Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
One App to Rule them
All?
The role of video in remote intimate communication
by daniel strazzulla (daniel.strazzulla@inria...
Stanford HCI Master’s
Software Engineer at IBM
UX at Apple
PhD at InSitu (Inria/CORDI)
About Me
2about me
Computer Mediate...
Co-adaptation of Communication
Channels for Key Privileged
Relationships
3thesis work
Motivation
Related Work
Study
Stories of Video in Remote Intimate
Communication
Who?
When?
How?
What?
Why?
Conclusion and ...
5research questions
How do people use communication
technologies with different relationships?
How do relationships change...
6assumptions - richness
“Face-to-face communicative behavior in the real world
is not always an appropriate baseline for t...
7assumptions - richness
“[Long Distance Relationship(LDR) assumptions]
1.Frequent Face-to-Face(FtF) communication is
neces...
8assumptions - richness
“Relationships develop more slowly online, but given time,
CMC can be as personal as other modes.”...
9assumptions - frequency
“[The] frequency of interaction among family members is
not directly associated with the satisfac...
10ssumptions - one app for remote communication
“Communicative modalities exist side by side, rather
than in competition w...
11ssumptions - one app for remote communication
“Though each relationship is unique in that each
develops its own "minicul...
12one dedicated private channel
13one flexible multimedia channel
14industry technology focus
Technology
RelationshipContext
15hree places (Oldenburg, 1999)
16three ‘email’ places
@gmail @inria @hotmail
17one email to rule them all?
email
‘Same’ Technical
Features
Different Social
Contexts
Used for Different
People
@gmail @...
18beyond technical features
19communication today
20communication today
21communication today
22communication today
We are connected
23but how? to who? and why?
Medium text images audio video
Bandwidth low high
Synchronicity synchronous asynchronous
Symmetry symmetric asymmetric
Mob...
25computer mediated communication
Technology
RelationshipContext
26study context
Technology
RelationshipContext
Intimate KPRs
Any Technology
Key Privileged Relationships
27who do you talk to?
“Intimate relationships differ from more casual associations in at leas...
28study
Study 2
Group 2 Group 3
2013
12 participants
8 nationalities
23 to 27 years old
2014
14 participants
11 nationalit...
29study
2011
24 participants
11 nationalities
23 to 28 years old
Semi-
structured
interview
2 hours
collection of 4 weeks
...
Group 2 Group 3
30study
Study 2
2013
12 participants
8 nationalities
23 to 27 years old
2014
14 participants
11 nationalit...
Group 2 Group 3
31study
Study 2
2013
12 participants
8 nationalities
23 to 27 years old
2014
14 participants
11 nationalit...
32study
Questionnaire
33study
Diary Study
34study
Cultural Probe
35study
Surve
y
Mobile OS use
Installed communication applications
Privileged contacts within those applications
Preferenc...
36challenges and opportunities
variability
evolving trends
sample sizes
idealization
self-awareness
economics
disruption
e...
37shame mediated communication
medium
technology
knowledge
access to
technology
quality
usability
bandwidth
38interview insights
What motivates the selec...
medium
technology
knowledge
access to
technology
quality
usability
bandwidth
39
What motivates the selection of specific
c...
medium
technology
knowledge
access to
technology
quality
usability
bandwidth
40
What motivates the selection of specific
c...
41trends use of media by relationship
42trends use of media by relationship
43who uses video?
“Rich media allow instantaneous feedback and multiple channels to allow a wide
range of cues. In theory,...
44intimate social networks
45intimate social networks
46intimate social networks
47intimate social networks
48intimate social networks
49intimate social networks
50intimate social networks
51intimate social networks
52who
Group Proxy
“I don’t think I ever call my dad to talk with him without my
mother, but I didn’t realize it before” -M...
53who
“With my grandma I only use video when my sister is there, I
mean, only when my grandma is at my home and my sister ...
54what
Topics Interactions
"I would discuss something that needs discussion on
WhatsApp, like if its more than 30 words, I...
55what
Topics Interactions
“When Skyping with my friend I move all over my room, but
when talking with my parents it’s a b...
56what
Topics Interactions
“I use Skype to call home, but it’s a little strange. I have my PC
back home open all day, and ...
