Basics of Sports Law: Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

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Basics of Sports Law: Belarus, Russia and Ukraine (2004)

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Basics of Sports Law: Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

  1. 1. Basics of Sports Law: Models of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine by Aliaksandr Danilevich ACE Researcher
  2. 2. Basics of National Sports Law <ul><li>Sport as subject of legal regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of sports law </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects of sports law </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of sports law </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of regulations of legal sports relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of sports law </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sport as a subject of legal regulation The legal definition of “ physical culture” and “ sport ” in National legislation of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine is stipulated by special laws . Belarus : Law of 18 June 1993 “ On physical culture and sport&quot; (with amendments on 29 November 2003 ) Russia : Federal law of 29 April 1999 “ On physical culture and sport in Russian Federation&quot; (with amendments on 10 January 2003 ) Ukraine : Law of 24 December 1993 “ On physical culture and sport&quot; of (with amendments on 21 June 2001 )
  4. 4. <ul><li>physical culture </li></ul><ul><li>component of the general culture </li></ul><ul><li>the sphere of social ( welfare ) activity </li></ul><ul><li>representing set spiritual and material assets, created and used by a society with a view of physical development of the person, perfection of his impellent activity, directed on strengthening of his health and promoting harmonious development of the person &quot;. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Sport </li></ul><ul><li>component of the physical culture </li></ul><ul><li>is carried out in the form of competitions </li></ul><ul><li>and preparation for participation in competitions. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Professional sport Ukraine activity of sportsman, coaches and other specialists, concerned with preparation and participation in sports competitions between professional sportsman; is a basic source of their incomes Russia commercial activity which purpose is the satisfaction of interests of the professional sports organizations, sportsmen choused sport as their profession , and spectators Belarus commercial , labour and other activity directed on achievement of high sports results and reception of incomes ( remunerations ) from the organization of sports actions and (or) participation in them
  7. 7. Features of attitudes in sphere of professional sport (1-3) <ul><li>to derive an income by subjects of professional sports legal relationship ( commercial activity in sport) </li></ul><ul><li>professional sports legal relationship between club and sportsman is built on the basis of a labour law (labour activity in sport) </li></ul><ul><li>professional sports legal relationship is regulated by sports by-law (federations rules for competition) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Features of attitudes in sphere of professional sport (4-5) <ul><li>more broad range of subjects , connected with his civil-law character : sportsmen and trainers + sports agents, promoters, sponsors, organizers of competitions and spectators </li></ul><ul><li>5. the disputes can be resolved also in the order stipulated by sports organizations (the international and national federations), and also in sports arbitration and mediation (national and international). </li></ul>
  9. 9. System of relations in framework of physical culture amateurish professional <ul><li>in educational institution </li></ul><ul><li>At job place </li></ul><ul><li>At living place </li></ul><ul><li>In army and navy </li></ul><ul><li>In police </li></ul><ul><li>In rescue services </li></ul><ul><li>In correctional facilities </li></ul>Sport for all -for handicaps Paralympic movement High-level sport Olympic movement Anti-doping SDR and DP
  10. 10. Definition of sports law The sports law is set of norms of the law and system of acts of the sports organizations regulating physical culture and sports. The sports law is not branch of law , and branch of the legislation . In the sports law , depending on character of attitudes, various methods of regulation are used. Norms of the sports law can have public and private character. Sports attitudes are adjusted by norms administrative, civil, a labour law in view of norms of the special sports legislation .
  11. 11. Subjects of sports law natural persons juridical persons State International organizations Amateurish sportsmen professional sportsmen referees competition officials spectators sports agents international association of federations sports clubs national federations leagues IOC international sports federations WADA ICAS and CAS
  12. 12. Sources of sports law constitutional law administrative law special sports law civil/commercial law labour law international level national level INTERNATIONAL LAW NATIONAL LAW BY-LAWS OF SPORTS ORGANISATIONS
  13. 13. By-laws of sports organizations <ul><li>acts of organizing subjects of the sports law (sports federations, Olympic committees, leagues, etc.) the basis of attitudes in sports. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are not normative legal acts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>binding for private subjects of sports relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have greatest value in sphere of professional sports </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. By-laws of sports organizations <ul><li>Are not fulfill autonomous </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Article 7 of Law of Ukraine “ On physical culture and sports &quot; directly considers the regulations of international sports organizations among the legislation on physical culture and sports </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Methods of regulations of legal sports relationships (1) <ul><li>imperative method </li></ul><ul><li>participation of the State, regulation of sport: </li></ul><ul><li>the Government or authorized state body affirms t he state sports -improving complex </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>set of programs and specifications , a basis of physical training of citizens The state sports -improving complex of defines the purposes, aims of physical training of citizens and a level of their physical readiness. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Methods of regulations of legal sports relationships (2) <ul><li>imperative method </li></ul><ul><li>anti-doping rules in the special sports law </li></ul><ul><li>regulations about the admission to pedagogical activity in the field of sports </li></ul>
  17. 17. Methods of regulations of legal sports relationships (3) <ul><li>Dispositive method </li></ul><ul><li>professional sports ( use of norms of the labour and civil legislation ) </li></ul><ul><li>amateur sports ( the right to go in for sports ) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Principles of sports law General principles of sports law - are inherent only in the sports law with the specific subject of regulation Additional principles of sports law - are peculiar to regulation of some institutes also by administrative , civil, labour, commercial and international law
