Scaffold

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  • This Safety Awareness course will not produce people competent to erect scaffolds. It will give awareness regarding the safe use of scaffolds on Fab 14.
  • For erections we will only look at the alloy system. As external vendors will be used for all other types as a greater degree of skill is required.
  • Towers should be erected and used only on ground suitable (i.e. concrete, tarmac or similar). When towers are on soft ground baseplates must be used and these must be provided with a firm foundation. Erection commences with either castors or baseplates to four adjustable legs. Castors should have brakes, be free running and have the SWL marked on them. A locking device keeps the castors and baseplates connected to the adjustable legs. The adjustable legs are fitted into the lower ends of the columns of two end frames and locked into position. Each leg has a device to vary its extension so the tower can be made level on uneven or stepped surfaces.
  • The base to height ratio on Fab 14 is 3 - 1, so for a tower with a 2m X 4 base dimension the achievable height is 6m. A greater height can be achieved by the use of stabilisers / outriggers which increase base area. Tying in of the tower is necessary when it reaches 12m in height. Also the higher the scaffold extends the lower the weight bearing capabilities become.
  • All scaffold towers on Fab 14 must have 100% fall protection, to achieve this requirement, handrails, midrails and toe boards are mandatory. It is a serious offence to use a scaffold without 100% fall protection.
  • Access to the work platform can be by any of the above. Vertical ladders which are incorporated into the end frames. Inclination Width Stair ladders 35 - 55 deg 280 mm Inclined Ladder 60 - 75 deg 280 mm Stairway 35 - 55 deg 400 mm External ladders must never be used. Independent ladders only when designed specifically. Rest platforms must be provided every 4 m. Stairways can be used as a means of access for tools and materials as long as one hand is used for a climbing hold.
  • There are 4 conditions which effect the safe use of scaffold towers. The main reason for selection of alloy over different systems is its lightness and ease of assembly. The lightness of the structure means that care has to be taken to ensure the stability of the tower. The manufacture’s manual will show the safe height to which various configurations can be erected.
  • Height calculations enter the equations of stability and must be looked in the _______________ of the work requirements of the tower. On external towers, wind is a major player in the safe use of scaffolds. On no account must sheeting or any wind break be used on a tower. Be careful of the funnelling effect of wind in an unfinished building. Other horizontal loads are the forces exerted from the tower to an outside structure such as using the tower as a drilling platform or moving the tower from the work platform by pulling on pipe, ect. Vertical loads are the operatives and materials on the platforms, do not exceed the SWL of each platform. It is recommended that stabilizers be used always no matter what height is required. If the scaffold is stationary for long periods of time, it must be tied to a secure structure. Scaffold hoists must be used in conjunction with an alloy tower.
  • Before ordering your scaffold tower, check your loading requirements, tools, and operatives. Determine the number of decks required. When ordering, tell the supplier your requirements regarding height, capacity and seek a copy of the manufacturer’s guidelines regarding erection which you are ____________ to use.
  • When moving your tower unload your platforms. Do not use a vehicle to either push or pull a tower. Be careful with a high towers in windy conditions. Check for powerlines or other obstruction. Before movement, unlock all casters, raise stabilisers and check the route for drains, inclines, trenches, ect. When the move is complete lock your castors and re-set stabilisers. Check that components have not become loose or detached during movement. Up-date tagging procedure.
  • 100% fall protection is mandatory. If for some reason 100% cannot be achieved with toe boards, midrails and handrails then full body harnesses come into play. Harnesses must then be worn and tied off using a lanyard with a shock absorber or a retractable device. As an alloy tower is lightweight, its components will not hold from the shock of an operative falling over the side, so tie off points or static lines will need to be provided. Never connect your lanyard to copper fittings or electrical wiring.
  • There is now a tagging system in operation on Fab 14. We have three (3) tag colours: Green Yellow Red We will explain the significance of each colour.
  • Scaffolds must not be used if not first checked and tagged by a competent person. Any prospective users should check a tower before using it. Any prospective user is obliged to check the tag and comply with the tagging requirements before use.
  • All components must be checked for ___________ before the erection of a tower. Towers must be checked daily prior to use and if the stability is in doubt (i.e. something fell on it or if a vehicle was in collision with it). After high winds, platforms should be checked for movement.
  • Scaffold