57when
routines schedules
"We[she and her boyfriend] Skype every night to fall asleep”.
-Kate
"We whatsapp during the day,...
58when
routines schedules
“We just know each other’s schedule because we talk a lot”-
Oscar
“My routine is: finish eating,...
59how
application
devic
e
direction
“Skype is for video” - Martín
60how
application
devic
e
direction
“I prefer using Skype on laptop since I don’t have to sync, I’m
faster and the webcam ...
61how
application
devic
e
direction
" My mother feels like she has to talk to me.”- Ian
"Mom doesn't calls me on Skype, sh...
62why
relationship context technology
"My mom doesn't chat through Skype. Her understanding is that Skype is only f
“I usu...
63why
relationship context technology
Despite being “friends” on Facebook, we [dad and I] try to avoid it as
much as possi...
64why
relationship context technology
"I avoid using video when the house is a mess.” -Oscar
“The alternative to call from...
65why
relationship context technology
"I sometimes video chat with my mom only because QQ forces us to,
there is no voice ...
66ole of video in remote intimate communication
“Rich media allow instantaneous feedback and multiple
channels to allow a ...
67ole of video in remote intimate communication
“Most available technologies however focus on the
transmission of explicit...
68video is a closed medium
“The issue is one not only of technological design, but
appropriate deployment and the flexibil...
69reasons for video
symmetry
proxy
topics
interactions
routines
settings
schedules
application
device
direction
relationsh...
70reasons for any media
symmetry
proxy
topics
interactions
routines
settings
schedules
application
device
direction
relati...
71ole of video in remote intimate communication
Technology
RelationshipContext
72conclusion
Technology
RelationshipContext
Control
ClosenessAvailability
daniel.strazzulla@inria.fr
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The Role of Video in Personal Communication

565 views

Published on

Talk given at Microsoft Research Cambridge on how video fits under the umbrella of al available communication technologies used by friends and families.

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

The Role of Video in Personal Communication

  1. 1. One App to Rule them All? The role of video in remote intimate communication by daniel strazzulla (daniel.strazzulla@inria.fr) Advisor: Wendy E. Mackay
  2. 2. Stanford HCI Master’s Software Engineer at IBM UX at Apple PhD at InSitu (Inria/CORDI) About Me 2about me Computer Mediated Communication Intimate Social Networks Research and Design Methods Interaction Design
  3. 3. Co-adaptation of Communication Channels for Key Privileged Relationships 3thesis work
  4. 4. Motivation Related Work Study Stories of Video in Remote Intimate Communication Who? When? How? What? Why? Conclusion and Future Work 4today
  5. 5. 5research questions How do people use communication technologies with different relationships? How do relationships change after the introduction of new technologies? What motivates the selection of specific communication tools for different relationships?
  6. 6. 6assumptions - richness “Face-to-face communicative behavior in the real world is not always an appropriate baseline for the evaluation of mediated communication.” [Dourish et al., 1993]
  7. 7. 7assumptions - richness “[Long Distance Relationship(LDR) assumptions] 1.Frequent Face-to-Face(FtF) communication is necessary for close personal relationships.” [Stafford, 2004] “Face-to-face communicative behavior in the real world is not always an appropriate baseline for the evaluation of mediated communication.” [Dourish et al., 1993]
  8. 8. 8assumptions - richness “Relationships develop more slowly online, but given time, CMC can be as personal as other modes.” [Stafford, 2004] “[Long Distance Relationship(LDR) assumptions] 1.Frequent Face-to-Face(FtF) communication is necessary for close personal relationships.” [Stafford, 2004] “Face-to-face communicative behavior in the real world is not always an appropriate baseline for the evaluation of mediated communication.” [Dourish et al., 1993]
  9. 9. 9assumptions - frequency “[The] frequency of interaction among family members is not directly associated with the satisfaction or quality of the relationship.” [Stafford, 2004]
  10. 10. 10ssumptions - one app for remote communication “Communicative modalities exist side by side, rather than in competition with each other.” [Dourish et al., 1993]
  11. 11. 11ssumptions - one app for remote communication “Though each relationship is unique in that each develops its own "miniculture" (Wilmot, 1995), these minicultures take place within a context of other networks.” [Stafford, 2004] “Communicative modalities exist side by side, rather than in competition with each other.” [Dourish et al., 1993]
  12. 12. 12one dedicated private channel
  13. 13. 13one flexible multimedia channel
  14. 14. 14industry technology focus Technology RelationshipContext
  15. 15. 15hree places (Oldenburg, 1999)
  16. 16. 16three ‘email’ places @gmail @inria @hotmail
  17. 17. 17one email to rule them all? email ‘Same’ Technical Features Different Social Contexts Used for Different People @gmail @inria @hotmail
  18. 18. 18beyond technical features
  19. 19. 19communication today
  20. 20. 20communication today
  21. 21. 21communication today
  22. 22. 22communication today
  23. 23. We are connected 23but how? to who? and why?
