Case study analysis doesn’t really lend itself easily to measuring long-term relationships, but PR people know that long-term relationships are often what count most (no one person or organization is an island). Based on Hon & Grunig’s PR Measurement Scale, six factors that evaluate the strength or health of a relationship:Control Mutuality: stable relationships require that each party have some measure of control over the other (If one wields all the control how healthy is that? )Trust: each party’s level of confidence in and willingness to open up to the other (self explanatory)Satisfaction: extent to which each party feels the benefits of its relationship with the other outweighs the costsCommitment: extent to which each party believes the relationship is worth maintaining and promotingExchange relationship: extent that one party grants benefits to the other because the other have provided benefits in the past or will do so in the futureCommunal relationship: extent to which each party provides benefits to the other out of concern for the other’s welfare, even if it may not receive something in return*While relationships are often difficult to measure, they effects they have on PR outcomes can be quite powerful
Movie-going analogy—you and your friends, or a film critic. Who might give a more balanced, more nuanced understanding of the film? In terms of the movies, some might give more credence to critics because they study movies for a living, they have est. criteria for doing so. They have an understanding of whether something is good or bad, and as PR practitioners we can do the same. These criteria come from an understanding of the profession, your own experience and observation of challenges by others in the profession.When these challenges are committed to paper and reported in detail, possibly including behind the scenes info, they are known as case studies.Case studies can help fill in gaps in your personal experience by helping you learn from the actions of others.
So how do we know what constitutes good PR practice? Four common measurements (individually may not tell us much, but together provide a lot of context.) Let’s look at each…
Inputs: represent the time, energy and resources that go into developing strategies and tactics, they are products of the research and planning pieces of the PR process, though not a measure of a plan’s success they lay the foundation. What surveys were conducted? How? Focus groups? What did the team do to make sure they understood the problem and had the audiences correctly identified?
Kind of plan—ad hoc, or a plan to address a specific problem; contingency, or plan that plans responses in case of an event; or standing, an ongoing plan to nurture or build a relationship.Answering these questions help determine quality of the decision-making process leading to outputs…
Outputs: Specific actions taken during the execution of a PR plan; often represent what is readily apparent to the eye; it’s the news releases, social media tools, open houses, etc. quality of outputs alone does not guarantee success but without them the plan won’t succeed
Forces of disruption in PR are often referred to as “noise”Resources need to be managed both efficiently and effectively to be successful The next step beyond inputs and outputs is how measuring results at the completion of the plan, or outcomes…
Hon & Grunig: Outcomes measure whether target audience groups actually received the messages directed at them…paid attention to them…understood them…and retained them in any shape or form. They also measure whether the communications material and messages that were disseminated have resulted in any opinion, attitude and/or behavior changes on the part of those targeted pubilcs to whom the messages were directed.
Bullet 2: An example of an inappropriate measure would be equating the number of people who attend a political rally with the number who actually votedBullet 3: Unintended effects can be positive or negative; did an audience you didn’t anticipate have a reaction to your plan? Did a proposed solution lead to a problem?
PUBLICRELATIONS471JANUARY 12, 2011
EMPLOYEE RELATIONSRESEARCH• Client Research • Information about the organization’s personnel. • What is the size and nature of the workforce? • What reputation does the organization have with it workforce? • Gannett • Heritage Broadcasting
EMPLOYEE RELATIONSRESEARCH• How satisfied are the employees? • Do you communicate differently with a group that is happy than you would a group that is disgruntled. • How?• What employee communication does the organization use?• How credible has that material been in the past?• The best way to take a look forward is to take a look back.
EMPLOYEE RELATIONSIMPACT OBJECTIVES• Increase knowledge of organizational policy.• Enhance favorable employee attitudes toward new organizational program.• Greater employee adoption of behavior • Put a new cover sheet on the TPS report.• Promote community activity by employee on behalf of company. • United Way Campaign • Volunteer at Ice Cream Social • We have a booth at the science fair.• Receive employee feedback.
EMPLOYEE RELATIONOUTPUT OBJECTIVES• Recognize employee accomplishment• Schedule future communication. • Face-to-face • Digital • Written
EMPLOYEE RELATIONSPROGRAMMING• Training seminars• Programs/lectures/webinars• Open house• Party/Reception/Tweet Up
EMPLOYEE RELATIONSUNCONTROLLED MEDIA• Often times, the discussion points found with internal communications are newsworthy. • Employee wins award. • Company getting sued. • Organization offers innovation unique to the area.• As you plan internal communications, you should anticipate how this will mesh with the media. This is especially true when the news is bad.
