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Distritual innovation systems as an analytical tool for assessment and intervention - Daniel Gabaldón-Estevan - St. Gallen 10th july 2014

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Distritual innovation systems as an analytical tool for assessment and intervention - Daniel Gabaldón-Estevan - RSA Research Network Governing the Sustainability Transition: Defining Challenges and Opportunities for the Regional Scale (St. Gallen 10th july 2014)

Distritual innovation systems as an analytical tool for assessment and intervention - Daniel Gabaldón-Estevan - RSA Research Network Governing the Sustainability Transition: Defining Challenges and Opportunities for the Regional Scale (St. Gallen 10th july 2014)

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Distritual innovation systems as an analytical tool for assessment and intervention - Daniel Gabaldón-Estevan - St. Gallen 10th july 2014

  1. 1. Distritual Innovation Systems as an analytical tool for assessment and intervention Daniel Gabaldón-Estevan | St. Gallen 10/07/2014 Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Valencia- Valencia (ES) - daniel.gabaldon@uv.es
  2. 2. Index0. Introduction1. Theoretical framework2. Methods3. Results4. Discussion5.
  3. 3. Debate on the sustainability of the actual production model of ‘developed countries’ within globalisation: Increased demand of resources Limited capacity of the environment to assimilate human activity Increase public awareness and demands for the improvement environment quality Therefore we need tools to asses performance: Is being done all what is needed regarding industrial activity within the EU? Is it EU industry looked in? But also for a prospective purpose: What are the challenges? How aware and ready are the internal agents to overcome those challenges? Introduction: The rationale1.a
  4. 4. Introduction: Fact 1 industrial agglomerations in Italy1.b Istituto per la Promozione Industriale 2002, (based on ISTAT )
  5. 5. “El mapa dels districtes industrials d’España” Conference by Joan Trullén, Castellón 28/06/2005 Introduction: Fact 2 industrial agglomerations in Spain1.c
  6. 6. o Directive 2004/8/EC Of The European Parliament And Of The Council of 11 February 2004 on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market o Directive 2009/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the green house gas emission allowance trading scheme of the Community. o Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Energy Performance of Buildings o Directive 2010/75/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 November 2010 on industrial emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control) o Directive 2011/91/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment. oCOM(2011) 109 final Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 8 March 2011 – Energy Efficiency Plan 2011 o COM(2011) 112 final. Communication From The Commission To The European Parliament, The Council, The European Economic And Social Committee And The Committee Of The Regions. A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 o Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency o Horizon 2020 - The Framework Program for Research and Innovation Introduction: Environmental policies in the EU1.d
  7. 7. WelfareInnovation Competitiveness Internal sources External sources Innovation system = Traditional industrial sectors EU regions SME Success ‘70 Difficulties since end of ’90s Marshallian industrial district = ¿homogeneity?Distritual innovation system¿sectorial? ¿territorial? Theoretical framework: In search for analytical tools to study this phenomena2.a
  8. 8. 5. Evolutionary economics FilièreLearning (know how, learning by doing) Knowledge networks Institutional framework Innovation system Distritual System of Innovation Productive specialization District effect economies Community & feeling of belonging Interrelation & proximity Theoretical framework: Applying the systemic approach to industrial districts2.b
  9. 9. Population of companies centred on a productive activity (Bellandi, 2006; Coro & Micelli, 2007) Human resources available and specialized (Sforzi, 2006; Sabel, 1982) Tension and dynamism at the aglomeration (Brusco, 1990; Dei Ottati, 1994) Easiness of both technological change and credit (Pyke y Sengenberger, 1992; Brusco, 1994) […] “socioterritorial entity characterised by the active presence of both a community of people and a group of companies on a natural and historically determined area . At the district […] the community and the companies tend to melt together”. (Becattini, 1992, pp. 62-63). Marshallian Industrial district Cluster Industrial district (Marshall, 1890) (Becattini, 1979, 1986, 1992) Feeling of belonging Concentration & specialization Competence & cooperation Difficulties of appropriation External economies Theoretical framework: The influence of proximity on companies performance2.c
  10. 10. […] “all important economic, social, political, organizational, institutional and other factors that influence the development, diffusion and use of innovations” (Edquist, 2004, pp. 182) Sectoral system of innovation Technological systems (Breschi and Malerba, 1997; Malerba, 2002) (Carlsson and Stankiewitz, 1995; Huges, 1984; Callon, 1992) Knowledge Heterogeneity InstitutionsLearning Interrelations National system of innovation Regional system of innovation (Freeman, 1987; Lundvall, 1988, 1992; Nelson, 1993) (Cooke, 1993 and 2001; Saxenian, 1985; Jaffe et al., 1993) Evolutionist perspective (Nelson and Winter, 1977 and 1982) Functional approach (Bergek et al., 2008; Jacobsson and Johnson, 2000; Edquist, 1997) Distritual Innovation system (Gabaldon-Estevan et al., 2011) Theoretical framework: Innovation is a collective and an interactive process2.d
  11. 11. (Istituto per la Promozione Industriale 2002 ) Theoretical framework: Proximity vs complementarityindustry2.e
  12. 12. Theoretical framework: Proximity vs isolation but also renewalindustry2.f
  13. 13. Technological and advanced services providers’ environment Legal & institutional framework Distribution & consumption Frits, glaze & ceramic colour Tile production Machinery & equipment Raw material extraction Design Scientific environment Productive environment Adapted from Fernández, I., et al. (1996) Semi-structured interviews (24 ES e IT) tile Semi-structured interviews (14) frits, glaze and ceramic colour Secondary analysis (INE, SABI) Tools: the value chain analysis and the structural analysis3.a
  14. 14. Knowledge development and diffusion Influence on the direction of search Market evolution and competition Legitimation / counteracting resistance to change Resource mobilisation Semi-structured interviews (15) including managers of ceramic, electro- mechanical, glaze companies or atomization plants; representatives of employers’ or workers’ associations; directors of research institutions responsible for R&D for the industry; academics and consultants Entrepreneurial experimentation Adapted from Johnson A. (2001) Functions analysis is based on idea that a well functioning innovation system requires that a number of key activities takes place. If this occurs, output of innovations is higher. Tools: the functional analysis3.b
