AN ONGOING STUDY TO EXAMINEAN ONGOING STUDY TO EXAMINE
THE EFFECT OF CHANGINGTHE EFFECT OF CHANGING
INORGANIC NITROGEN LOA...
OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES
ONONDAGA LAKEONONDAGA LAKE
o Historically oligo-mesotrophic
o Flushes 4 times per year to Seneca River
o Watershed 642 km2...
A HISTORY OF POLLUTIONA HISTORY OF POLLUTION
o Syracuse area was settled in the 1700sSyracuse area was settled in the 1700...
EFFECTS OF NUTRIENT LOADINGEFFECTS OF NUTRIENT LOADING
Eutrophic
Eutrophic
o Large phytoplankton
blooms
o Anoxic bottom wa...
CLEANING IT UPCLEANING IT UP
o METRO effluentMETRO effluent
o 80% of yearly TN load80% of yearly TN load
o 68% of TP68% of...
CHANGING LAKE CONCENTRATIONSCHANGING LAKE CONCENTRATIONS
o [NH[NH44
++
] and [NO] and [NO33
--
] changed rapidly in] chang...
OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES
MODEL POST-AUDITMODEL POST-AUDIT
Completed a post-audit of a N model for Onondaga Lake
o Model developed for 1990-1991 dat...
MODEL PERFORMANCEMODEL PERFORMANCE
o Model
performed well
in 1992
o Near the
period
(1989 + 1990)
used for
calibration and...
MODEL PERFORMANCEMODEL PERFORMANCE
Did the model oversimplify the biology of the lake?
o Fit is poorer
o 2005 farther from...
MODEL PERFORMANCEMODEL PERFORMANCE
Improved RMSE by 47% for hypolimnetic NH4
+
predictions
and by ~14% for NOX predictions...
OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES
EFFECTS ON PHYTOPLANKTONEFFECTS ON PHYTOPLANKTON
ASSEMBLAGEASSEMBLAGE
 N Loading from Metro has
decreased and changed
sin...
N UPTAKE AND PREFERENCESN UPTAKE AND PREFERENCES
NO3
-
NO2
-
NH4
+ Amino Acids
Phytoplankton
Cell Wall
NH4
+
NO3
-
N UPTAKE AND PREFERENCESN UPTAKE AND PREFERENCES
NO3
-
NO2
-
NH4
+ Amino Acids
Phytoplankton
Cell Wall
NH4
+
NO3
-
Diatoms...
Year
98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
RelativeBiomass
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Charo- Zygnematophyceae
Chloro- Chl...
PREDICTED VS. ACTUALPREDICTED VS. ACTUAL
ASSEMBLAGE CHANGESASSEMBLAGE CHANGES

Expected change in divisions over the stud...
OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES
OBJECTIVES OF MY PROPOSEDOBJECTIVES OF MY PROPOSED
RESEARCHRESEARCH
GOAL: Quantify the N preferences of the phytoplankton ...
HOW TO MEASURE N UPTAKEHOW TO MEASURE N UPTAKE
RESULTS OF UPTAKE EXPERIMENTRESULTS OF UPTAKE EXPERIMENT
o P limited?
o Average N:P of phytoplankton
15:1 (Redfield ratio)...
WHY NO NITROGEN UPTAKE?
Why not allow phytoplankton to grow before measuring N
uptake?
o Control samples
o Originally in m...
OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES
SAME QUESTION, NEW APPROACHSAME QUESTION, NEW APPROACH
How did the change in NH4
+
: NO3
-
affect phytoplankton?
Change in...
CHOOSING STUDY SPECIESCHOOSING STUDY SPECIES
Present in
Samples
Data for
every
year
Have
trend
with N or
P loading
Increas...
1. GROWTH EXPERIMENTS1. GROWTH EXPERIMENTS
o Spike each species with nutrients (3 different treatments)
o Adjust only NH4:...
b) Decreasing Trend
Treatment
3 4 5
GrowthRate(µ,perday)
0
2
4
6
8
10
P Driven
N Driven
1A. GROWTH DYNAMICS1A. GROWTH DYNA...
1B. COMPETITION STUDY1B. COMPETITION STUDY
o Spike all four species into each treatment
o Methods:
o Sample for cell count...