  24. 24. Medium text images audio video Bandwidth low high Synchronicity synchronous asynchronous Symmetry symmetric asymmetric Mobility fixed movable mobile Location Time Zone same overlap opposite Setting work home school commute Placement bedroom kitchen living room entrance Context awareness dumb passive active Interacti on With device input output Bet. devices peer client/server active passive Bet. users sharing collaborating monitoring Background gender age nationality culture Relationship coworkers couples families strangers Size wearable portable static small medium installation Content location status emotion weather Comm. Structure one to one one to many many to many Device Hardware Software 24design space
  25. 25. 25computer mediated communication Technology RelationshipContext
  26. 26. 26study context Technology RelationshipContext Intimate KPRs Any Technology
  27. 27. Key Privileged Relationships 27who do you talk to? “Intimate relationships differ from more casual associations in at least six specific ways: knowledge, caring, interdependence, mutuality, trust, and commitment.” [Miller, 2011]
  28. 28. 28study Study 2 Group 2 Group 3 2013 12 participants 8 nationalities 23 to 27 years old 2014 14 participants 11 nationalities 20 to 29 years old Semi-structured interview Semi-structured interview Questionnaire Diary Study Cultural Probe Survey Questionnaire Survey Group 1 2011 24 participants 11 nationalities 20 to 34 years old Semi- structured interview Study 1
  29. 29. 29study 2011 24 participants 11 nationalities 23 to 28 years old Semi- structured interview 2 hours collection of 4 weeks of communication data logs communication patterns motivation use of media relationships frequency Study 1 Goals Group 1
  30. 30. Group 2 Group 3 30study Study 2 2013 12 participants 8 nationalities 23 to 27 years old 2014 14 participants 11 nationalities 20 to 29 years old Semi-structured interview Semi-structured interview Questionnaire Diary Study Cultural Probe Survey Questionnaire Survey Overall Goals communication patterns motivation use of media relationships frequency
  31. 31. Group 2 Group 3 31study Study 2 2013 12 participants 8 nationalities 23 to 27 years old 2014 14 participants 11 nationalities 20 to 29 years old Semi-structured interview Semi-structured interview Questionnaire Diary Study Cultural Probe Survey Questionnaire Survey Overall Goals motivation and stories media and relationships disruption and frequency self- understanding availability and preferences communication patterns motivation use of media relationships frequency
  32. 32. 32study Questionnaire
  33. 33. 33study Diary Study
  34. 34. 34study Cultural Probe
  35. 35. 35study Surve y Mobile OS use Installed communication applications Privileged contacts within those applications Preference of applications for each medium
  36. 36. 36challenges and opportunities variability evolving trends sample sizes idealization self-awareness economics disruption extensive monitoring private data collection demographics self-report memory
  37. 37. 37shame mediated communication
  38. 38. medium technology knowledge access to technology quality usability bandwidth 38interview insights What motivates the selection of specific communication tools for different relationships?