    1. 1. Scaffold Appreciation Session 1 Scaffolding Overview
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Scaffold is a necessary part of nearly every construction site it provides access egress and a safe working platform. Since various trades all use scaffold it is imperative that the scaffold is correctly erected maintained and signed off. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Scope <ul><li>General erection requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Safe use of scaffolds </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffold tagging procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection procedures </li></ul>
    4. 4. General Erection Requirements <ul><li>Ground surface </li></ul><ul><li>Height restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Guardrails / toe boards </li></ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul>
    5. 5. Ground Surface <ul><li>Ground surface must be level </li></ul><ul><li>Baseplates needed on all fixed scaffolds </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustable legs needed on uneven surfaces </li></ul>
    6. 6. Height Restrictions <ul><li>3:1 height to base ratio for unsupported scaffold </li></ul><ul><li>Outriggers / stabilizers if exceed the 3:1 height </li></ul><ul><li> to base ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Tying in needed on fixed scaffold over 8 metres </li></ul>
    7. 7. Guardrails <ul><li>Handrails 1000mm high approx. </li></ul><ul><li>Midrails 600 mm high approx. </li></ul><ul><li>Toe boards 150 mm high </li></ul>
    8. 8. Access <ul><li>Stair ladders </li></ul><ul><li>Inclined ladders </li></ul><ul><li>Stairway </li></ul><ul><li>Independent ladders </li></ul><ul><li>Rest platforms </li></ul>
    9. 9. Safe Use of Scaffolds <ul><li>Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Safe loading </li></ul><ul><li>Moving towers </li></ul><ul><li>Fall protection </li></ul>
    10. 10. Stability <ul><li>Height calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Other horizontal loads </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical loads </li></ul><ul><li>Outriggers </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Tying in </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffold hoists </li></ul>
    11. 11. Safe Loading <ul><li>Scaffold capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Number of decks </li></ul><ul><li>Tools and personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers guidelines </li></ul>
    12. 12. Typical Loads
    13. 13. Moving Towers, Basic Precautions <ul><li>Unload tower </li></ul><ul><li>No powered vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Careful in wind </li></ul><ul><li>Overhead cables / obstructions </li></ul><ul><li>Outriggers / stabilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Check route prior to move </li></ul>
    14. 14. Basic Fall Protection <ul><li>Mandatory </li></ul><ul><li>Guardrails / midrails / toe boards </li></ul><ul><li>Full body harnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Lanyards - shock absorbers / retractable </li></ul><ul><li>Tie off anchor points </li></ul><ul><li>Static lines </li></ul>
    15. 15. Scaffold Tagging Requirements <ul><li>All scaffold must be tagged </li></ul><ul><li>Green, yellow, red tags </li></ul><ul><li>Tag requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>completion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>location </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inspection sign-off </li></ul>
    16. 16. Tagging - Green Tag <ul><li>Permanent scaffold </li></ul><ul><li>Approval requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Tie off not required </li></ul><ul><li>Location of tag </li></ul>
    17. 17. Tagging - Red Tag <ul><li>Not safe for use </li></ul><ul><li>Only competent scaffold builders can access </li></ul><ul><li>Stay off of red tag scaffolds </li></ul>
    18. 18. Tagging - Yellow Tag <ul><li>Scaffold erectors have finished </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffold may not be complete </li></ul><ul><li>Check scaffold tag </li></ul><ul><li>100% tie off required </li></ul>
    19. 19. Inspection Requirements <ul><li>Competent person </li></ul><ul><li>Users </li></ul><ul><li>Document on tags </li></ul>
    20. 20. Inspections - When <ul><li>Prior to erection </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to use </li></ul><ul><li>After alterations </li></ul><ul><li>After high winds </li></ul><ul><li>After movement </li></ul><ul><li>Every day </li></ul><ul><li>If the stability of the </li></ul><ul><li>structure is in doubt </li></ul>

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