrants into online academic publishing were big commercial publishing firms. They were large enough to absorb the technical costs involved… digital distribution opened up new ways of generating income” – Big Deals – Selling individual articles – Paid-for data eg: usage statistics – Charging for TDM “Untangling Academic Publishing: A history of the relationship between commercial interests, academic prestige ad the circulation of research”, Fyfe, A. et al, May 2017 https://zenodo.org/record/546100
  27. 27. Publishers are very concerned https://www.stm- assoc.org/2017_10_10_Frankfurt_Conference_Wouter_Haak_STM_Presentation.pdf
  28. 28. Who does this threaten? John Bohannon, “Who's downloading pirated papers? Everyone”, Science, Apr. 28, 2016 http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/04/whos-downloading-pirated-papers-everyone
  29. 29. Damages? https://www.nature.com/news/us-court-grants-elsevier-millions-in-damages- from-sci-hub-1.22196
  30. 30. Now much more than just publishing https://www.publishingcampus.elsevier.com/ “earn certificates and rewards as you progress”
  31. 31. https://www.elsevier.com/authors -update/home/featured- article/another-temporary- research-position-youre-not-alone Careers advice
  32. 32. https://edservices.wiley.com/ Transformative
  33. 33. Concerns from 2015 More than 50% of 2013 papers were published with only five publishers Larivière V, Haustein S, Mongeon P (2015) The Oligopoly of Academic Publishers in the Digital Era. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0127502. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0127502 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0127502
  34. 34. By 2017 - complete ecosystem Vertical integration resulting from Elsevier’s acquisitions, from Alejandro Posada and George Chen, (2017) Rent Seeking and Financialization strategies of the Academic Publishing Industry - Publishers are increasingly in control of scholarly infrastructure and why we should care- A Case Study of Elsevier http://knowledgegap.org/index.php/sub-projects/rent-seeking-and-financialization-of-the-academic-publishing- industry/preliminary-findings/
  35. 35. Digital Science https://www.digital-science.com/
  36. 36. Everyone’s getting into it Esploro is a new product from ExLibris, a company owned by ProQuest http://www.exlibrisgroup.com/research-services-a-new-approach-esploro/
  37. 37. Cradle to grave 2017 “Aggregators like EBSCO and ProQuest are investing substantially in content support businesses, while scientific publishers are investing substantially in research management and analytics businesses. How and why they are making these investments tells us something about how they see the environment developing and offer indications of how libraries may wish to engage them most effectively.” The Strategic Investments of Content Providers -http://www.sr.ithaka.org/blog/the- strategic-investments-of-content-providers/
  38. 38. SPARC analysis 2019 “The goal of this document is to describe the current landscape of publishers moving into core activities of universities.” https://sparcopen.org/our-work/landscape-analysis/
  39. 39. Moving into research of research https://www.elsevier.com/connect/trust-in-research 62% of researchers regard all or a majority of the research outputs they see as reliable, over a third (37%) said they only viewed half or some of them as reliable.
  40. 40. Elsevier’s solution? https://www.elsevier.com/connect/trust-in-research “That’s why we are committed to providing and upgrading the tools available to them to ensure information is an advantage, not a burden.”
  41. 41. Alternatively … we have Open Research? https://www.elsevier.com/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/908435/Trust_in_Research_report_summary_Final_20_08_19.pdf
  42. 42. We are sleepwalking into redundancy If we do not move fast, the entire higher education sector will be run by huge commercial publishing organisations.
  43. 43. CHANGING RELATIONSHIPS WITH PUBLISHERS
  44. 44. Timeline of Elsevier & UC negotiations • July 2018 - Negotiations began • November 2018 - UC was communicating with their researchers about progress in the negotiations. • 31 December 2018 - the existing five-year subscription ended. • 27 February 2019 - Elsevier approached faculty members who were editors of their journals directly and spoke to media about the negotiations prior to a planned 1 March meeting. • 28 February 2019 - In response UC pulled out of negotiations. • 10 July 2019 - Elsevier cut off access to articles published after 1 January 2019 • UC has perpetual access to most publications before this date. According to the Librarian at UCLA (in a panel discussion at a recent FORCE Scholarly Communication Institute), the usage of the most recent year’s Science Direct publications was approximately 15% of all downloads of the corpus.