Treatment
3 4 5
Toxicity(µ.L-1)
0
100
200
300
400
500
1C. CELL CONTENT EXPERIMENT1C. CELL CONTENT EXPERIMENT
o Allow speci...
2. N UPTAKE EXPERIMENT2. N UPTAKE EXPERIMENT
o Measure N uptake of species grown on 3 different
treatments
o Which species...
2. N UPTAKE EXPERIMENT2. N UPTAKE EXPERIMENT
o N uptake and competition
o KS will be more important than Vm as [NH4
+
]
de...
2. N UPTAKE EXPERIMENT2. N UPTAKE EXPERIMENT
o N uptake and treatment effect
o Lag time to ‘turn on’ pathways to utilize
n...
DOGGIE BAG (I.E. TAKE HOME)DOGGIE BAG (I.E. TAKE HOME)
o Since 1989
o NH4
+
: NO3
-
has decreased from
5:1 to 2:5
o Phytop...
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An ongoing study to examine the effect of changing inorganic nitrogen loading on a phytoplankton community

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From Fall 2009- An ongoing study to examine the effect of changing inorganic nitrogen loading on a phytoplankton community

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  • Onondaga Lake is located just north of Syracuse
    It is currently the site of millions of dollars in remedial effort and is currently listed as an EPA superfund site
    This is mostly the result of industrial pollution
    However P and N pollution has driven the lake to become hypereutrophic
    This can lead to degradation of water quality via…
  • Onondaga Lake is located just north of Syracuse
    It is currently the site of millions of dollars in remedial effort and is currently listed as an EPA superfund site
    This is mostly the result of industrial pollution
    However P and N pollution has driven the lake to become hypereutrophic
    This can lead to degradation of water quality via…
  • A nitrogen (N) mathematical model was developed and tested in the early to mid-1990’s to support implementation of a N control program on Onondaga Lake (Canale et al. 1996, Effler et al., Fig. 1)
    The model was used to test the changes in N cycling in the lake as a result of various loading reductions scenarios from the Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant (Metro; Canale et al. 1996, Effler et al.).
    Since the development and testing of the model two management options for N treatment have been implemented, in 1999 pharmaceutical pre-treatment and in 2003 biologically aerated filtration (Effler et al., 2008, Fig. 2)
    These changes offered a rare opportunity to conduct a post-audit on the N model for Onondaga Lake.
  • Onondaga Lake is located just north of Syracuse
    It is currently the site of millions of dollars in remedial effort and is currently listed as an EPA superfund site
    This is mostly the result of industrial pollution
    However P and N pollution has driven the lake to become hypereutrophic
    This can lead to degradation of water quality via…
  • Phyto take up both, but prefer NH4+
    No3- taken up….
    But NH4+ taken up, skip these two steps and the energy required
    Differences between species. Those when Oxygen (Diatoms) vs. those when none (Green algae, cyanobacteria)
  • Phyto take up both, but prefer NH4+
    No3- taken up….
    But NH4+ taken up, skip these two steps and the energy required
    Differences between species. Those when Oxygen (Diatoms) vs. those when none (Green algae, cyanobacteria)
  • Onondaga Lake is located just north of Syracuse
    It is currently the site of millions of dollars in remedial effort and is currently listed as an EPA superfund site
    This is mostly the result of industrial pollution
    However P and N pollution has driven the lake to become hypereutrophic
    This can lead to degradation of water quality via…
  • SRP = < 2 uM
  • Onondaga Lake is located just north of Syracuse
    It is currently the site of millions of dollars in remedial effort and is currently listed as an EPA superfund site
    This is mostly the result of industrial pollution
    However P and N pollution has driven the lake to become hypereutrophic
    This can lead to degradation of water quality via…
  • Phyto take up both, but prefer NH4+
    No3- taken up….
    But NH4+ taken up, skip these two steps and the energy required
    Differences between species. Those when Oxygen (Diatoms) vs. those when none (Green algae, cyanobacteria)
  • Chl:C, C:N, N:P
  • Chl:C, C:N, N:P
  • Chl:C, C:N, N:P
  • Chl:C, C:N, N:P
  • Phyto take up both, but prefer NH4+
    No3- taken up….
    But NH4+ taken up, skip these two steps and the energy required
    Differences between species. Those when Oxygen (Diatoms) vs. those when none (Green algae, cyanobacteria)
    SHOULD SEE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN HOW QUICKLY AND HOW MUCH
  • Phyto take up both, but prefer NH4+
    No3- taken up….
