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- 1. Quantitative Methods for Lawyers Class #17 Scatter Plots, Covariance, Correlation & Brief Intro to Regression Analysis @ computational computationallegalstudies.com professor daniel martin katz danielmartinkatz.com lexpredict.com slideshare.net/DanielKatz
- 2. Associations Among Variables Scatterplot is an Initial Tool to Investigate Relationships Between Variables Visually Displays Value on the X axis and its corresponding Value on the Y axis Roughly Four Possible Relationship Can Be Revealed in the Data
- 3. A positive correlation exists between variable X and variable Y if an increase in X results in an increase in Y (and vice- versa) The more cigarettes you smoke, the greater the chance of lung cancer. If you are paid by the hour, the more hours you work, the more pay you receive. The more time you spend studying, the better grades you make in school. Scatter Plot Positive Correlation
- 4. Scatter Plot Negative Correlation A negative correlation exists between variable X and variable Y if a decrease in X results in an increase in Y (and vice- versa). The heavier your car is, the lower your gas mileage is. The colder it is outside, the higher your heating bill. The more time you spend watching TV, the lower your grades are in school.
- 5. Scatter Plot No Correlation In this case, a change in X has no impact on Y (and vice-versa). There is no relationship between the two variables. For example, the amount of time I spend watching TV has no impact on the gas heating bill.
- 6. Scatter Plot Non-Linear The scatter plot illustrates a nonlinear relationship, in which Y increases as X increases, but only up to a point; after that point, the relationship reverses direction. This is Neg (X^2)
- 7. Generating Scatter Plots in R https://s3.amazonaws.com/KatzCloud/auto.dtaLoad this File: Okay We Are Now Loaded
- 8. Generating Scatter Plots in R
- 9. Generating Scatter Plots in R
- 10. Generating Scatter Plots in R
- 11. Generating Scatter Plots in R
- 12. Generating Scatter Plots in R We Want to Be Able to Color the Points by {Foreign, Domestic} - ggplot is probably the best way to proceed You Might Consider Purchasing this Book http://www.amazon.com/ggplot2-Elegant- Graphics-Data-Analysis/dp/0387981403
- 13. Covariance and Correlation Covariance and Correlation are well established statistics for identifying and measuring a systemic relationship between two variables Covariance Captures how two variables vary in relationship to each other Covariance between two variables x / y is measured as the expectation of the product of each x minus the population mean and each y minus its population mean
- 14. http://ci.columbia.edu/ci/premba_test/c0331/s7/s7_5.html Covariance Covariance between two variables x / y is measured as the expectation of the product of each x minus the population mean and each y minus its population mean
- 15. http://ci.columbia.edu/ci/premba_test/c0331/s7/s7_5.html Covariance Covariance between two variables x / y is measured as the expectation of the product of each x minus the population mean and each y minus its population mean Notice the n-1 if sample (would be n alone if otherwise)
- 16. Economic Growth % (xi) S&P 500 Returns % (yi) 2.1 8 2.5 12 4 14 3.6 10 http://ci.columbia.edu/ci/premba_test/c0331/s7/s7_5.html Covariance
- 17. http://ci.columbia.edu/ci/premba_test/c0331/s7/s7_5.html Covariance
- 18. Covariance http://ci.columbia.edu/ci/premba_test/c0331/s7/s7_5.html Notice the “ ... ” here Just Showing the Work for the ﬁrst item in the Summation Series
- 19. Covariance in R
- 20. We Have Seen that We Had Covariance Numbers such as 1.53 This Reveals one of the important limitations of covariances -- the Units of Covariance are hard to interpret Covariance Typically, Correlation is Reported as it has units that are scaled and thus allow for easy interpretation and/or comparison
- 21. Correlation Correlation Coefﬁcient is the statistic that helps us distinguish b e t w e e n t h e s e t y p e s o f relationships
- 22. Correlation Notice that these are two ways to write the same formula Conceptually we are scaling the raw covariance score to a bench mark unit and those units are standard deviation units for x and y rho
- 23. Correlation r is Pearson’s Correlation Coefﬁcient or Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefﬁcient Correlation Coefﬁcient is bounded between -1 and +1 Perfect Negative Association r = -1 Perfect Positive Association r = +1 Completely unrelated variables r = 0
- 24. Correlation No Hard and Fast Rule about what value for r is strong enough Correlation again does not necessarily imply a causal relationship See the Murder Rate and Ice Cream Sales See e.g. Hot Years and Serious and Deadly Assault: Empirical Tests of the Heat Hypothesis, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 73(6), Dec 1997, 1213-1223 So Called “Heat Hypothesis” is a likely confounding variable
- 25. Correlation
- 26. Correlation Lets Look at the Calculation in Detail sd(mpg) * sd(weight) = Cov (Weight, MPG) = same # as before
- 27. Example Age and Salaries For Technical Workers: Negative Relationship between age and salaries for skilled workers Does not imply that an Age Discrimination Compliant should be ﬁled Confound is the diminishing technical skills of older workers Tech is a Young Person’s Game See Daniel l. Rubinfeld, Reference Guide on Multiple Regression, in Reference Manual on Scientiﬁc Evidence 184 (2d ed. 2000) Spurious Correlation?