  45. 45. Advice from VSNU http://www.openaccess.nl/sites/www.openaccess.nl/files/docu menten/howtogettothepdf_march_2018.pdf 12 March 2018, the Dutch consortium VSNU announced that “Dutch universities and Royal Society of Chemistry Publishing (RSC) have been unable to reach a new agreement on access to scientific journals”.
  46. 46. Subscribe to Open • Berghahn Books, the social sciences publisher based in Brooklyn, NY and Oxford, U.K., has announced a pilot to move 13 of the anthropology journals it publishes to Open Access (OA) from 2020 onwards. In partnership with Libraria, a group of anthropologists and other social scientists committed to open access, and the support of Knowledge Unlatched, Berghahn will be asking libraries current subscribing to these journals to renew for 2020 on a Subscribe-to-Open basis, which will make these journals free to readers and authors everywhere. • http://www.stm-publishing.com/berghahn-to-pilot-the- move-of-13-anthropology-journals-to-subscribe-to-open/
  47. 47. FUTURE LIBRARIES Image by Danny Kingsley
  48. 48. Food for thought Within the environment where the users of your material come from all over the world and your own cohort looks globally for information, the idea of a library as a collector and gatekeeper of information for your closed/defined community makes less and less sense. MIT Future of Libraries Task Force https://future-of- libraries.mit.edu/sites/default/files/FutureLibr aries-PrelimReport-Final.pdf
  49. 49. Alternative options?
  50. 50. What can YOU do? • MIT Institute-wide task force on the Future of Libraries – Be global and local in services – Skill generation in information assessment – Dissemination of research generated internally – Provide comprehensive digital access to collections – Generate open content platforms – Open access policies and infrastructure – Preservation and stewardship https://future-of-libraries.mit.edu/sites/default/files/FutureLibraries- PrelimReport-Final.pdf
  51. 51. What is the role of the library? • Discussion at RLUK2017 conference. – Are librarians support staff or research partners? – Should we be collaborating and partnering with the research community? – Should we be leading the University over these issues? • See: “Become part of the research process – observations from RLUK2017” – https://unlockingresearch.blog.lib.cam.ac.uk/
  52. 52. What is Scholarly Communication? • Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) 2003 definition: – "the system through which research and other scholarly writings are created, evaluated for quality, disseminated to the scholarly community, and preserved for future use. The system includes both formal means of communication, such as publication in peer-reviewed journals, and informal channels, such as electronic listservs.” • http://acrl.libguides.com/scholcomm/toolkit/ • Often Scholarly Communication services are run out of libraries
  53. 53. The story so far…. • Changing political landscape • Reduced trust in science • Publishers changing their business models • Movement by some libraries to address the monopoly • What does this mean for people who are working in libraries?