    But NH4+ taken up, skip these two steps and the energy required
    Differences between species. Those when Oxygen (Diatoms) vs. those when none (Green algae, cyanobacteria)
    SHOULD SEE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN HOW QUICKLY AND HOW MUCH
  • Phyto take up both, but prefer NH4+
    No3- taken up….
    But NH4+ taken up, skip these two steps and the energy required
    Differences between species. Those when Oxygen (Diatoms) vs. those when none (Green algae, cyanobacteria)
    SHOULD SEE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN HOW QUICKLY AND HOW MUCH
  • Phyto take up both, but prefer NH4+
    No3- taken up….
    But NH4+ taken up, skip these two steps and the energy required
    Differences between species. Those when Oxygen (Diatoms) vs. those when none (Green algae, cyanobacteria)
  • An ongoing study to examine the effect of changing inorganic nitrogen loading on a phytoplankton community

    1. 1. AN ONGOING STUDY TO EXAMINEAN ONGOING STUDY TO EXAMINE THE EFFECT OF CHANGINGTHE EFFECT OF CHANGING INORGANIC NITROGEN LOADINGINORGANIC NITROGEN LOADING ON A PHYTOPLANKTONON A PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITYCOMMUNITY Daniele BakerDaniele Baker www.waterandwastewater.com http://cisbc.info/activities/PublishingImages/algae-2.jpg
    2. 2. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES
    3. 3. ONONDAGA LAKEONONDAGA LAKE o Historically oligo-mesotrophic o Flushes 4 times per year to Seneca River o Watershed 642 km2 , contains 450,00 people o Three tributaries = 70% of water input o (Onondaga, Ninemile and Ley Creeks o Morphometry o Maximum depth: 19.5 m o Surface area: 12.0 km2 o Volume: 131 X 106 m3
    4. 4. A HISTORY OF POLLUTIONA HISTORY OF POLLUTION o Syracuse area was settled in the 1700sSyracuse area was settled in the 1700s o Salt deposits spurred large scale productionSalt deposits spurred large scale production o Resulted in rapid industrial and populationResulted in rapid industrial and population growth leading to…growth leading to… o Industrial pollutionIndustrial pollution o Wastewater pollutionWastewater pollution Wastewater Effects on the Lake (timeline): 1890- Cold water fishery lost 1940- Swimming banned (fecal coliform, total phosphorus and clarity) 1994- Lake and sediment added to the EPA Superfund National Priority List
    5. 5. EFFECTS OF NUTRIENT LOADINGEFFECTS OF NUTRIENT LOADING Eutrophic Eutrophic o Large phytoplankton blooms o Anoxic bottom waters o Toxic levels of ammonium (NH4 + ) and nitrite (NO2 - ) o Loss of cold water fish Not actually Onondaga
    6. 6. CLEANING IT UPCLEANING IT UP o METRO effluentMETRO effluent o 80% of yearly TN load80% of yearly TN load o 68% of TP68% of TP o During summer Metro largestDuring summer Metro largest single inflow to the lakesingle inflow to the lake o 1998-1998- Amended consentAmended consent judgment against METROjudgment against METRO o Decrease loading over 15 yearsDecrease loading over 15 years o 3 phases ($380 mil)3 phases ($380 mil)
    7. 7. CHANGING LAKE CONCENTRATIONSCHANGING LAKE CONCENTRATIONS o [NH[NH44 ++ ] and [NO] and [NO33 -- ] changed rapidly in] changed rapidly in lakelake o Ratio of NHRatio of NH44 ++ : NO: NO33 -- reversed betweenreversed between Regime 3 and 5Regime 3 and 5 5:1 5:3 2:5NH4 + : NO3 - Regime 3 4 5 YearlyAvergeNConc(uM) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 NH4 Nox
    8. 8. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES
    9. 9. MODEL POST-AUDITMODEL POST-AUDIT Completed a post-audit of a N model for Onondaga Lake o Model developed for 1990-1991 data (by Upstate Freshwater Institute) o Used to test the changes in N cycling as a result of various loading reductions scenarios from METRO o Extended the model testing for another 17 years (1989, 1992-2007)
    10. 10. MODEL PERFORMANCEMODEL PERFORMANCE o Model performed well in 1992 o Near the period (1989 + 1990) used for calibration and verification
    11. 11. MODEL PERFORMANCEMODEL PERFORMANCE Did the model oversimplify the biology of the lake? o Fit is poorer o 2005 farther from the period (1989 + 1990) used for calibration and verification
    12. 12. MODEL PERFORMANCEMODEL PERFORMANCE Improved RMSE by 47% for hypolimnetic NH4 + predictions and by ~14% for NOX predictions in both layers. 1. Anoxic period 2. Sediment release rate 3. Algal uptake Three new mechanisms added to the model: Improved Model Performance (2005)
    13. 13. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES
    14. 14. EFFECTS ON PHYTOPLANKTONEFFECTS ON PHYTOPLANKTON ASSEMBLAGEASSEMBLAGE  N Loading from Metro has decreased and changed since 1989  NH4 + : NO3 - is lower than ever before How will this change affect phytoplankton? Change in species? Toxicty? Food source?
    15. 15. N UPTAKE AND PREFERENCESN UPTAKE AND PREFERENCES NO3 - NO2 - NH4 + Amino Acids Phytoplankton Cell Wall NH4 + NO3 -
    16. 16. N UPTAKE AND PREFERENCESN UPTAKE AND PREFERENCES NO3 - NO2 - NH4 + Amino Acids Phytoplankton Cell Wall NH4 + NO3 - Diatoms prefer NO3 - Some Chlorophyta + Cyanobacteria prefer NH4 +
    17. 17. Year 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 RelativeBiomass 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Charo- Zygnematophyceae Chloro- Chlorophyceae Mamiellophyceae Nephroselmidophyceae Trebouxiophyceae Ulvophyceae Crypto- Cryptophyceae Cyano- Cyanophyceae Dino- Dinophyceae Eugleno- Eulgenophyceae Ochro- Bacillarophyceae Chrysophyceae Synurophyceae Xanthophyceae Regime 3 Regime 4 Regime 5 PHYTOPLANKTON TRENDSPHYTOPLANKTON TRENDS ↑ INCREASE ↓ DECREASE Charo. r2 = 0.051 p= 0.4 r2 = 0.11 p= 0.3 Dino. Crypto. r2 = 0.40 p= 0.01 Cyano. r2 = 0.85 p= <0.001 Chloro. r2 = 0.62 p= 0.5 r2 = 0.61 p= 0.001 Ochro. = No Significant Change
    18. 18. PREDICTED VS. ACTUALPREDICTED VS. ACTUAL ASSEMBLAGE CHANGESASSEMBLAGE CHANGES  Expected change in divisions over the study period…  X
    19. 19. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES
    20. 20. OBJECTIVES OF MY PROPOSEDOBJECTIVES OF MY PROPOSED RESEARCHRESEARCH GOAL: Quantify the N preferences of the phytoplankton community. How? Measure the rate and total NH4 + and NO3 - uptake of the community several times during summer. o How fast can they take up NH4 + and NO3 - (Kv)? o How much total NH4 + and NO3 - can they uptake (Vm) o Which species are dominating each phytoplankton community sample?
    21. 21. HOW TO MEASURE N UPTAKEHOW TO MEASURE N UPTAKE
    22. 22. RESULTS OF UPTAKE EXPERIMENTRESULTS OF UPTAKE EXPERIMENT o P limited? o Average N:P of phytoplankton 15:1 (Redfield ratio) o Currently > 40:1 o Tested P limitation o Added P to make 15:1 o No increase in N uptake between treatments with and without added P d) 150- Amm- Onon (9) Hours 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 [N]uM 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 NH4+ NO3- o No decreasing trend, indicates no N uptake of NH4 + or NO3 - after 8 hours o Largest [NH4 + ] spike should show greatest N uptake
    23. 23. WHY NO NITROGEN UPTAKE? Why not allow phytoplankton to grow before measuring N uptake? o Control samples o Originally in media with best ratio of all nutrients o Placed in environment with huge nutrient limitation o Onondaga Lake o May be acclimated to slow nutrient uptake o And “shocked” by new lab environment Is their a different approach that would answer my research question?
    24. 24. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES
    25. 25. SAME QUESTION, NEW APPROACHSAME QUESTION, NEW APPROACH How did the change in NH4 + : NO3 - affect phytoplankton? Change in species? Toxicity? Food source? Grow phytoplankton in the lab on 3 different treatments (3 regimes) Two different experiments 1. Growth experiments o Which species are the most competitive for each regime? 2. Uptake experiment o How does N uptake vary between regimes and species?
    26. 26. CHOOSING STUDY SPECIESCHOOSING STUDY SPECIES Present in Samples Data for every year Have trend with N or P loading Increased with time Decreased with time P driven? N driven? P driven? N driven?
    27. 27. 1. GROWTH EXPERIMENTS1. GROWTH EXPERIMENTS o Spike each species with nutrients (3 different treatments) o Adjust only NH4:NO3:P 3 separate experiments will estimate… A. Growth dynamics B. Competition C. Changes in cell nutrient and toxin content
    28. 28. b) Decreasing Trend Treatment 3 4 5 GrowthRate(µ,perday) 0 2 4 6 8 10 P Driven N Driven 1A. GROWTH DYNAMICS1A. GROWTH DYNAMICS EXPERIMENTEXPERIMENT o Grow species on set amount of substrate o Methods: o Measure fluorescence daily o Biweekly samples o Cell counts (size, SA, V) o Inorganic nutrients o Compare btw species and treatment o Growth rate, peak biomass 1 2 3 4 5  [Substrate]  Chl. a) Increasing Trend Treatment 3 4 5 GrowthRate(µ,perday) 0 2 4 6 8 10 P Driven N Driven
    29. 29. 1B. COMPETITION STUDY1B. COMPETITION STUDY o Spike all four species into each treatment o Methods: o Sample for cell counts daily o Calculate % composition o Compare % composition between treatments Treatment 3 4 5 %Composition 0 20 40 60 80 100 P Driven N Driven P Driven N Driven Increasing Decreasing
    30. 30. Treatment 3 4 5 Toxicity(µ.L-1) 0 100 200 300 400 500 1C. CELL CONTENT EXPERIMENT1C. CELL CONTENT EXPERIMENT o Allow species to grow long-term in semi-continuous cultures o Methods: o Sample at the beginning and end o N:P (P limitation) o C:Chl (C limitation) o Compare metrics after long-term incubation o C:N (N limitation) o Toxicity (both cyanobacteria can produce toxins) Treatment 3 4 5 C:Chl 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Treatment 3 4 5 N:P 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Treatment 3 4 5 C:N 0 2 4 6 8 Treatment 3 4 5 Toxicity(µ.L-1) 0 100 200 300 400 500 Treatment 3 4 5 Toxicity(µ.L-1) 0 100 200 300 400 500
    31. 31. 2. N UPTAKE EXPERIMENT2. N UPTAKE EXPERIMENT o Measure N uptake of species grown on 3 different treatments o Which species has fastest and largest uptake of NH4 + and NO3 - ? o How does treatment effect N uptake? o Half-saturation (Ks) o Max uptake rate (Vm) o Relative Preference Index (RPI) � = �� ∙ � �� + �
    32. 32. 2. N UPTAKE EXPERIMENT2. N UPTAKE EXPERIMENT o N uptake and competition o KS will be more important than Vm as [NH4 + ] decrease (i.e. most recent years) o Vm for NO3 - will be more important at higher [NO3 - ] Decreasing ↓ ↑ Increasing Increasing ↓ ↑ Decreasing
    33. 33. 2. N UPTAKE EXPERIMENT2. N UPTAKE EXPERIMENT o N uptake and treatment effect o Lag time to ‘turn on’ pathways to utilize nitrogen source when previously unexposed o Phytoplankton grown in treatment 3 (low NO3 - ) will have a lag time (high KS) for NO3 - o Small or no lag time with NH4+ (preferred)
    34. 34. DOGGIE BAG (I.E. TAKE HOME)DOGGIE BAG (I.E. TAKE HOME) o Since 1989 o NH4 + : NO3 - has decreased from 5:1 to 2:5 o Phytoplankton community has changed o NH4 + : NO3 - should be affecting phytoplankton community o World Wide o NH4 + loading decreasing + urea loading increasing o Stoichiometry is IMPORTANT o % toxic species and toxin production is correlated with changing ratio of N forms o Are we really solving the problem just decreasing TN loads?

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