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Michael R Berry, PE
Dwiggins Consulting, LLC
mike.berry@dwigginsconsulting.com
+1-405-694-9950
9/25/2015SIPES Continuing E...
Layman’s Guide to
Artificial Lift
• Gas Lift
o Put a bunch of holes in the tubing then pump gas down the
annulus and hope ...
Layman’s Guide to
Artificial Lift
• Hydraulic Piston Pump
o Rotating rods is ridiculous and only a Canadian would consider...
High Rate vs. Depth Capacity
9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 4
Low Rate vs. Depth Capacity
9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 5
Lift Methods by Cost
• Free
o Natural flow
• Practically Free
o Plunger lift
• Cheap
o Gas lift w/ HP gas source
o Progres...
Lift Methods by Cost
• Not cheap at all
o ESP on utility grid
o Jet or hydraulic pump on utility grid
• You are going to m...
Natural Flow
Advantages Disadvantages
• Defers cash
expenditures
• Puts less stress on the
completion
• Flowing period can...
Gas Lift
9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 9
Gas Lift
Advantages Disadvantages
• High rate
• Very tolerant of high GLR,
sand, corrosion & doglegs
• Relatively easy on
...
Plunger Lift
9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 11
Plunger Lift
Advantages Disadvantages
• Doesn’t require external
energy
• Inexpensive installation &
maintenance (rig
gene...
Reciprocating Rod Pump
9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 13
Reciprocating Rod Pump
Advantages Disadvantages
• Well understood lift
method
• Widespread
infrastructure
• High drawdown
...
Progressing Cavity Pump
9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 15
Progressing Cavity Pump
Advantages Disadvantages
• Tolerates high viscosity
• Can pump high sand
fractions (>30%)
• High d...
Hydraulic Piston Pump
9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 17
Hydraulic Piston Pump
Advantages Disadvantages
• High drawdown
• Good depth capability
(15,000’ or more)
• Easy to pull/ru...
Hydraulic Jet Pump
9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 19
Hydraulic Jet Pump
Advantages Disadvantages
• High rate
• Tolerates solids
• No moving parts
• Easy to replace/resize
nozz...
Electric Submersible Pumps
9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 21
Electric Submersible Pump
Advantages Disadvantages
• High rate, high
drawdown
• Suitable for moderately
deviated wells
• U...
Artificial Lift Methods Limits
9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 23
Why does lift method matter?
• As production engineers our job is to maximize the
value of the properties we are responsib...
Don’t blindly maximize rate!
• Is maximizing rate by drawing a well down to
the point you are damaging a formation or
tear...
Don’t justify a lift installation
on days to payout!
• Maybe you have a great well & you are
destroying an ESP every 3 wee...
The most best time to
consider a lift method?
• BEFORE YOU DRILL THE WELL!!!!
• If you put a 12° dogleg in a well at 1000’...
Check your drillers’
heart health
• Tell them your high rate gassy wells need 7”
production casing!
o Smaller diameter cas...
Don’t take no for an answer, at
least not without an argument!
• Run the economics
• Educate your drillers
• These days we...
So how do we rationally
select an AL method?
• Understand well performance
• Eliminate methods that are not feasible
• Pro...
Reasons not to use a technically
feasible lift method
• Government restrictions (BLM, EPA)
• Civic restrictions (residence...
What about your
commitment?
• The most critical requirement for the success
of a new lift method is to get you field
perso...
Conclusion
• Your best choice for artificial lift might not be the
method that gives you the highest production rate
• Des...
Questions?