  15. 15. Tools: Environmental issues on the development of the industry3.c
  16. 16. 16 Onda L’Alcora Vila-real CastellónAlmazora Sant Joan de Moró Results: Locating the industry4.a
  17. 17. Results: The ceramic tile value chainthe industry4.b
  18. 18. Adaptación de Fernández, I., et al. (1996) Results: The components of the Spanish tile distritual innovation Systemy4.c
  19. 19. Knowledge development and diffusion Influence on the direction of search Entrepreneurial experimentation Market evolution and competition reductions in materials use, energy and water consumption a Schumpeter Mark II scenario competing on price is no longer a good strategy Legitimation / counteracting resistance to change increase in public awareness regarding environmental and health issues Resource mobilisation Infrastructures and financial capital fine, some needs in human capital and challenge in raw materials Strength in physics, chemistry and engineering; Weak in distribution and commercialisation, technician crucial in the diffusion Results: Analysing the dynamics and functionality of the DIS4.d
  20. 20. Energy consumption Materials use Water consumption - Tile industry is a big energy consumer (gas & electric). - Transition from oil to gas in the 80’s & new kilns reduced firing times from 35-45 hours to 35-70 minutes. - Atomisers have cogeneration (total efficiency to 85-90%) so further reductions in of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions more difficult. - Availability of raw materials worldwide will worsen as production increases in developing countries. - Locally mining activity is being displaced to more remote areas because of the environmental impact. - Water is intensively used in the ceramic tile manufacturing process. - Efforts are directed either to reduce the thickness. - To recycle of the refuse-mud (reduces the need for water and suppresses dumping). - Or to improve the dry route powder processing. Results: Inputshe industry4.e
  21. 21. Pollution Product Waste - Tile industry has done progress in substituting most of the hazardous elements that characterised production in the early industrialisation years. However there are still areas for improvement: - Further reduce carbon dioxide (CO2). - Deal with elements as nitrogen dioxide (NO2), boron (B), sulphur (S), sulphur dioxide (SO2), or fluorine (F). - And dust pollution, specially suspended particles due to transportation. - Sustainable product due to its characteristics: resistant, durable, versatile, requires low maintenance and aseptic. - Green developments are thinner tiles, photovoltaic tiles -Active surface tiles combining tile with other elements that provide an added benefit or fulfilling an new function. - Ventilated facades, radiant ceramic tiles, raised floor systems for flat roofs, ceramic lattice, Pot-in-pot system, Giraplax, Trombeta for Trombe wall and dry collocation. - 17% of the waste is reincorporated to the process (some lines of product with about 80% recycled material). - Efforts are directed towards integrating ceramic leftovers in other products (like asphalt), towards recycling the waste produced by the ceramics industry to produce mortars, and towards new potential sources for the production of ceramic tiles from other industrial Results: Outputsindustry4.f
  22. 22. Legislation Legitimation Market -. EPBD seen as an opportunity to promote their recent developments into the building sector. - IPCC seen as beneficial because it promotes adoption of the best available technology in terms of energy use. - Kyoto and emissions rights: problem with twin industries & hope that it will change to best available technologies. - REACH regulation could force the disappearance of small and medium frits and glaze companies.- Long tradition of good status and legitimation challenged since 1990s (increase in production, high geographical new environmental regulation and control and other economic activities) - Will to keep legimated by moving to environmental production (Environmental Product Declaration or the EU- ECOLABEL) to improve public image and secure markets with high environmental consciousness. -.Delocalisation of production centres will continue - Providers experience problems in transposing their R&D effort to clients via the products they acquire. - A focus on technology and ecology would make Spanish industry very competitive. Results: Context4.g
  23. 23. i) an important part of the scientific community, together with other social actors, agree on demanding big changes on development strategies in order to reconfigure our societies according to sustainability; ii) limits to economic growth should be approached globally (think global, act at local/regional/national/sectorial or distritual) iii) to achieve sustainability, far-reaching changes along different dimensions (technological, material, organisational, institutional, political economic and socio-cultural) have to occur; iv) distritual innovation systems can be conceived as complex and interrelated systems where their social, economic, political, cultural, physical and environmental dimensions can be analysed as innovation systems the performance of which can be analysed and changes implemented. Discussion5.a
  24. 24. Thank you for your attention Monfort, E.; Mezquita, A.; Vaquer, E.; Gabaldón-Estevan, D. (2014) La evolución energética del sector español de baldosas cerámicas Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio - Forthcoming - Gabaldón-Estevan, D.; Criado, E.; Monfort, E. (2014) The Green Factor in European Manufacturing: A case study of the Spanish ceramic tile industry. Journal of Cleaner Production 70, 242-250 Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652614001620 Gabaldón-Estevan, D.; Hekkert M.P. (2013) How Does the Innovation System in the Spanish Tile Sector Function? Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio 52 (3) 151-158 Available at: http://ceramicayvidrio.revistas.csic.es/index.php/ceramicayvidrio/article/download/1205/1239 Gabaldón-Estevan, D.; Fernández de Lucio, I. and Molina Morales, FX. (2012) Distritual Innovation Systems. ARBOR- Ciencia pensamiento y cultura, 188 (753), pp. 63-73 Available at: http://arbor.revistas.csic.es/index.php/arbor/article/download/1448/1457 Gabaldón-Estevan, D. (2011) El sistema distritual de innovación cerámico de Castellón. Universitat de València. Servei de Publicacions. - Available at: http://rodrigo.uv.es/bitstream/handle/10550/23431/gabaldon.pdf?sequence=1 Tortajada Esparza, E.; Gabaldón-Estevan, D. and Fernández de Lucio I. (2008) La evolución tecnológica del distrito cerámico de Castellón: la contribución de la industria de fritas, colores y esmaltes. Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio. 47 (2) pp. 57-80 - Available at: http://boletines.secv.es/upload/20080512114901.47[2]57-80.pdf Daniel Gabaldón-Estevan Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Valencia- Valencia (ES) - daniel.gabaldon@uv.es Some of our references5.b

