Danial Masood<br />Chapter <br />11<br />Wide Area Network<br />
Wide Area Network <br />It connects computers and LANs over a larger geographical area.<br />It crosses public thorough-fa...
Wired Analog Service<br />It uses standard wired analog telephone lines.<br />It requires a modem to convert digital signa...
Wired Analog Service<br />5<br />
Digital Cellular <br />It provides WAN data access to mobile<br />users.<br />Its coverage area is divided into smaller ce...
Trunk-Based Leased Lines<br />The same type of lines are used to connect the telephone company’s switches.<br />They provi...
Trunk-Based Leased Lines<br />8<br />
Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL)<br />They transmit at 1.5 Mbps over <br />		regular telephone lines.<br />They use the high...
Cable Modem<br />It uses the same coaxial cable that brings in cable TV signals.<br />All cables for a neighborhood are co...
Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS)<br />Transmits: Maximum 155 Mbps downstream and 1.54 upstream<br />Range: 2 –...
Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS)<br />It uses lower-frequency signals than LMDS.<br />Range: up to 35 m...
Satellites <br />They have been used for over 40 years.<br />They relay signals from one point on earth to another.<br />T...
Low Earth Orbiting (LEO)<br />They orbit at an altitude of 200 – 900 miles.<br />They circle the earth in 90 minutes.<br /...
Low Earth Orbiting (LEO)<br />15<br />
Medium Earth Orbiting (MEO)<br />They orbit at altitudes between 1,500 – 10,000 miles.<br />They circle the earth every 12...
Remote Wireless Bridge<br />It connects LANs located in different buildings.<br />The distance between buildings can be up...
Free Space Optics (FSO)<br />It transmits up to 1.25 Gbps at a distance of 2.5 miles.<br />It uses low-powered infrared be...
Virtual Private Network (VPN)<br />It uses the public Internet to transmit private data.<br />It encrypts data into a pack...
Virtual Private Network (VPN)<br />20<br />
Public Switched Data Networks (PSDN)<br />Actual network itself<br />X.25<br />Frame Relay<br />Asynchronous Transfer Mode...
Public Switched Data Networks (PSDN)<br />Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)<br />Synchronous Optical Network (SON...
Firewall<br />It inspects incoming traffic. <br />Packet-filter firewall – Inspects header of each packet.<br />Stateful p...
Network Address Translators (NAT)<br />Disguises the internal IP by substituting a fake IP and port number.<br />When a pa...
Privacy<br />Privacy is the right to be left alone to the degree that you choose.<br />It is a difficult problem to keep p...
Wide Area Network  by Daniyal Masood BSIT 2nd Semester
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Wide Area Network by Daniyal Masood BSIT 2nd Semester

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Wide Area Network by Daniyal Masood BSIT 2nd Semester

  1. 1.
  2. 2. Danial Masood<br />Chapter <br />11<br />Wide Area Network<br />
  3. 3. Wide Area Network <br />It connects computers and LANs over a larger geographical area.<br />It crosses public thorough-fares such as roads, railroads, and water.<br />
  4. 4. Wired Analog Service<br />It uses standard wired analog telephone lines.<br />It requires a modem to convert digital signals to analog signals.<br />Its top is speed 56 Kbps.<br />Asymmetric – Some modems are faster downloading than uploading.<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Wired Analog Service<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Digital Cellular <br />It provides WAN data access to mobile<br />users.<br />Its coverage area is divided into smaller cells.<br />Users “roam” into adjacent cells or “handoff” into remote networks.<br /> The current technology is 2.5G with a maximum speed of 384 Kbps.<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Trunk-Based Leased Lines<br />The same type of lines are used to connect the telephone company’s switches.<br />They provide “always-on” high-speed connections.<br />The most common is T1, which operates at 1.5 Mbps over <br /> twisted pair wires.<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Trunk-Based Leased Lines<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL)<br />They transmit at 1.5 Mbps over <br /> regular telephone lines.<br />They use the higher unused <br /> frequencies to send data.<br />Different versions of DSL: <br /> ADSL, G.list, HDSL, HDSL2<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Cable Modem<br />It uses the same coaxial cable that brings in cable TV signals.<br />All cables for a neighborhood are connected to a neighborhood splitter.<br />The connection is shared among all users in a neighborhood.<br />Speed: 300 Kbps – 1.5 Mbps<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS)<br />Transmits: Maximum 155 Mbps downstream and 1.54 upstream<br />Range: 2 – 5 miles<br />It is a low-cost option to laying fiber optic cables.<br />Its signals are susceptible to interference from rain or fog.<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS)<br />It uses lower-frequency signals than LMDS.<br />Range: up to 35 miles<br />Its signals are less susceptible to interference from rain or fog.<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Satellites <br />They have been used for over 40 years.<br />They relay signals from one point on earth to another.<br />They are classified according to the type of orbit.<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Low Earth Orbiting (LEO)<br />They orbit at an altitude of 200 – 900 miles.<br />They circle the earth in 90 minutes.<br />They have a small “footprint.”<br />More satellites are needed to cover the entire earth.<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Low Earth Orbiting (LEO)<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Medium Earth Orbiting (MEO)<br />They orbit at altitudes between 1,500 – 10,000 miles.<br />They circle the earth every 12 hours.<br />They have a large “footprint.”<br />Fewer are needed to cover the earth.<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Remote Wireless Bridge<br />It connects LANs located in different buildings.<br />The distance between buildings can be up to 18 miles at 11 Mbps.<br />It has similar characteristics to a wireless LAN.<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Free Space Optics (FSO)<br />It transmits up to 1.25 Gbps at a distance of 2.5 miles.<br />It uses low-powered infrared beams.<br />Its transmissions cannot be eavesdropped.<br />18<br />
  19. 19. Virtual Private Network (VPN)<br />It uses the public Internet to transmit private data.<br />It encrypts data into a packet before sending.<br />There is no cost for setting up or using a VPN.<br />19<br />
  20. 20. Virtual Private Network (VPN)<br />20<br />
  21. 21. Public Switched Data Networks (PSDN)<br />Actual network itself<br />X.25<br />Frame Relay<br />Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)<br />21<br />
  22. 22. Public Switched Data Networks (PSDN)<br />Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)<br />Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)<br />Metro Ethernet Network (MEN)<br />22<br />
  23. 23. Firewall<br />It inspects incoming traffic. <br />Packet-filter firewall – Inspects header of each packet.<br />Stateful packet-filter firewall – Examines a packet’s source IP.<br />Proxy firewall – Examines the contents of a packet.<br />23<br />
  24. 24. Network Address Translators (NAT)<br />Disguises the internal IP by substituting a fake IP and port number.<br />When a packet is returned, NAT replaces the fake numbers with the actual IP and port number.<br />24<br />
  25. 25. Privacy<br />Privacy is the right to be left alone to the degree that you choose.<br />It is a difficult problem to keep personal data private.<br />Identity theft is a major crime.<br />25<br />

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