More Related Content


More from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute(20)


Fighting Cancer With Your Fork

  1. Fighting Cancer with Your Fork: Separating Fact From Fiction Hillary M. Wright, MEd, RD, LDN Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Leonard P. Zakim Center for Integrated Therapies
  2. How Do We Figure Out What May Affect Cancer Risk/Survivorship? The American Institute for Cancer Research “Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective” • The result of an analysis of over 7000 research studies on the link between diet, lifestyle and cancer, and for the first time cancer survivors •   “comprehensive global report”  10 Recommendations, last one specific to survivors.
  3. America’s Challenging Food Environment
  4. Question: Is it also our lifestyle?
  5. Watch Your Weight! • 65% of Americans are overweight or obese. • Only 6% of Americans identify being overweight or obese as a risk factor for cancer despite a clearly established scientific link. • Research shows that fat cells can act as "hormone pumps," secreting hormones and other growth factors into the bloodstream. • If the body's cells are exposed to very high levels of these substances over an extended period, they tend to reproduce more quickly  ? Increase cancer cell growth. • Researchers stress that this potentially dangerous condition is reversible!
  6. Question: But after cancer treatment, I actually lost weight?
  7. Weight Loss during Cancer Treatment • Possible causes: – Changes in metabolism, anorexia, side effects of treatment (nausea, vomiting, fatigue, taste changes, dry mouth, throat soreness if esophagus affected by radiation), over-aggressive efforts to eat a “cancer-fighting” diet. • Weight loss is associated with increased difficulty tolerating treatment and poorer quality of life. • Nutritionist can help: – Five or six small meals/snacks – Suggestions for smoothies or liquid nutrition supplements – Strategies to concentrate calories in food and increase overall intake
  8. Movement is critical to the health of the human body!! Absolutely necessary if you want to maintain a healthy weight! • New Guidelines from the Dept of Health & Human Services Minimum 150 min moderate, or 75 min vigorous to reduce risk of chronic disease – Ideally aim for more – and necessary if weight loss and maintenance of loss is the goal – 300 min of moderate or 150 minutes of vigorous. • Physical activity linked to lower risk of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer; necessary for weight control.
  9. Different ways to be active… If you like it – you’ll do it!
  10. Fruits and vegetables may exert a protective effect:
  11. Phytonutrients • Beyond vitamins, minerals and fiber, natural compounds found in plants may exert profound disease preventive effects • The “immune system” of a plant – many also represent the pigment that gives the plant it’s color.
  12. Phytonutrients: Prevention in a Plant • How do they work? – Stimulate enzymes that help the body detoxify – Reduce the genetic damage from cancer causing agents – May interfere with growth and multiplication of cancer cells – Decrease inflammation
  13. If It Stains Your Shirt… • If a fruit or vegetable has a strong smell or taste, it’s probably biomedically active • If it stains your shirt, it’s definitely biomedically active!
  14. Antioxidants • Vitamin A, C, E, Selenium & Phytonutrients • Help prevent damage to cells from the attack of free radicals • “But I take antioxidant supplements in pill form, so I’m getting all the antioxidant benefits that way, right?”
  15. Food First • Phytonutrients work together to provide a synergistic benefit
  16. Choose a Predominately Plant Based Diet • Eat 5-10 servings fruits & veggies each day – 1 serving = 1/2 cup cut, cooked or sliced; 1 piece medium fruit; 1 cup leafy greens • Emphasis on variety • Look for richly colored plant foods
  17. Question: What about juicing vegetables?
  18. How to Get It All In: Fruits & Veggies lTry to eat at least 2 colorful plant foods before noon lMake a breakfast smoothie with low-fat milk, yogurt and fresh or frozen fruits lAdd frozen veggies to soup, casseroles lKeep veggies & fruit cut-up and readily available for quick snacks anywhere
  19. Great Gains from Whole Grains • Keep weight off (portions still matter!) • Isoprenoids in whole grains suppress tumor growth • Tepernoids and Tocotrienols encourage tumor dormancy and decrease tumor cell division • Stimulate GST (detoxifying enzyme)
  20. Sugar and Cancer – It’s not that simple….. • Sugar does not FEED cancer • Chronic, excess intake of simple sugar leads to excess production of hormones like insulin, IGF that encourage cellular growth
  21. Insulin and Cancer • Excess insulin can promote tumor cell growth • Behaviors that increase insulin levels – Consumption of refined sugar and flour – Overeating – Weight gain – Sedentary lifestyle • Behavior that reduces insulin levels – Physical activity, weight loss, unrefined carbs
  22. Question: Some programs I’ve seen suggest links between sugar and brain function?
  23. Question: What’s the difference between sugar and carbohydrates that turn into sugar?