9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 34
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Rational Artificial Lift Selection by Mike Berry

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SIPES Houston: 2015 CES

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Rational Artificial Lift Selection by Mike Berry

  1. 1. Michael R Berry, PE Dwiggins Consulting, LLC mike.berry@dwigginsconsulting.com +1-405-694-9950 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar
  2. 2. Layman’s Guide to Artificial Lift • Gas Lift o Put a bunch of holes in the tubing then pump gas down the annulus and hope something comes out the tubing • Velocity Strings o Just keep making the tubing smaller o In the right well, you can just stop using scale inhibitor • Plunger Lift o Just drop a plug down the tubing and it will float up on a gas bubble – kind of like perpetual motion • Rod Pump o Visualize on old western hand pump with a really long rod… • Progressing Cavity Pump o Pulling those rods up and down is too much work, just rotate ‘em 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 2
  3. 3. Layman’s Guide to Artificial Lift • Hydraulic Piston Pump o Rotating rods is ridiculous and only a Canadian would consider it o The problem is we are pulling the plunger from the top, let’s push from the bottom instead! • Jet Pump o Just knock a hole in the bottom of your tubing and then squirt water past it to the surface – no, really! It will work! • Electric Submersible Pump o Simply put a 4000 volt motor on an 8000’ extension cord in a well full of pressurized salt water. What could possibly go wrong? 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 3
  4. 4. High Rate vs. Depth Capacity 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 4
  5. 5. Low Rate vs. Depth Capacity 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 5
  6. 6. Lift Methods by Cost • Free o Natural flow • Practically Free o Plunger lift • Cheap o Gas lift w/ HP gas source o Progressing cavity pump on elec. motor o Rod pump w/ inventory pump jack • Not so cheap o Progressing cavity pump on hydraulic drive o Rod pump w/ new pump jack 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 6
  7. 7. Lift Methods by Cost • Not cheap at all o ESP on utility grid o Jet or hydraulic pump on utility grid • You are going to make your vendors very happy o ESP via generator o Gas lift via compressor o Jet or hydraulic pump using engine power or generator 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 7
  8. 8. Natural Flow Advantages Disadvantages • Defers cash expenditures • Puts less stress on the completion • Flowing period can be extended by reducing flow conduit cross- sectional area • Minimal wellhead foot- print w/ no moving parts • May not provide optimum rate • May be difficult to re- start flow if well dies 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 8
  9. 9. Gas Lift 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 9
  10. 10. Gas Lift Advantages Disadvantages • High rate • Very tolerant of high GLR, sand, corrosion & doglegs • Relatively easy on completions • Easy, forgiving operation • Small wellhead footprint w/ no moving parts • Valves can be wireline retrievable • Full bore tubing access • Compressors can be noisy, expensive and hard to operate • More economic on large scale projects (multi-well} • Low drawdown (~0.1 psi/ft) • Needs larger tubing / casing for high rates • Doesn’t like high back- pressure or fluid viscosity (<15°API) • Can be hard to optimize 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 10
  11. 11. Plunger Lift 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 11
  12. 12. Plunger Lift Advantages Disadvantages • Doesn’t require external energy • Inexpensive installation & maintenance (rig generally not required) • Tolerates high GLR & doglegs • High drawdown • Keeps well cleaned of paraffin deposits • Small wellhead footprint w/ no moving parts • Low rate (<200 bpd) o Need to maximize tbg/csg • Has minimum GLR & static BHP requirements • Doesn’t like solids or scale • Requires surveillance to optimize • Deviation limited to ~60° 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 12
  13. 13. Reciprocating Rod Pump 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 13
  14. 14. Reciprocating Rod Pump Advantages Disadvantages • Well understood lift method • Widespread infrastructure • High drawdown • Low OPEX • High system efficiency • Surface units can be moved between wells • Rate easily adjusted through stroke length and speed • Rate capacity decreases with depth & tubing size • Doesn’t like gas, sand or doglegs • High initial CAPEX • Requires either utility grid or maintenance of IC engine • Large wellhead footprint w/ large moving parts • Potential for stuffing box leaks • IC engine can be noisy 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 14
  15. 15. Progressing Cavity Pump 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 15
  16. 16. Progressing Cavity Pump Advantages Disadvantages • Tolerates high viscosity • Can pump high sand fractions (>30%) • High drawdown • Low operating & capital cost • Can be very efficient • Low power consumption o Solar powered possible • Moderate wellhead footprint • Elastomers limited to ~250°F • Elastomers intolerant of high API crudes (35-40°) • Doesn’t like high GLR or doglegs • Rate capacity drops with depth & tubing size • Realistic TDH around 6000’ • Intolerant of being pumped off • Requires either utility grid or maintenance of IC engine • Has moving parts at wellhead and potential for stuffing box leaks • IC engine can be noisy 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 16
  17. 17. Hydraulic Piston Pump 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 17
  18. 18. Hydraulic Piston Pump Advantages Disadvantages • High drawdown • Good depth capability (15,000’ or more) • Easy to pull/run pumps • Unaffected by doglegs or deviation • Can produce multiple wells from a single surface installation • Small wellhead footprint w/ no moving parts • Doesn’t like solids or gas • Requires maintenance of downhole PD hyd. pump • Requires maintenance of surface hyd. pump • High pressure hyd. lines at surface • Needs two flow conduits • Needs larger diameter tubing/casing for high rates • Requires either utility grid or maintenance of IC engine • Surf. hyd. pumps are noisy • IC engine can be noisy 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 18