EMPLOYEE RELATIONSCONTROLLED MEDIA• Bulletin boards• Displays and exhibits• Telephone hotlines/webinars• Inserts with paychecks• Internal TV• Executive blogs• Company meetings• Booklets/pamphlets• Speakers/seminars
EMPLOYEE RELATIONSEVALUATION• Did behavior change? • Are more people using the new wellness program? • Are more people using the new cover sheet on their TPS report?• Did perception change? • Surveys are a great way to gauge what people really think. • Evaluation forms also work. • Employee focus groups can be successful as well.
MEMBER RELATIONSTHE DIFFERENCES• Most associations require membership to pay dues. • Am I getting my money’s worth? • The organization owes me a service.• Association membership is more difficult to contact. • What is a successful open rate for an e-newsletter?• Association membership has different priorities. • They have a separate business that requires attention. • Their focus on your association is limited.• Associations have different levels of command which can have different priorities. • National • State • Local
SIX WAYS TO MEASURERELATIONSHIPS• Control Mutuality: stable relationships require that each party have some measure of control over the other (If one wields all the control how healthy is that? )• Trust: each party’s level of confidence in and willingness to open up to the other (self explanatory)• Satisfaction: extent to which each party feels the benefits of its relationship with the other outweighs the costs
SIX WAYS TO MEASURERELATIONSHIPS• Commitment: extent to which each party believes the relationship is worth maintaining and promoting• Exchange relationship: extent that one party grants benefits to the other because the other have provided benefits in the past or will do so in the future• Communal relationship: extent to which each party provides benefits to the other out of concern for the other’s welfare, even if it may not receive something in return*While relationships are often difficult to measure, they effectsthey have on PR outcomes can be quite powerful
SWOT Analysis Strengths Opportunities• Nobody does it like us •Educate on our industry. Nobody knows what we do• No interruption of equipment •Governments, investors, etc. are all excited• Easy to manage about this work• Specialized area of expertise •Nobody else really talks about making money by doing this• Have the ISO relationships in place •A lot of merging going on – we look focused Weaknesses Threats•Not aligned • One stop shopping providers•“Smart” and environmentally-friendly is • Big brotherbecoming cliché • Commercial barriers•We are young, small, unproven • Hiccups in performance have left bruise on•These kind of companies are not’t making industrytremendous waves, yet • Is our service becoming a commodity?
Brand Architecture Differentiating Target Audience Brand Benefit Motivation We provide a I want to do the right solution that is thing, but it’s hard to simple, safe and find time in my job. effective. We do the work. You reap the reward. Reasons to Believe Simple Safe Effective•We do the heavy lifting to create complex • No impact on effective results of your •Make money for participating – an unrealizedtechnology that is user friendly. equipment revenue stream•Quick assessment of your resources will • Equipment is not being turned off and on to •Help minimize greenhouse gas emissions in yourdetermine how much balance is available accommodate load response community•No cost to install – we handle it all • Testing determines your participation level •Your customers will not notice a thing•Everything works behind the scenes with minimal without impacting your business •Delivering a marketing benefit to you that allowsto no oversight responsibility on you you to differentiate
INPUTS • Inputs represent the time, energy and resources that go into developing strategies and tactics. • They are products of the research and planning pieces of the PR process, though not a measure of a plan’s success they lay the foundation. • What surveys were conducted? How? • Focus groups? • What did the team do to make sure they understood the problem and had the audiences correctly identified?
INPUTS:QUESTIONS TO ASK Objectives & tactics based on solid research? What kind of plan? Quality of the plan? Well targeted tactics? Evaluation methods included? Was there consensus?
OUTPUTS• Specific actions taken during the execution of a PR plan.• They often represent what is readily apparent to the eye. • News releases. • Social media tools. • Open houses.• Quality of outputs alone does not guarantee success but without them the plan won’t succeed.
OUTPUTS:QUESTIONS TO ASK• Are the messages clear & on strategy?• Are there any forces that inhibited delivery or understanding?• Is it of satisfactory quality?• Are the resources managed wisely?
OUTCOMES•Concept is simple tounderstand but measurementis complicated.•Some of the best outcomesare intangible (increasingawareness, living a healthierlifestyle)•Often qualitative rather thanquantitative measures.•Usually the more indicatorsthe better
OUTCOMES:QUESTIONS TO ASK• Did the objectives & tactics achieve the stated goals?• Were appropriate measures used to determine success?• Any unintended effects?• Affect on relationships with key stakeholders?• Future course of action suggested?
CASE STUDYEVALUATION SYNOPSIS• What was your course of action?• Why did you do what you did?• How are you going to present it in class? Imagine I’m your client.• How good are the examples of your work? • Social media calendar/plan. • Press releases/media kit. • Community relations plan/meeting schedule. • Fact sheets/brochures. • Plan calendar.