A contrastive analysis between bahasa indonesia and english dawood widya


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A contrastive analysis between bahasa indonesia and english dawood widya

  1. 1. A Contrastive Analysis between Bahasa Indonesia and English in ELT Dawood Dana Jaya Widya Paramita
  2. 2.  Contrastive Analysis means the comparison of two languages by paying attention to differences and similarities between languages being compared. For example, we compare Bahasa Indonesia and English  Robert Lado (1957:59) states that, based on the similarities and differences between L1 and L2, then the level of students’ learning difficulties can be divided in two, they are easy and difficult. Difficulties are concerning difficulties in the areas of phonology and structure.
  3. 3. In applying contrastive analysis in the classroom, the teacher can use linguistic aspects, such as phonology and syntax.  Phonology Phonology is the study of sounds distribution in a language and the interaction between those different sound
  4. 4. Example 1 Bahasa Indonesia Vowels English Vowels a i u e o Long i: – cream, seen ʒ: – burn, firm ɑ: – hard, far ɔ: – corn, faun U: – bloom, glue
  5. 5. Example 2 Syntax Syntax means the study of the rules that govern the ways in which words combine to form phrases, the idea of plural, and sentence. 1. Phrase Bahasa Indonesia Rumah besar Nenek saya Pada pagi hari Pada malam hari English Big house My grandmother In the morning At night
  6. 6. 2. The Idea of Plural Plural here refers to the form of a noun or a verb which refers to more than one person or thing. No definite rules how to create a plural form of a word except by reduplicating it, e.g rumah- rumah, mobil-mobil. Bahasa Indonesia Serigala itu binatang English a wolf is an animal Wolves are animal Wolf is animal
  7. 7. 3. Sentence structure  A short hand way of saying that pattern is; a sentence consists of Noun Phrase and Verb Phrase Indonesian English NP.VP NP.VP Paman pergi ke Surabaya tadi malam Kakak ke kampus naik motor Ibu ke pasar naik becak Uncle went to Surabaya last night Brother rides motorbike to campus Mother goes to market by pedicab Note: NP: Noun Phrase AP: Adjective Phrase Adv P: Adverbial Phrase VP : Verb Phrase
  8. 8. 4. Passive and Object-Focus Construction The passive form of a verb phrase contain this pattern; be + past participle, e.g is bitten, was stolen, can be taken. In Indonesian, passive is shown by adding di- before a verb, e.g dimakan, ditipu, dipermalukan. In most clauses, the subject refers to the “doer”, or actor of the action of the verb (Leech and friends, 2003). Bahasa Indonesia English P: Makanan itu tidak dimakan oleh saya A: Saya tidak memakan makanan itu Makanan itu tidak saya makan* Tidak saya makan makanan itu* A: I did not eat that food P: That food was not eaten by me yet Note: A: Active P:Passive * NonCanonical Passive/Object focus
  9. 9. Errors such as *Orang tua yang Rika menemui di sekolah….or *Demonstrasi yang saya menonton di TV…are common to occur in the speech or writing produced by speakers of English learning Indonesian. Apparently, this is a kind of error known in TEFL as transfer. That is the carrying over of a syntactic structure in English into Indonesian (Kadarisman, 2002:3). Indonesian English Orang tua yang ditemui Rika di sekolah adalah kakeknya The old man (whom) Rika met at the school was his grandfather *Orang tua yang Rika menemui di sekolah…….. Demonstrasi yang saya tonton di TV sangat menakutkan Demonstration I watched on TV was very scary *Demonstrasi yang saya menonton di TV…….
  10. 10. Conclusion In teaching and learning English as second language, contrastive analysis is really helpful for both the teachers and the students, because we will know the differences and similarities between source language (L1) and target language (L2). Therefore, it is easy for us to learn and adjust to the target language. So that, we do not incorporate the system of our source language to the target language, because each language has distinct system
  11. 11. THANK YOU REFERENCES  Azhar N.I. 2012. http://gravatar.com/pusatbahasaalazhar (Access on June, 8th 2013)  Azar, S, B. 1989. Understanding and Using English Grammar. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Inc  Chana, U. 1984. Evaluative reactions to Punjabi/English code-switching. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. 5 (6), pp. 447-473.  Geethakumary, V. 2006. A Contrastive Analysis of Hindi and Malayalam. http://www.languageinindia.com. 24 May 2006  Koencoro, S. 2006. The Application of Contrastive Analysis in Teaching Indonesian to English Speaking Expatriates. http://www.ialf.edu. 24 May.2006  Kadarisman, Effendi. 2002. Trends and Issues in Linguistics: an exercise. Unpublished modul: State University of Malang.  Kadarisman, Effendi. 2002. Trends and Issues in Linguistics: an exercise. Unpublished modul: State University of Malang  Kardaleska, Ljubica. 2006. Contrastive Analysis and Error Analysis in Combination with Analysis of the Semantic Level. http://www.sil.org. 24 May 2006  Leech, Geofrey&friends. 2003. An A-Z of English Grammar & Usage. Malaysia: Longman  Pfaff, C.W. 1976. Functional and structural constraints on syntactic variation on code switching. Papers from the Parasession on Diachronic Syntax. Chicago: CLS. pp. 248-59  Valdes-Fallis, G. 1977. Code-switching among bilingual Mexican-American women: Towards an understanding of sex-related language alternation. International Journal of The Sociology of Language, 7, 65-72.