  39. 39. medium technology knowledge access to technology quality usability bandwidth 39 What motivates the selection of specific communication tools for different relationships? habit cost trends fidelity belonging hardware productivity interview insights
  40. 40. medium technology knowledge access to technology quality usability bandwidth 40 What motivates the selection of specific communication tools for different relationships? time-zone relationship privacy accessibility features emoji stalking habit cost trends fidelity belonging hardware productivity interview insights
  41. 41. 41trends use of media by relationship
  42. 42. 42trends use of media by relationship
  43. 43. 43who uses video? “Rich media allow instantaneous feedback and multiple channels to allow a wide range of cues. In theory, the richer the media, the greater the potential to reduce ambiguity.” -Stafford, Laura (2004)
  44. 44. 44intimate social networks
  45. 45. 45intimate social networks
  46. 46. 46intimate social networks
  47. 47. 47intimate social networks
  48. 48. 48intimate social networks
  49. 49. 49intimate social networks
  50. 50. 50intimate social networks
  51. 51. 51intimate social networks
  52. 52. 52who Group Proxy “I don’t think I ever call my dad to talk with him without my mother, but I didn’t realize it before” -Mary “Parents share a single Skype account, so it’s more like calling home than either one of them” - Lola
  53. 53. 53who “With my grandma I only use video when my sister is there, I mean, only when my grandma is at my home and my sister is also there and has time.” -Andrea “We just sit and talk [when on video communication] and she would say comments like ‘I think you’re getting a little fatter’… My dad usually shows up on the video conversations” -Mary Group Proxy
  54. 54. 54what Topics Interactions "I would discuss something that needs discussion on WhatsApp, like if its more than 30 words, I wouldn’t, I’d wait and then talk about it on Skype” -Simon “A normal conversation: start with stories, then mundane daily things, talk about trips and computer tech support, it usually lasts an hour.” -Simon Weather, health, exams, travel , ’dumb trivial things’ and administrative issues are most popular topics “I don’t know what to talk about with my dad, so I just repeat the things my mom asked me about before putting him on the call” - Mary
  55. 55. 55what Topics Interactions “When Skyping with my friend I move all over my room, but when talking with my parents it’s a bit formal, I have to sit down on my desk and be ready” -Norman "Once, I chose to share screen using Skype, and then show them my pictures on my iPhoto gallery, but that was too slow because of internet speed, so I only did it once and I didn’t like it.” -Andrea "I use WhatsApp and Skype to share files with my GF, I use email to do it with my mom and I never really share files with my dad”- Simon
  56. 56. 56what Topics Interactions “I use Skype to call home, but it’s a little strange. I have my PC back home open all day, and I call it and if someone is in the room, we have the speakers loud, it’s like a phone… So I use Skype like a phone. I have also installed TeamViewer, a program for remote desktop, so that I sometimes call the PC and respond by myself… because if nobody is here, or I know somebody is here but in another room, it’s like checking if somebody is in my PC” - Ugo
  57. 57. 57when routines schedules "We[she and her boyfriend] Skype every night to fall asleep”. -Kate "We whatsapp during the day, since she is at work. Then we Skype at night." -David “Sundays are Skype days” -Pedro “We Skype in the evenings (video) everyday” -Oscar “Skype is always open” -Pedro “After work, around 8pm she’s back at home so we use video [GF]… We text each other first to see if available and then start the conversation, some sort of “virtual handshaking” like "can I call you” kinda thing, but for instance my father just calls, I find it annoying” - Simon
  58. 58. 58when routines schedules “We just know each other’s schedule because we talk a lot”- Oscar “My routine is: finish eating, then check if either is online, if they’re I call them, first one then the other” -Simon "To deal with TZ differences, I simply told them to never call me after their 3pm, because they would wake me up, and that worked. At the same time, I also don’t contact them during my daytime, because I realized that when I text or email my dad, I wake him up… and he replies to me at his 2 or 3am, so I made myself a rule to not contact them until 1pm here. We basically had to agree on periods of time where communicating is appropriate between us” -Andrea
  59. 59. 59how application devic e direction “Skype is for video” - Martín
  60. 60. 60how application devic e direction “I prefer using Skype on laptop since I don’t have to sync, I’m faster and the webcam works just fine” -Oscar Approximately half use it on mobile devices and other half on laptops “My girlfriend prefers to use Skype on her computer, since it’s more comfortable to type. However I prefer using it on my phone, so that I can use it in bed or while moving around” - Oscar