  54. 54. FUTURE WORKFORCE https://www.macquarie.nsw.edu.au/courses/hospitality- programs/skill-sets-and-part-qualifications
  55. 55. • High skills gap in nine key areas – Ability to advise on preserving research outputs – Knowledge to advise on data management and curation, including ingest, discovery, access, dissemination, preservation, and portability – Knowledge to support researchers in complying with the various mandates of funders, including open access requirements – Knowledge to advise on potential data manipulation tools used in the discipline/ subject – Knowledge to advise on data mining – Knowledge to advocate, and advise on, the use of metadata – Ability to advise on the preservation of project records e.g. correspondence – Knowledge of sources of research funding to assist researchers to identify potential funders – Skills to develop metadata schema, and advise on discipline/subject standards and practices, for individual research projects Reskilling for Research – RLUK report 2012 http://www.rluk.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/RLUK-Re-skilling.pdf
  56. 56. • 2012 analysis of job announcements – identified ‘Scholarly communications librarians’ as a new role for health sciences – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3794682/ • 2015 paper on scholarly communication coaching: “To successfully address the current needs of a forward-thinking faculty, the academic library needs to place scholarly communication competencies in the toolkit of every librarian who has a role interacting with subject faculty.” – http://thekeep.eiu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1100& context=lib_fac Increased need
  57. 57. Core competencies • 2015 - Scholarly communication is recognised as a core competency in academic librarianship • Scholarly Communication as a Core Competency: Prevalence, Activities, and Concepts of Scholarly Communication Librarianship as Shown Through Job Advertisements - https://jlsc-pub.org/articles/abstract/10.7710/2162-3309.1236/ • 2016 - areas of responsibility: – Providing access to data – Support and advocacy for managing data – Managing data collections • NASIG: "Librarians' Competencies Profile for Research Data Management” https://www.coar-repositories.org/files/Competencies-for-RDM_June-2016.pdf
  58. 58. Small research project • Survey sent out September 2016 – 540 responses – 177 said that RDM was part of their job • Are academic librarians getting the training they need? – https://unlockingresearch.blog.lib.cam.ac.uk/?p=995 – Our hypothesis is simple: there is a systematic lack of education on scholarly communication issues available to those entering the library profession. This is creating a time bomb skills gap in the academic library profession and unless action is taken we may well end up with a workforce not suited to work in the 21st century research library. • Changing roles and changing needs for academic librarians – https://unlockingresearch.blog.lib.cam.ac.uk/?p=1189 – Literature review of research on the issue of training for librarians. – Many people working in scholarly communication come from outside the Library sector.
  59. 59. How long job been established?
  60. 60. Who is training the trainers? Classification Number Response rate Working with RDM 177/540 respondents 33% Of those - have/are working towards a PG qualification in LIS 120/540 respondents 23% Of those - feel that their LIS qualification equipped them with knowledge to perform role 46/120 respondents 38%
  61. 61. It is particularly bad in the UK Lowest level of satisfaction
  62. 62. Unhelpful • Most LIS graduates don’t enter the field with any significant education around scholarly communication https://www.imls.gov/publications/positioning-library-and-information-science- graduate-programs-21st-century-practice
  63. 63. Could be worse… https://www.alia.org.au/about-alia/policies-standards-and-guidelines/library-and-information-sector-core- knowledge-skills-and-attributes • Mentions understanding “the ethical, legal and policy issues” in the sector and of distribution of information • Mentions managing the “digital assets under the control of the library” • Data is mentioned in terms of databases and in the context of "to advance library and information science theory and its application to the provision of information services” • No mention of copyright or licensing • No mention of advocacy, research data, repositories, infrastructure, coding, research culture, etc
  64. 64. ‘unique technical skills’ https://www.alia.org.au/lis-careers
  65. 65. Not unique. Different. The skill required of people working in libraries in institutions *producing* information as well as *consuming* it are different. https://quotefancy.com/quote/1693276/Noah-Kagan-Consuming-is-the-opposite-of-producing Picture: Paulis Jacionis
  66. 66. Locally…. • Little sector-wide work on the changing skills or changing job advertisements. • Closest is work of Simons and Richardson https://www.caul.edu.au/sites/default/files/documents/meetings/cairss2018simons- richardson-20m.pdf
