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  1. 1. Constructivism Learning By Doing Dana & Jessica – Group 5
  2. 2. What is Constructivism? The constructivist theory suggests that individuals learn best by actively participating.
  3. 3. Theorists There are four major theorists associated with Constructivism: 1) Jean Piaget 2) Jerome Bruner 3) Lev Vygotsky 4) John Dewey
  4. 4. Jean Piaget After observing children for many years, Jean Piaget created the cognitive learning theory. Piaget perceived children as “active learners,” without needing any motivation from adults.
  5. 5. Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Stages Cognitive Stage Age (Approximate) Characteristics of learning Sensorimotor Birth to 2 years Imitation, learn through senses and motor activities, do not understand world around them, and egocentric Preoperational 2 to 6/7 years Egocentric, pretend play, drawing ability, speech and communication development, concrete thinking, and intuitive reasoning Concrete Operational 6/7 years to 11/12 years Classification, logical reasoning, problem solving, and beginnings of abstract thinking Formal Operational 11/12 years through adulthood Comparative reasoning, abstract thinking, deductive logic, and test hypothesis
  6. 6. Jerome Bruner Jerome Bruner “proposed that learning is an active process in which the learner constructs new ideas or concepts based on his current or past knowledge.” (pg. 378)
  7. 7. Lev Vygotsky Lev Vygotsky developed social cognition, the belief that learning is influenced largely by social development. Vygotsky also proposed the Zone of Proximal Development, “which is the difference between the problem solving ability that a child has learned and the potential that the child can achieve from collaboration with a more advanced peer or expert.” (pg. 380)
  8. 8. John Dewey John Dewey was a part of the progressive movement. This movement “focused on education the whole child, physically, and not just the dispensation of the facts and information.” John Dewey was also a pragmatic. He believed the validity of a theory was determined by its practical application.
  9. 9. Classroom Implications What does this mean for teachers? Teachers should understand the importance and validity of the constructivist theories. Educators should constantly seeks ways to actively engage their students in what they are learning.
  10. 10. Classroom Implications What does this mean for students? Students should expect a variety of learning methods. If they do not understand something while being explained, they can expect an activity to further their understanding. Games, science experiments, and cooking (for measurements) are all ways for student to use what they have learned.
  11. 11. What does this mean for me? As a future educator, one of the most important things to me personally, is to make certain that I never get lazy in my work. Creating and discovering activities, games, and projects for students to practice what they learn can take some additional time. However, I cannot image anything more important or rewarding than going the extra mile to inspire a mind. Active learning is a must in the classroom.
  12. 12. Citations • Teachers Discovering Computers: Integrating Technology and Digital Media in the Classroom 6th Edition. Gary B. Shelly, Glenda A. Gunter, and Randolph E. Gunter, 2010 Course Technology, Cengage Learning • Image 1: • Image 2: • Image 3: • Image 4: