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Marine Biotechnology/Algae


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Presentation for the Biofuels course 2011

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Marine Biotechnology/Algae

  1. 1. MarineBiotechnology1 11/17/2011
  2. 2. ALGAE By: Ayesha Nawaz Daniela Lopez2 11/17/2011
  3. 3. What is it? Marine biotechnology uses biological material from the sea to produce goods and services. 3 11/17/2011
  4. 4. Areas Of Interest Extraction of biologically-active compounds or pharmaceuticals Cloning of proteins of marine origin Analysis of marine toxins and anti-venoms Development of industrial adhesives Development of diagnostic probes for marine pathogens. Bio-remediation, which uses marine and other organisms to digest contaminants and toxins in the environment. 4 11/17/2011
  5. 5. Constraints Like all other technologies the opportunities involve long lead times and high risks. Other critical issues that can affect bio- prospecting for genetic material include access and ownership of intellectual property rights. Ability to sustainably produce high-oil-yielding algae strains on a large-scale. Ability to extract the oil from the algae on a large scale. Capability for large-scale conversion of algal oil into biodiesel. 5 11/17/2011
  6. 6. Algal Strains Some prominent strains of algae that have a high carbohydrate content and hence are promising candidates for ethanol production.  Sargassum  Glacilaria  Prymnesium parvum  Euglena gracilis 6 11/17/2011
  7. 7. Ethanol from Algae Algae have a tendency to have a much different makeup than does most feed stocks used in ethanol, such as corn and sugar cane. Ethanol from algae is possible by converting the starch (the storage component) and Cellulose (the cell wall component). lipids in algae oil can be made into biodiesel, while the carbohydrates can be converted to ethanol. Algae are the optimal source for second generation bioethanol due to the fact that they are high in carbohydrates/polysaccharides and thin cellulose walls 7 11/17/2011
  8. 8. Process behind Ethanol from Algae Fermentation process to produce ethanol include the following stages: Growing starch-accumulating, filament- Separating the Harvesting the grown forming, or colony- resulting ethanol from algae to form a forming algae in an the fermentation aqua culture biomass; solution. environment; Contacting the decaying biomass with a yeast capable Initiating decay of the of fermenting it to biomass; form a fermentation solution; 8 11/17/2011
  9. 9. Decaying… Cellular structure of the biomass begins to decay (e.g., cell wall rupture) and release the carbohydrates. Initiating decay can be accomplished mechanically, non-mechanically. The yeasts used are typically brewers‟ yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces uvarum). Genetically altered bacteria could be useful for fermentation can also be used. 9 11/17/2011
  10. 10. Ethanol from De-oiled Algae BiomassAlgal Biomass Left-over Conversion into• Carbohydrates mass(once the Ethanol• Proteins lipids extracted) • Carbohydrates in• Lipids • Carbohydrates the left-over algae • Proteins can be converted into sugars. • Sugars can be processed into Ethanol 10 11/17/2011
  11. 11. Production Of Ethanol and Biodiesel fromAlgae FromOligae, 2006, Retrievedfrom 11/17/2011
  12. 12. Biodiesel from Algae Dewatering Aquafeed Furthertreatm Animal feed enttorecover and Extrusion Petfeed diesel Residual microalgae IncorporatediSelectionofmi Extraction of nto humancroalgaespec Wasteliquor protein food ies Growth of Extraction of Oil for Harvesting of microalgae oilfrommicroa processingint Biodiesel microalgae lgae oBiofuel 12 11/17/2011
  13. 13. Advantages to make ethanol from algaeinstead of diesel The lipid (oil) content in algae from different sources max. 70% is less than starch+ cellulose+ sugars nearly 100% content. Algae should be dried (a lot of energy) to extract oil but needs no treatment for ethanol fermentation. Extracting the oil from algae is complicated. CO2 from ethanol fermenting can be used as algae feedstock. The energy from fermenting and distilling can be used to heat algae ponds (photo bioreactors) in cold climate. 13 11/17/2011
  14. 14. Advantages of Using Algae Algae have many important advantages over other oil-producing crops, like corn, canola and soybeans. It can be grown in almost any enclosed space and it multiplies rapidly and requires very few inputs to flourish - mainly just sunlight, water and carbon dioxide. Because algae has a high surface-area-to-volume ratio, it can absorb nutrients very quickly, and its small size is what makes it mighty. The Energy Returned is much higher than Energy Invested or required to produce algae ethanol. 14 11/17/2011