  19. 19. Hydraulic Jet Pump 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 19
  20. 20. Hydraulic Jet Pump Advantages Disadvantages • High rate • Tolerates solids • No moving parts • Easy to replace/resize nozzles • Unaffected by doglegs or deviation • Can produce multiple wells from a single surface installation • Small wellhead footprint w/ no moving parts • Low drawdown • Doesn’t like gas • Low power efficiency • Needs two flow conduits minimum, three to vent gas • Needs larger diameter tubing/casing for high rates • Requires maintenance of surface hyd. pump • Requires either robust utility grid or maintenance of IC engine • High-pressure hydraulic lines at surface • Surface hyd. pumps are noisy 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 20
  21. 21. Electric Submersible Pumps 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 21
  22. 22. Electric Submersible Pump Advantages Disadvantages • High rate, high drawdown • Suitable for moderately deviated wells • Useful for well testing • Small, wellhead footprint w/ no moving parts • Can tolerate some gas o <10-20% by volume at intake • Can tolerate some solids o <6% by weight • Can resist corrosion w/ proper trim selection • High CAPEX & OPEX • Unforgiving operation • Doesn’t particularly like free gas, abrasives, scale or high viscosity • Rate capacity decreases with depth & casing size • Requires robust utility grid or maintenance of generator • Generators can be noisy • High voltage at wellhead 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 22
  23. 23. Artificial Lift Methods Limits 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 23
  24. 24. Why does lift method matter? • As production engineers our job is to maximize the value of the properties we are responsible for o Yes, yes. Safely, legally, and in an environmentally friendly way • This is NOT the same thing as maximizing the production rate or minimizing the lifting cost • This means maximizing NPV, IRR, or whatever financial criteria we select • When we select an artificial lift method we want to select the method that gives us the greatest financial return for the property 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 24
  25. 25. Don’t blindly maximize rate! • Is maximizing rate by drawing a well down to the point you are damaging a formation or tearing up pumps, are you really making more money? o The answer could be yes o But, you must compare alternative economics 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 25
  26. 26. Don’t justify a lift installation on days to payout! • Maybe you have a great well & you are destroying an ESP every 3 weeks but you can pay for a new one in a week. • You are making money, but are you maximizing economics? • A pump a week for that kind of well is maybe $250K/week. Four pumps is $1MM. • Maybe you could have used that money for something else? 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 26
  27. 27. The most best time to consider a lift method? • BEFORE YOU DRILL THE WELL!!!! • If you put a 12° dogleg in a well at 1000’, you are had as far as any rod lift method goes • You may or may not be able to get an ESP below doglegs greater that 10° • You need a “tangent” section with a dogleg < 6° to land an ESP 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 27
  28. 28. Check your drillers’ heart health • Tell them your high rate gassy wells need 7” production casing! o Smaller diameter casing/tubing restricts the rate/depth capacity of all lift methods o ESP’s need room for the gas to bypass the equipment. Otherwise the gas must be ingested. o Jet and hydraulic pumps require at least two flow conduits. If you want to vent gas so the pumps don’t have to ingest the gas, you need an extra flow path. i.e. bigger casing! 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 28
  29. 29. Don’t take no for an answer, at least not without an argument! • Run the economics • Educate your drillers • These days wells are drilled in 3 weeks or less • Production has to deal with them for 30 years or more • If someone tells you time value economics means nothing matters after X years, tell them, “Well then, I guess we’ll just cut the reserves off at X years too!” 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 29
  30. 30. So how do we rationally select an AL method? • Understand well performance • Eliminate methods that are not feasible • Project production & expenses for each of the remaining methods • Run the economics • Evaluate alternate scenarios o Maximize rate with ESPs / gas lift / jet pumps vs. flowing until rates drop into the rod pump range for example • Don’t be afraid to think big, consider central compression / hyd. power / elec. power 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 30
  31. 31. Reasons not to use a technically feasible lift method • Government restrictions (BLM, EPA) • Civic restrictions (residences, crop circles) • Support infrastructure (nearest shop) • Your personnel (will you need body armor?) • Their personnel (are they competent?) • Future lift methods • Utility restrictions (power limits) • Ambient conditions limitations (extreme heat, cold) 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 31
  32. 32. What about your commitment? • The most critical requirement for the success of a new lift method is to get you field personnel on board o Make your case to the field and get their buy in o Start with easier wells • A new lift method is more work, it will mean more long days, it will mean more aggravation • Will you take the time, do you have the time to help your field personnel to become proficient (past the first couple of installs? 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 32
  33. 33. Conclusion • Your best choice for artificial lift might not be the method that gives you the highest production rate • Design process: o Pick the methods that are capable of producing your well o Compare the economics of each viable method o Pick the method with the highest return, adjusted for your local circumstances • If this is a new lift method: o Sell it to field operations o Don’t start with your most difficult well • Provide continuous support/training for both old & new lift methods 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 33
  34. 34. Questions? 9/25/2015SIPES Continuing Education Seminar 34

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