  24. Question: So should we follow the adage: eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and dinner like a pauper?
  25. Insulin and Cancer • Excess insulin can promote tumor cell growth • Behaviors that increase insulin levels – Consumption of refined sugar and flour – Overeating – Weight gain – Sedentary lifestyle • Behavior that reduces insulin levels – Physical activity, weight loss, unrefined carbs
  26. Donut vs. Orange • 200 calories • 62 calories • 10 grams sugar • 12 grams sugar • 0 grams fiber • 3 grams fiber • 0 phytonutrients • 170 phytonutrients
  27. Get Into the Bean Routine….
  28. Question: I take Arimidex so is it not a good idea to experiment with soybeans?
  29. Get Into the Bean Routine….
  30. Question: What about multivitamins?
  31. Question: Can you talk about the acid vs. alkaline diet?
  32. Get Into the Bean Routine….
  33. Question: Can someone get enough protein from eating beans?
  34. Find Healthful Fats  Reduce consumption  Choose of saturated and trans- Monounsaturated and fats Omega-3 Fats  Saturated  Monounsaturated • Found in animal fat, • Found in olive oil, canola butter, full-fat dairy, oil, olives, avocado, nuts coconut and palm oils and nut butters  Trans  Omega-3 • Found in margarine, • Found in salmon, processed foods herring, sardines, containing hydrogenated mackerel, bluefish and or partially tuna hydrogenated oils • Strive to include 4 oz of oily fish 2-3 times a week
  35. The Typical American Plate 50% Meat 25% vegetable > 25% starch
  36. AICR: Limit Red Meat Intake • Limit red meat to 18 ounces per week (includes beef, pork and lamb) • Avoid processed meats • “Processed meat” refers to meats preserved by smoking, curing or salting, or by the addition of preservatives (ham, bacon, pastrami, salami, hot dogs and sausages. • When meat is preserved by smoking, curing or salting, or by the addition of preservatives, cancer-causing substances (carcinogens) can be formed. These substances can damage cells in the body, leading to the development of cancer. • Studies show people who eat more meat often eat less plant-based food.
  37. Healthy Eating Plate • Aim for ½ plate of plants (preferably vegetables) at lunch and dinner • ¼ of plate as lean protein • ¼ of plate of complex carbohydrate
  38. Question: I heard that you should eat your fruits and vegetables separately. Is that true?
  39. Organic vs. Conventional • No scientific evidence to date that organic offers anti-cancer advantage at this point • More than ½ of dietary pesticide exposure comes from 12 foods – EWG “Dirty Dozen” • Bottom line: wash things thoroughly
  40. Question: What about eating the skin on apples?
  41. Question: What about veggies washes?
  42. Food First • 75% of Americans don’t eat “5 a day” • Americans eat 1.5 servings of vegetables & less than 1 serving of fruit daily, despite consistent evidence that these foods decrease the risk of many chronic diseases. • We throw away more than 11 billion pounds of fruits and vegetables every year in the US!! • Americans spend $18.7 billion per year on dietary supplements despite limited and inconclusive scientific evidence of effectiveness in disease prevention and treatment
  43. Dietary Supplements That May Help Cancer Survivors • Vitamin D • Omega-3 • Probiotics and calcium if needed 24,000 Dietary Supplements marketed to Cancer Survivors!
  44. Vitamin D and Cancer • Inverse relationship between Vitamin D and several types of cancer – Possible anti-angiogenesis and helps keep cell replication normal • Ask your doctor to check your serum 25(OH) vitamin D level. • Supplementation is likely necessary. – 1000 IU/day is safe for most people.
  45. Omega 3 Fats – Anti-inflammatory – Reduce muscle wasting during treatment – Great for your cardiovascular system • Salmon, herring, sardines, mackerel • Aim for 4 oz of oily fish 2-3 times a week • Daily goal: 1000 mg of EPA/DHA • Look for 500 EPA/DHA per capsule
  46. Question: Should I be worried about mercury in Omega 3 supplements?
  47. Question: Can you give yourself too much Omega 3?
  48. Alcohol – Alcohol intake should be limited – one per day for women, 2 per day for men. – Serving is: 12 ounce beer 5 ounces wine 1.5 ounces spirits
  49. Question: I have oatmeal and blueberries for breakfast every day, but I use the instant oatmeal. Is that okay?
  50. Question: Is there any research on pesticides on certain vegetables that says that contributes to cancer?
  51. Thank You! • For more information about fighting cancer with your fork, please visit the nutrition section of our web site:

Editor's Notes

  1. Best is combination of weight-bearing exercise for your bones and weight, and cardiovascular exercise for your heart. Cardiovascular exercise recommendations: Walking is a great form of exercise – aim for 150 minutes/week of moderate-intensity exercise or 75 minutes/week of vigorous-intensity exercise. You can get to that goal in whatever way you want. For example: (150 minutes/week): 1.5 hour moderate-intensity gardening = 90 minutes 20 minute walk with friends 3x/week = 60 minutes
  2. Singling out one element is not wise as optimal and safe doses have not yet been established Phytonutrients work together to enhance one another’s function James Levine