  15. 15. Advantages of Using Algae Algae Consume CO2, a Major Greenhouse Gas. Do Not Require Arable Land. Grow Very Rapidly. Represent a “New” Source of Fuel. Represent a New Source of Animal Food. 15 11/17/2011
  16. 16. Simpler… Algae ethanol does not require a very complicated equipment or machinery to set it up As Scientists and researchers of Canadian National Renewable Energy Association have observed that: "algae ethanol plant does not eat up the countrys bread basket" and gives to mankind many valuable bi-products that are used in several ways. 16 11/17/2011
  17. 17. •Large scale cultures to fulfil demands Scale •Ponds vs. photobioreactors* •Large area requirements •Good climatic conditionsChallenges Land •Close to resources (water, CO2) •Flat land •Large amount of water for culture •Saline water and Water evaporation replacement •Complete discharge of ponds due to increased salinity17 11/17/2011
  18. 18. •Phosphate. Non-renewable and competition with food crops •Nitrogen. •6-8% of dry microalgae. •Can affect lipid composition and Nutrients culture •2 kg of CO2 kg-1 of N •Waste water?. Inconsistent composition •CO2. Transportation costs •20-30% of the total costChallenges Harvesting •Different sizes and shapes (2 to 200 m for individual cells •Keeping the biomass newtonian •Homogenization & bead milling Cell •Cooling systems due to energy disruption dissipation •Reducing cell wall strength18 11/17/2011
  19. 19. Open orclosed? Ponds PBR Expensive construction Low cost and operative costs Monitoring systems eg. Gas Simplicity exchanging system High Easier water evaporation recycling ratesFrom “Placingmicroalgaeonthebiofuelsprioritylist: areviewofthetechnologicalchalleng Culturees”, by Greenwellet al, 2009, J. R. Controlled Bios (2008).Soc. Interface, 7, p 708 contamination, PhotoBioReactorSculpture. conditions temperature. RetrievedOct 7 2011 from 8/07/08/photobioreactor- sculpture/ 19 11/17/2011
  20. 20. Algae vs. crops From “Biotech‟sgreen gold?”, by Waltz E. 2009, NatureBiotechnology, 27, p. 16RetrievedOct 7 2011from 20 11/17/2011
  21. 21. EconomicalevaluationBase case (current technology) Projected case (achievablebutnotdemonstrated)Productionofbiomassusing500 hasystems =Oil extraction =Co- Notconsidered(Smallmarkets)productionofhighvalueproduct(HVP) Internalrateofreturn(IRR). Valuesabove15% are consideredprofitable 21 11/17/2011
  22. 22. Economicalevaluation22 11/17/2011 From “Aneconomicandtechnicalevaluationofmicroalgalbiofuels”, by Stephens E. et al 2010, NatureBiotechnology, 28, p. 127
  23. 23. Economicalevaluation23 11/17/2011 From “Aneconomicandtechnicalevaluationofmicroalgalbiofuels”, by Stephens E. et al 2010, NatureBiotechnology, 28, p. 127
  24. 24. Isit profitable? Yes, with increasedproductivity/largeproduction Estimate: Currenttechnology could produce $84/bblbut in thefuture a price of $50/bbl could be achieved Sinergy with other industries for a sustainablesystem 24 11/17/2011
  25. 25. What’s happening? Companies Organizations Universities• Aurora biofuels • Algal biomass • Algael biofuel• Algenol organization challenge (UK• Sapphire • National academic energy Algae institutions)• Solarvest Association • Murdoch + BioEnergy • European University of• Solazyme Algae Biomass Adelaide• Chevron [(National Association • USA… Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)] • International Fossil Algae Association 25 11/17/2011
  26. 26. References Borowitzka MA and Reza Navid, 2010, „Sustainablebiofuelsfromalgae‟, MitigAdaptStrategGlobChange, Springer. Greenwell HC, Laurens LML, Shields RJ, Lovitt RW and Flynn KJ, 2010, „Placingmicroalgaeonthebiofuelsprioritylist: a reviewofthetechnologicalchallenges‟, J.R. Soc.Interface, 7, 703-726 Gold rushforalgae, (2009, September 24), NatureNews, 461, 460-61 Oligae. Sheehan J, Dunahay T, Benemann J andRoessler P (1998), „A Look Back at the U.S. DepartmentofEnergy‟sAquaticSpeciesProgram— Biodiesel fromAlgae‟, (Close out report 1978-1996), Colorado USA, NationalRenewableEnergyLaboratory, U.S. DepartmentofEnergy‟s Office ofFuelsDevelopment Stephens E, Ross IL, King Z, Mussgnung JH, Kruse O, Posten C, Borowitzka MA andHankamer B, 2010, „Aneconomicandtechnicalevaluationofmicroalgalbiofuels‟, Nat Biotechnol, 28 (2), 126-128 Waltz E, 2009, „Biotechs‟sgreen gold?, Nat Biotechnol, 27(1), 15-18 26 11/17/2011
  27. 27. THANKS27 11/17/2011