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School organization

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Sociology of Education on School organization

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School organization

  1. 1. 1 School organization
  2. 2. 2 School organization [Gómez Ferri, J. y Soler Panadés, V. 2011 Sociología del currículo y de la organización escolar. At Beltrán, J. and Hernàndez, F.J. Sociología de la educación, McGraw-Hill, Madrid,101-128] Schools, differ from each other in terms of: functioning educational levels ownership public/private management team implication income level families neighbourhood cultural capital relationships among teachers equipment or furniture architecture infrastructure condition size resources Current society understood as a society of organizations most have been born in an organization, and we study and work in organizations many of the goals we pursue are the ones of the organizations to which we belong furniture layout teaching methods student body …
  3. 3. 3 History of school organization [Gómez Ferri, J. y Soler Panadés, V. 2011 Sociología del currículo y de la organización escolar. At Beltrán, J. and Hernàndez, F.J. Sociología de la educación, McGraw-Hill, Madrid,101-128] Bureaucratic organization M. Weber Technocratic model of organization Taylorism and Fordism The School of Human Relations E. Mayo Specialization (responsibilities, functions and tasks), hierarchy (control system), rules (written and impersonal) recruitment (merit and ability) [in school is evident in legislation, administration, specialization, regulations, discipline, schedules, and less than hierarchy or impersonality] (Post)modern period Scientific management via fragmentation of the production process in its most basic elements increasing efficiency, control and alienation. [inertia of the past in terms repetition mechanism and looking for a similar type of school product, rigidity of hours, detailed planning and measurement (PISA)] The SHR found that the performance of workers, rather than the whole organization, the hierarchy, the control or the wage increase was related to the incentives and social norms of the groups within the organization, especially relations among individuals within groups [informal groups, democratic schools] Calls for bridging less hierarchical relationships, reduced specialization, adaptability and flexibility. From the work by objectives to competences
  4. 4. 4 School organization [Gómez Ferri, J. y Soler Panadés, V. 2011 Sociología del currículo y de la organización escolar. At Beltrán, J. and Hernàndez, F.J. Sociología de la educación, McGraw-Hill, Madrid,101-128] Schools as peculiar organizations Ownership, gradation, no election of its members, controlling the work of employees and customers. Null: funding and financing, architecture, hours of materials, school day, teachers or teaching hours based curriculum Partial: teachers, optional programs Wide: textbooks, expanding the curriculum or changes in schedule, or develop specific educational projects, dates of assessments Public Administration / Teachings / Ownership / Environment The autonomy of schools Context elements of educational organizations Elements of educational organizations History, culture and identity / Stakeholders / The premises and the building, equipment / Functions and objectives of the centers / Curriculum divide, Groupings, school space and time (streaming & tracking) / Power and participation in schools
  5. 5. 5 School organization [Subirats i Humet, J. (coord.) (2002). La importancia del territorio y la comunidad en el papel de la escuela. Barcelona, Ariel. ] District school Good level of territorial engagement but low level of identification with an educational project Community school strong territorial involvement, active acceptance of diversity and strong identification with an educational project Utilitarian school low involvement and low educational project identification Identity school strong identification of its components in an educational project but no territorial implications (seeks homogeneity) (defined bit) (well defined)Educational project identification Territorialengagement (strong implication) (weak implication)
  6. 6. 6 Sociology of the curriculum [Feito, R. 2003. Alumnado. At Fernández Palomares, F. (coord.) Sociología de la educación. Pearson, Madrid 333-356] Critical approaches (Apple, Bernstein, Young and Giroux) question the technocratic approach based on effectiveness and results. With the curriculum it can be generated more egalitarian relationships that allow overcoming control and power. The social and historical construction of the curriculum The curriculum has a social nature and curricular proposals evolve in relation to the social. The criteria on what goes in also respond to curricular interests and power relations For Bernstein the content of curricula may be more or less limited (bounded), and the reference frame (the control of the pedagogical relationship) can also be more or less strong. The communication model he proposed implies that both should be weak.
  7. 7. 7 Sociology of the curriculum [Feito, R. 2003. Alumnado. At Fernández Palomares, F. (coord.) Sociología de la educación. Pearson, Madrid 333-356] In the classroom there are two types of claims in both the relationships between students and teachers and between students themselves. Schools that base their relations on pretensions of validity achieve better work environment, motivation and solidarity, but also better academic results. Habermas theory of communicative action Power claims: based on the position of power by means of force Validity claims are based on arguments (regardless of the position of power) Pink Floyd - Another Brick in the Wall a http://youtu.be/PDl6iuku_mw
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  9. 9. 9 Sociology of the curriculum [Feito, R. 2003. Alumnado. At Fernández Palomares, F. (coord.) Sociología de la educación. Pearson, Madrid 333-356] The selection of specific cultural knowledge by the school is arbitrary and responds to the interests, ideology and culture of the groups that make the selection (hegemonic class) Changes and new approaches in the selection of knowledge (sustainability, equality,...) are partial solutions that do not address the problems directly and therefore do not prevent students from valuating ‘traditional’ assumptions Segregation (or performance grouping) has not given satisfactory results, more on the contrary, heterogeneous grouping has more favorable results in both performance and student interaction. The communicative perspective in education, besides analyzing how they reproduce ideologies through school knowledge, analyzes how to create new meanings and knowledge School knowledge
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  11. 11. 11 Sociology of the curriculum [Feito, R. 2003. Alumnado. At Fernández Palomares, F. (coord.) Sociología de la educación. Pearson, Madrid 333-356] Homogeneous or heterogeneous groups, school schedules, distribution and the use of space are all curricular issues When the organization develops traditional school practices (hierarchical and elitist) reproduces social inequalities Pedagogies that overcome those practices work from the democratization of these elements, creating space and time for the participation of all social and educational agents Pedagogical practices, space and time
  12. 12. 12 Sociology of the curriculum [Feito, R. 2003. Alumnado. At Fernández Palomares, F. (coord.) Sociología de la educación. Pearson, Madrid 333-356] Is a form of controlling what is learned which purpose is the selection of people who will assume certain responsibilities in our societies. However, the current assessment process hides a social division, by using the latent hierarchy to maintain the social fabric The game of approved/failed generalized in assessment procedures is an element of power as it is not a neutral or objective process, it collaborate in signaling students and creating low expectations on children from disadvantaged families There are alternatives to the dominant evaluation systems that overcome control and social division, and focus on skills rather than on deficits The evaluation system
  13. 13. 13 Sociology of the curriculum [Feito, R. 2003. Alumnado. At Fernández Palomares, F. (coord.) Sociología de la educación. Pearson, Madrid 333-356] Hidden curriculum is perhaps more important than the explicit regarding the creation and transmission of meaning and ideology Hidden curriculum are all aspects which are often not explained nor discussed (not explicit), transmitted to students through formal structures underlying the contents and forms of social relations that occur at school Deep structures, expectations of teachers, praise, monitoring and evaluation forms, organizing peer relationships ... are the mechanisms by which students acquire knowledge and beliefs about justice, nature knowledge, authority or self-value The hidden curriculum is veiled to the interest of communication. A democratic curriculum facilitates dialogue with all people and all aspects of teaching and learning The hidden curriculum

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