- 28. Welcome to Regression Analysis
- 29. Welcome to Regression Analysis Regression Analysis is a Tool that Allows for Simultaneous Consideration of Various Factors/Variables Allows Researcher to “Control For” the Effect of other characteristics that might help drive a particular price, outcome, result, etc. Regression is VERY LARGE topic and this is a survey course related to this content: As stated in Lawless, et al “There will be just a touch of formality here, but just a touch”
- 30. Simple Linear Relationships Y = α + βx Simple as we are only comparing X and Y Linear as this is merely a plot of a straight line Dependent Variable -- Y as it Depends upon the X’s and the Intercept Term Independent Variable -- X is independent and it the variable doing the predicting
- 31. Simple Linear Relationships Y = α + βx α aka “alpha” is the intercept (this becomes β0 in multiple regression context) β aka “beta” is the slope of the regression line (this becomes β1 in multiple regression context)
- 32. Here are a Series of X and Y Values (Similar to Figure 11-2 Page 302 of Lawless, et al)
- 33. Here are a Series of X and Y Values (Similar to Figure 11-2 Page 302 of Lawless, et al)
- 34. Here are a Series of X and Y Values (Similar to Figure 11-2 Page 302 of Lawless, et al)
- 35. Y = α + βx
- 36. Y = α + βx Regression Line is Above - it is the Best Fit Line Regression Seeks to Minimize the Sum of the Squared Differences between the line of all observations
- 37. Y = α + βx Y = 3.2 + .68x
- 38. Y = α + βx Y = 3.2 + .68x Intercept Term (this becomes β0 in multiple regression context)
- 39. Y = α + βx Y = 3.2 + .68x Intercept Term (this becomes β0 in multiple regression context) Regression “Beta” Coefﬁcient (this becomes β1 in multiple regression context)
- 40. 05101520 0 5 10 15 20 X Fitted values Y Here is that 3.2 Intercept (i.e. 3.2 on the y Axis) Y = 3.2 + .68x Slope Here is .68 for each 1 unit change in X there is a .68 unit change in Y
- 41. 05101520 0 5 10 15 20 X Fitted values Y Notice that the prediction line does not really pass through the middle of any particular observation There is an error term called “epsilon” which attempts to capture the amount of error in the model Y = α + βx + ε A Large Error Term Mean that the Regression Line Does not Really “Fit” the Data Particularly Well
- 42. Multiple Regression
- 43. Here is an App that Predicts the Price Per Hour of Various Lawyers City Firm Size Partner Experience Calculate Regression Analysis in Legal Procurement http://tymetrix.com/mobile_apps/
- 44. Estimate a lawyer’s rate: Real Rate Report™ Regression model From the CT TyMetrix/Corporate Executive Board 2012 Real Rate Report© $15 1 $16 1 $34 per 10 years$95 +$99 (Finance) -$15 (Litigation) n = 15,353 Lawyers Tier 1 Market Experience Partner Status Practice Area Base + + +/- Source: 2012 Real Rate Report™ 32 $15 Per 100 Lawyers Law Firm Size+ + $161 $151 $15 per 100 lawyers $95 $34 per 10 years -$15 (Litigation) +$99 (Finance)
- 45. Y = βo +/- β1 ( X1 ) +/- β2 ( X2 ) +/- β3 ( X3 ) +/- β4 ( X3 ) +/- β5 ( X3 ) + ε Y = $151 + $15 ( ) + 161 ( ) + 95 ( ) + 34 ( ) +/- β5 ( ) + ε Per 100 Lawyers If Tier 1 Market is True Partner Status is True Per 10 Years Practice Area
- 46. Daniel Martin Katz @ computational computationallegalstudies.com lexpredict.com danielmartinkatz.com illinois tech - chicago kent college of law@

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