  19. 19. General principles of sports law <ul><ul><li>universal right to go in for sports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>legal protection of sportsmen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relative autonomy of sports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fair competitions (‘fair play’) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Universal right to go in for sports <ul><li>2 interconnected rights: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>right to go in for sports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>non- discrimination at realization of such right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In national legislation (Belarus, Ukraine) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In acts of Council of Europe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sport for All Charter of CE (1975) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>European Sports Charter of CE (1992) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Universal right to go in for sports in national legislation <ul><li>The greatest value for amateur ish (mass amateur) sports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BLR : National regime principle for foreigners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UKR sports law give thus right only to citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RUS sports law does not stipulate this right directly </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Legal protection of sportsmen <ul><li>Sportsmen as well as other physical persons possess all complex of the rights given by the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Why should we protect sportsman? </li></ul><ul><li>Commercialization of sport </li></ul><ul><li>Hard physical and psychological activity </li></ul><ul><li>Positions of by-laws of sports organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Big social and cultural meaning of sport </li></ul>
  23. 23. Ways of legal protection of sportsman <ul><li>Creating protective legal norms </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponding by-laws with national/international legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Using by-laws and legislation remedies </li></ul><ul><li>Being in social dialog </li></ul>
  24. 24. Social dialog in sport <ul><li>the social dialog ( partnership ) is the form of interaction of </li></ul><ul><li>state bodies </li></ul><ul><li>associations of employers </li></ul><ul><li>trade unions </li></ul><ul><li>by development and realization of a social and economic policy of the state , based on the account of interests of various layers and groups of a society in social-labour sphere by means of negotiations, consultations, refusal of confrontation and social conflicts. </li></ul>Subjects of social partnership
  25. 25. Legal ground for social dialog Legislation on matter <ul><li>Legislation on subjects </li></ul><ul><li>employers assoc. </li></ul><ul><li>trade unions </li></ul>
  26. 26. Status of sportsman Who is a sportsman? Self employee? Employee? <ul><li>Special registration </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial regime of taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Subject of civil law </li></ul><ul><li>No labour law applied </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject of labour law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be a member of trade union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can pursue a legal remedy in general court </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Status of sportsman in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine According to labour and special sports legislation Self employee? Employee <ul><li>Special registration </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial regime of taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Subject of civil law </li></ul><ul><li>No labour law applied </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject of labour law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be a member of trade union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can pursue a legal remedy in general court </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Social dialog legislation Belarus: LABOUR CODE (Chapter 33) of 26 .07.1 999 L aw &quot;ON TRADE UNIONS&quot; of 22 .04. 1992 Russia: LABOUR CODE of 30 .12. 2001 FEDERAL LAW “ON TRADE UNIONS, THEIR RIGHTS AND GUARANTEES of ACTIVITY” of 12 .01. 1996 FEDERAL LAW «ON ASSOCIATIONS OF EMPLOYERS » of 27 .11. 2002. Ukraine: LABOUR CODE of 10.12.1971 LAW “ON TRADE UNIONS, THEIR RIGHTS AND GUARANTEES of ACTIVITY” of 15 .09. 1999 LAW “ ON EMPLOYERS ORGANISATIONS ” of 24 .05. 2001
  29. 29. Social dialogue in professional football in Belarus <ul><li>There are no football trade unions and clubs organisations registered in Belarus </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>No football </li></ul><ul><li>No spectators no dialog </li></ul><ul><li>No money  </li></ul>
  30. 30. Social dialogue in professional football in Belarus There are no football trade unions and clubs organisations registered in Belarus Why? - + Lake of legal education No players agents Low level of championship Good salary level No violation of rights
  31. 31. Social dialogue in professional football in Russia Russian Football Union Association of Professional Football Players of Russia Russian Premiere-League FIFPRO member ..... 
  32. 32. Social dialogue in professional football in Ukraine Football Federation of Ukraine All-Ukrainian national trade union “FOOTBALLERS OF UKRAINE” Professional Football League of Ukraine FIFPRO member ..... 
  33. 33. Social dialogue in professional football in Ukraine Football Federation of Ukraine All-Ukrainian national trade union “FOOTBALLERS OF UKRAINE” Professional Football League of Ukraine FIFPRO member ..... 
  34. 34. Relative autonomy of sports <ul><li>Sport is a part of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Sports relationships are not out of legal regulation </li></ul><ul><li>By-law should be coordinated with law </li></ul>Autonomy of sports federations Autonomy of sport
  35. 35. F air competitions (‘fair play’) <ul><li>CODE OF SPORTS ETHICS ‘ FAIR PLAY – THE WINNING WAY ’ </li></ul><ul><li>(Recommendation No . R (92) 14 REV of the CM of Council of Europe to member States) </li></ul><ul><li>AIMS </li></ul><ul><li>DEFINING FAIR PLAY </li></ul><ul><li>RESPONSIBILITY FOR FAIR PLAY </li></ul><ul><li>GOVERNMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>SPORTS AND SPORTS-RELATED ORGANISATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>INDIVIDUALS </li></ul>
  36. 36. Basics of National Sports Law <ul><li>Sport as subject of legal regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of sports law </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects of sports law </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of sports law </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of regulations of legal sports relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of sports law </li></ul>

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