Editor's Notes

  • COM(2011) 109 final Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 8 March 2011 – Energy Efficiency Plan 2011
    Energy efficiency is considered to be a key component of European energy policy. It therefore constitutes one of the cornerstones of the European Union’s (EU) 2020 strategy. This Plan proposes several directions for a transition towards a more efficient economy as regards the use of energy resources.
    Horizon 2020
    3 Objetivos: x y z
  • Enfatiza no solo lo negativo sino también lo positivo.
  • No es una ruptura sino una síntesis híbrida que para casos como el estudiado puede ser más conveniente.
    Por un lado, consideramos que un distrito industrial no coincide con los límites de otras unidades de análisis utilizadas en estudios sistémicos tales como una industria o sector, una tecnología o un territorio (sea éste regional o nacional). Un distrito industrial se relaciona con instituciones y entidades pertenecientes a esos otros niveles de análisis, por supuesto, pero su dimensión y características definitorias exigen un tratamiento diferenciado de esta realidad productiva.
    Por otro lado, la perspectiva de los distritos industriales se centra notablemente en los aspectos internos al distrito, en particular de la relación de la actividad económica dominante con los otros elementos de su entorno inmediato, y en las ventajas que tal ubicación ofrece a las empresas que en él se encuentran respecto a las que se ubican fuera de él o frente a la gran empresa y sus economías de escala. En nuestra opinión, no obstante, el tratamiento que de la innovación se ha dado desde esta tradición se ha limitado a resaltar las ventajas comparativas de las empresas en términos de acceso a la información, disponibilidad de recursos, cooperación entre las empresas del distrito y la tensión competitiva que tales aglomeraciones producen.
    La combinación de la perspectiva sistémica y la distritual nos permite, en consecuencia, ajustar significativamente la unidad de análisis a una realidad industrial diferenciada, sin renunciar a las ventajas del análisis sistémico en tanto que perspectiva que nos ofrece mayor flexibilidad para identificar y analizar la relevancia de los diferentes actores, internos o externos al distrito, que vertebran funcionalmente la actividad innovadora de las empresas del distrito.
  • No CNAE
  • Proceso altamente integrado dados los costes asociados con su fragmentación
  • are different approaches to innovation that interlink agents and institutions. If the main goal of an innovation system, wanted or unwanted by the actors, is the development, diffusion and utilisation of innovations (Johnson, 2001), analysis of the degree to which these goals are fulfilled can be assessed by analysing the system functions.
  • EPBD - Energy Performance of Buildings Directive
    IPCC - Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control
    REACH - Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals

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