  67. 67. ‘Repository’ out of favour - 2016 • For a decade there were ‘repository managers’. Of the 16 roles posted to the list in 2016 only 2 explicitly mention the word ‘repository’ and just 1 ‘librarian’: – Research Repository Data Administrator – Research Publications Officer (x2) – Research Data Management Advisor – Research Data Support Manager – Copyright and Scholarly Communications Manager – Research and Scholarly Communications Consultant – Open Access & Research Data Advisor – Open Access Officer – Manager of the Institutional Repository – REF and Systems Manager – Research Data Adviser – Research Publications Manager – Research support librarian – Research Data Officer – Research Publications Assistant http://ukcorr.org/2016/10/21/repository-professionals-the-next-generation/
  68. 68. Sterling Library - Yale Images by Danny Kingsley
  69. 69. • At Yale - Increasingly the university is asking librarians to have outreach as part of their role. Outreach is valued in the evaluation process. • For some existing staff this was not comfortable – they wanted to be curators. The feeling for these people was they ‘changed the rules on me’ – so the university helps them make the transition. • Some have come along the outreach path, others have moved somewhere else – and the university helps them with that move. Changing expectations Evolution of Library Ethnography Studies - notes from talk - Susan Gibbons 2015 https://unlockingresearch.blog.lib.cam.ac.uk/?p=69
  70. 70. • Dr Sarah Pittaway - UKSG Forum 2016 – Arguing we need to broaden our definition of ‘librarian’. Diversity is beneficial. • “When is a librarian not a librarian?” http://www.uksg.org/sites/uksg.org/files/PresentationPittaway.pdf Librarians or not? Qualified library & information professionals in Further Education - Case for Support - 17 May 2016 https://www.cilip.org.uk/sites/default/files/documents/qualified_library_information_professionals_fe_colleges.pdf
  71. 71. Serious question • Discussion at RLUK 2017 – We need to develop digital leaders for libraries. Are these people already in libraries who we train up, or are they people with these skill sets we bring in and introduce to library culture? • “Become part of the research process” – observations from RLUK2017 https://unlockingresearch.blog.lib.c am.ac.uk/?p=1384 Image: Pixabay
  72. 72. FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES The only thing that is certain is “business as was” is no more. A fully open or a fully closed future each offer opportunities and challenges for libraries
  73. 73. • “The research librarian of the future: data scientist and co-investigator” – Librarian as co-investigator, not an overhead • By using their data science and digital skills, research librarians have the opportunity to make an impactful contribution to the workflow of their faculty colleagues. Librarians’ data science skills can help navigate through the deluge of information, and can truly change how they are perceived: from an overhead service to research co- investigators. http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2016/12/14/th e-research-librarian-of-the-future-data-scientist-and-co- investigator/ Colleague not servant
  74. 74. Part of the production of knowledge https://iupui.libguides.com/systreviews/librarianauthors
  75. 75. Useful summary We identified 18 different roles filled by librarians and other information professionals in conducting systematic reviews from 310 different articles, book chapters, and presented papers and posters. Some roles were well known such as searching, source selection, and teaching. Other less documented roles included planning, question formulation, and peer review.
  76. 76. Embedded librarianship https://futurelib.wordpress.com/2016/09/07/embedded-librarians-exploring-roles-and-contexts1/
  77. 77. Is it our ‘place’? http://www.keepcalm-o-matic.co.uk/p/keep- calm-and-know-your-place-3/
  78. 78. Yes we should be driving this agenda • Scholarly Communication takes a ‘meta’ view of the research ecosystem • Disciplinary differences mean individual researchers come to the table with very specific perspectives • They all think they are right • Very few understand that things are different in other disciplines – and that these are as valid as their own • Scholarly Communication is a research discipline of its own. This is not recognised by most academics!
  79. 79. Future roles • Research partner • Advocacy, negotiation, landscape mapping • Owning the scholarly communication agenda Image: Pixabay
  80. 80. Summary • Current political landscape – Reduced trust in science – Need for open research • Future publishing​ – Diversification​ of publishers – Concentration of the market • Future libraries​ – Global endeavour – Scholarly communication • Changing relationship with publishers – Elsevier & University of California ​ • Future workforce​ – Changing skills required • Future Opportunities – Becoming part of the production of knowledge – We should be driving the agenda
  81. 81. Thanks! Dr Danny Kingsley, @dannykay68 Scholarly Communication Consultant This is Trinity our new kitten Images by Danny Kingsley

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