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Marketing conference


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Presentation on my initial research on pro-environmental behaviour change.

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Marketing conference

  1. 1. The role ofcompetition ininfluencing pro-environmentalbehavioursDanielle EisemanHeriot Watt University
  2. 2. The big question…Image source Greenpeace USA Facebook page
  3. 3. How do we overcome this?Technology RegulationImage source Con Edison Image source Radiation Safety
  4. 4. Technology Long time lines High costs Increasing demands onelectricity generationRegulation Political tightrope Drives up costs to theconsumer Off-shoring pollutionThe problem with thosesolutions…
  5. 5. What’s left…Changing howwe consume!Image source In a Future Age
  6. 6. Pro-environmentalbehaviour (PEB)Behaviour that decreases the negative impacthuman consumption has on the environment.Image source 2012 ForumImage source The Tyee
  7. 7. Mixed messagesIt’s our future 2006 – 2007 Temporal distanceGo Greener Together 2012 – present Ignoring the propensity forself-interest Do a little, change a lot 2001 – 2004 Trivialises the real cause of theproblemGo Greener 2008 - 2010 Again trivialising the real issue
  8. 8. Disconnect0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40Purchasing locally grown foodTravelling to work by trainRecycling your household wasteInsula ng your internal wallsInsula ng your lo /a cPercentage of ResponsesWhich ac vityto youthink would have the biggest impact onreducingyour personal GHGemissions?
  9. 9. Why is behaviour change sodifficult?Behaviour is complex!EngagementFrameworks that are time andcontext specific
  10. 10. What does this have to do withmarketing?• Environmental, economic,social• Rising energy costs• Growing consumerconcerns for environmentalissues• Increased regulation onproductionImage source Doing it Better Blog
  11. 11. A new model for PEB change
  12. 12. STATUS Resource wealth Alliances Mate attraction(Griskevicius et al, 2010)
  13. 13. CONSPICUOUSCONSUMPTION“Conspicuous consumption of valuable goods is ameans of reputability to the gentleman of leisure.”Veblen, 1899Image source Wallpapers Wide Image source Best in Blogs
  14. 14. COMPETITIONStatusCost signaling andcompetitive altruismDirect and indirect forms ofaggressionPerformance goalsImage source Power and Energy
  15. 15. NORMATIVE MESSAGING(Goldstein et al, 2008)
  16. 16. Applying to PEBGain status within a group by adopting pro-environmental behaviours, signaling pro-socialityCompete with peers within to gain status byconspicuous displays of pro-environmental behavioursOthers will subconsciously copy these conspicuousbehaviours by making normative messages morewidely available
  17. 17. All through the power ofsocial mediaImage source Engage
  18. 18. Methodology framework Non-cooperative games Strategies and payoffs Better for status motives Cooperative games Combinations ofoutcomes Conspicuous vs.Inconspicuous
  19. 19. Wider applications andconclusionsThe same concepts can be applied to any typeof behaviour not just environmentally friendlyonesMarketing messages can be tailored to addressthese ultimate drivers of behaviourGiven the failures of traditional social marketingcampaigns that appeal to proximate drivers ofbehaviour the combined effects of this modelshould prove to be more successful
  20. 20. Thank you!
  21. 21. Climate change
  22. 22. Consumer Culture Theory“…consumption is a historically shaped modeof sociocultural practice that emerges withinthe structures and idealogical imperatives ofdynamic marketplaces.” (Arnould andThompson, 2005)Image source Beyond Berlin
  23. 23. Gender differences Women tend to avoiddirect aggression whencompeting (Campbell,2010) Sex differences incompetition are not just asociocultural condition(Deaner, 2006) Study by Bunnk and Massar(2012) Men tend to be moregenerous or pro-social in thepresence of a woman The women’s pro-socialitywas not affected by thepresence of either sex
  24. 24. References Arnould, E. J., & Thompson, C. J. (2005). Consumer Culture Theory (CCT): Twenty Years of Research. Journal ofConsumer Research, 31(4), 868–882. Retrieved from Campbell, A, 1999. Staying alive: evolution, culture, and womens intrasexual aggression. The Behavioral and BrainSciences, 22 (2), 203 – 214. Chaudhuri, H. R. (2006). Of Diamonds and Desires : Understanding Conspicuous Consumption from a ContemporaryMarketing Perspective Of Diamonds and Desires : Understanding Conspicuous Consumption from a ContemporaryMarketing Perspective. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 11. Corner, A., & Randall, A. (2011). Selling climate change? The limitations of social marketing as a strategy for climatechange public engagement. Global Environmental Change, 21(3), 1005–1014. Destin, M., Richman, S., Varner, F., & Mandara, J. (2012). “Feeling” hierarchy: the pathway from subjective socialstatus to achievement. Journal of adolescence, 35(6), 1571–9. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.06.006 Goldstein, N. J., Cialdini, R. B., & Griskevicius, V. (2008). A Room with a Viewpoint: Using Social Norms to MotivateEnvironmental Conservation in Hotels. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(3), 472–482. doi:10.1086/586910 Griskevicius, V., Cantú, S. M., & Vugt, M. Van. (2012). The Evolutionary Bases for Sustainable Behavior: Implications forMarketing, Policy, and Social Entrepreneurship. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 31(1), 115–128. Griskevicius, V., Tybur, J. M., & Van den Bergh, B. (2010). Going green to be seen: status, reputation, and conspicuousconservation. Journal of personality and social psychology, 98(3), 392–404. doi:10.1037/a0017346
  25. 25. References continued Hargreaves, T. (2012). Questioning the virtues of pro-environmental behaviour research: Towards aphronetic approach. Geoforum, 43(2), 315–324. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2011.09.006 Heffetz, O. (2011). A TEST OF CONSPICUOUS CONSUMPTION : VISIBILITY AND. The Review ofEconomics and Statistics, XCIII(4), 1101–1117. Jackson, T, 2005. Motivating sustainable consumption. A review of evidence on consumerbehaviour and behavioural change. A report to the Sustainable Development Research Network,Surrey: Centre for Environmental Strategies. Murayama, K., & Elliot, A. J. (2012). The competition-performance relation: a meta-analytic reviewand test of the opposing processes model of competition and performance. Psychologicalbulletin, 138(6), 1035–70. Osbaldiston, R. and Schott, J.P., 2012. Environmental sustainability and behavioural science: Meta-analysis of pro-environmental behaviour experiments. Environment and Behaviour, 44(2), 257 – 299. Saad, G., & Vongas, J. G. (2009). The effect of conspicuous consumption on mens testosteronelevels. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 110(2), 80–92. Stern, P., 2000. Toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behaviour. Journal ofSocial Issues, 56(3), 407 – 424.
  26. 26. Image sources Slide 2 Slide 3 Slide 5 Slide 6
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