Data Analysis & Language Comparison Spanish English
-Jorge Diaz -Mexican immigrant -23 years old -Works in the natural gas industry in Towanda, Pa. -He has lived in the U.S. for 3.5 years. -He has moved to PA from Texas. -Jorge has never taken an official English course.
Jorge thinks that everyone talks really fast! He learns from being around people and he has bilingual friends and co-workers that help him to converse at work and with others. <ul><li>The phonological system of Spanish is significantly different from English in the aspect of vowel sounds and sentence stress. </li></ul><ul><li>There are also similarities. </li></ul><ul><li>They utilize the same alphabet with some variation </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish sound system is concise. Spanish spelling is phonetic since every letter represents one sound. The pronunciation is logical as words are pronounced as they are spelled and vice-verse. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish lacks the glottal /'/, (Quillis, the voiced affricate /ʤ/ (judge), the voiced /ð/ and unvoiced /Ɵ/ (thigh,thy), the voiced /ž/ and the unvoiced /ʃ/ (azure,shy), the /z/, the /ŋ/ (sing) and the flap /ɾ/ (butter) (Bilinguistics. Inc., 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Dipthongs are prevalent in Spanish, usually a combination of a hard vowel and weak vowel. These examples include, v ia je, p ue do, camb io , etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish has one-to-one verb correspondence in the use of tenses and in particular sentences, auxiliary verbs may be absent. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish word order is generally Subject-Verb-Object and the adjective follows the noun in sentence structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish uses gender which means nouns are masculine or feminine and the article or adjective must agree (Shoebottom, 2011). </li></ul>
L1 Impact <ul><li>Distinct languages but share patterns of speech acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar phonology but difficulty for Spanish speakers when pronouncing sounds lacking in Spanish. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinct vowel sounds in Spanish become an array of sounds in English. </li></ul><ul><li>Intonation patterns are carried over from Spanish to English. </li></ul><ul><li>False cognates impact interlanguage as well as words with multiple meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of auxiliary verbs when Spanish speakers speak or write (Shoebottom, 2011). </li></ul>Phonology
Examples of Jorge’s errors DESCRIPTION OF ERROR JORGE'S ERROR EXAMPLE 1. Omitted s on a plural noun I am 23 year old. 2. Omission of a preposition I from Texas. 3. No [k] pronunciation. Texas (ˈtɛ k səs) 4. Improper preposition Now I live in Main Street. 5. Improper tense: needs past tense -ed In Mexico I graduate. 6. Improper tense: needs irregular past tense. I never have English. 7. Improper [ɪ] pronunciation English 8. Preposition not needed/ or *ing to be added to verb to make a gerund. I am work in the area. 9. Omission of a preposition I work the afternoon. 10. Omission of a preposition I not so well 11. Added unnecessary -s to a verb I come s here. 12. Double subject My amigos, they help.
Errors continued 13. Substitution of English word My amigos, they help. 14. Improper [ð] pronunciation They help 15. Added unnecessary -s to a verb I like s work. 16. Contraction is not completed I don like cold. 17. Contraction not completed. I don know snow. 18. Wrong word choice I don't know snow. 19. Improper [ð] pronunciation They fun. 20. Missing verb They fun. 21. Improper verb. You is nice. 22. Contraction not completed You welcome
<ul><li>As a beginning language learner, Jorge had difficulty with pronunciation. He could not distinguish phonology between the two languages. He did not hear a difference between the pronunciation of dare-there. They are phonetically similar. He also stated several words without the contractions. Spanish speakers are not accustomed to pronouncing the final “t”. </li></ul>
Instructional Implications <ul><li>Jorge will continue to learn through collaboration with English speakers (Garcia, 1991). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion & conversation with friends & co-workers will help Jorge with pronunciation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An adult ELL course would be helpful in Jorge’s language acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>The most beneficial instruction will come through reading (Freeman and Freeman, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>He will learn vocabulary and consciously recognize words. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading the newspaper </li></ul></ul>
References <ul><li>Bilinguistics Inc. (2007) Typical Development of Speech in Spanish in Comparison to English. www.Bilinguistics.com . </li></ul><ul><li>Freeman, D. and Freeman Y. (2004). Essential Linguistics: What You Need to Know to Teach Reading, ESL, Spelling, Phonics, and Grammar. Heinneman. </li></ul><ul><li>Garcia, Eugene E.(1991). The Education of Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Students: Effective Instructional Practices. UC Berkeley: Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence. Retrieved from: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/2793n11s </li></ul><ul><li>Shoebottom, Paul. (2011) The Differences between Spanish and English. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site: http://www.esl.fis.edu/grammar/langdiff/spanish.htm </li></ul>