  61. 61. 61how application devic e direction " My mother feels like she has to talk to me.”- Ian "Mom doesn't calls me on Skype, she thinks I'm busy. I have to call her instead.”-Ian “With my mother and father I use Skype with them, they get super annoyed if I’m not there every night… With my dad is[the virtual check-in] every 24 hours, with my mom is every 3 or 4 days (they’re divorced)”-Simon "I only call landlines with my grandma, also with Skype credit. This is the only way I can communicate with her. Sometimes she tells me she would like to call me too, but she cannot since it’s very expensive and has no alternatives” - Andrea
  62. 62. 62why relationship context technology "My mom doesn't chat through Skype. Her understanding is that Skype is only f “I usually use weChat for video, is my main video app, however sometimes I use Skype is more serious or business partner, I use it for work related communications, or with my [now] American friends [colleagues]” -Peter “We’re [dad and I] always online on Skype, then we text each other to ask to for video conversation” -Oscar "Me and my sister just leave the Skype conversation open in the background while we're both at home, you know? to hangout… we really became friends after I moved away." -Jacky
  63. 63. 63why relationship context technology Despite being “friends” on Facebook, we [dad and I] try to avoid it as much as possible, that’s why we stick with Skype” -Roberto “We [dad and I] don’t use Facetime despite having Apple devices, because by now Skype has become part of the communication between us.” -Oscar "Mom got technological after I left” -Martín “I used Skype once and I hate it, the quality was terrible…Instead I use hangouts to talk with my parents, they use an add-on to their browser so it’s always there” -Roberto
  64. 64. 64why relationship context technology "I avoid using video when the house is a mess.” -Oscar “The alternative to call from one phone line to another, doesn’t exist between us[family], it’s just not an option, because it’s outrageously expensive, so we just find ways to communicate around Skype” -Andrea “There’s another problem, my mom is completely technology zero… they have a laptop there [mom and husband] and I installed Skype on it, told her to click on this icon for me to show up… The problem is that her husband is always using the computer, so I never know who is on the computer, even when I see her ‘online’… so I contact her directly on WhatsApp to make sure she’s the one online” -Simon
  65. 65. 65why relationship context technology "I sometimes video chat with my mom only because QQ forces us to, there is no voice only option. I don't think video is necessary. That's why sometimes we just exchange voice messages instead, which QQ allows. “ -Mary “I have this love/hate relationship with Skype… It always works, from a Network point of view, even if you can’t open Google, Skype still works, it’s always like that… If you have a network problems try using Skype… I like that, but when the time comes to call people,it’s sluggish, it crashes, I don’t like the UI… I use it on the iPad mostly, I feel more comfortable like that, I can use it while I’m eating” -Simon “On Skype messages arrive and don’t arrive” -Simon
  66. 66. 66ole of video in remote intimate communication “Rich media allow instantaneous feedback and multiple channels to allow a wide range of cues. In theory, the richer the media, the greater the potential to reduce ambiguity. In this view, FtF communication is the richest communication. This theory suggests that individuals make rational choices matching a particular medium to a specific objective and to the richness that tasks require.” [Stafford, 2004]
  67. 67. 67ole of video in remote intimate communication “Most available technologies however focus on the transmission of explicit information, which neglects the emotional and subtle communication so typical for close relationships” [Knobel et al., 2012]
  68. 68. 68video is a closed medium “The issue is one not only of technological design, but appropriate deployment and the flexibility to be able to shape the space.” [Dourish et al., 1993] “Field studies (e.g.,) show that video is merely treated as a “technical feature.” It remains left to people to appropriate the feature, that is, to make it work as a social practice.” [Ames et al., 2010]
  69. 69. 69reasons for video symmetry proxy topics interactions routines settings schedules application device direction relationship context technology
  70. 70. 70reasons for any media symmetry proxy topics interactions routines settings schedules application device direction relationship context technology medium technology knowledge access to technology quality usability bandwidth accessibility features emoticons stalking time-zone privacy habit cost trends fidelity belonging hardware productivity
  71. 71. 71ole of video in remote intimate communication Technology RelationshipContext
  72. 72. 72conclusion Technology RelationshipContext Control ClosenessAvailability daniel.strazzulla@inria.fr

×