471_Chapter 2

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471_Chapter 2

  1. 1. PUBLIC RELATIONS 471 Let’s build a foundation January 9, 2012
  2. 2. GIVE ME SOME ROPE I’M PULLING FOR YOU
  3. 3. FOUNDATION FOR THE WHOLE CLASS <ul><li>RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAMMING </li></ul><ul><li>EVALUATION </li></ul>
  4. 4. LET’S TALK RESEARCH
  5. 5. THREE KINDS OF RESEARCH <ul><li>Client Research </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity/Problem Research </li></ul><ul><li>Audience Research </li></ul>
  6. 6. CLIENT RESEARCH <ul><li>Mission Statement: Who are we and why do we matter? </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Status </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Past PR Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Current PR Practices </li></ul>
  7. 7. LET’S TALK CLIENT RESEARCH <ul><li>Organizational Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For profit has more accountability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For profit also has more red tape. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-profit can give you more freedom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-profits also can offer more drama. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do they deliver a product to a consumer? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the company’s geography? </li></ul>
  8. 8. OPPORTUNITY OR PROBLEM RESEARCH <ul><li>Why are we doing what we’re doing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do we see an opportunity to influence opinion about our client? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are we responding to a mistake? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The difference between playing offense vs. defense is critical. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to play as much offense as possible. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. LET’S TALK OPPORTUNITY OR PROBLEM RESEARCH <ul><li>Proactive Programs arise out of opportunity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are long range. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These are rooted in more strategy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These are harder to sell to people not in PR. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. LET’S TALK OPPORTUNITY OR PROBLEM RESEARCH <ul><li>Reactive Programs arise out of problems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are short term. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These are rooted in survival. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These are what people not in PR tend to remember. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. AUDIENCE RESEARCH <ul><li>Every audience breaks down into two core groups. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each genre of PR has specific audiences within these groups we’ll talk about this quarter. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. LET’S TALK AUDIENCE RESEARCH <ul><li>Regardless of the public or audience, you’ll need to remember these four questions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are they? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do they matter? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How active are they? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which public is most important to us? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. LET’S TALK AUDIENCE RESEARCH <ul><li>Once you figure that out, now you can gather data. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How much media do they consume? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where to they get said media? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who’s in their ear? </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. SO HOW DO WE RESEARCH THIS STUFF?
  15. 15. LET’S TALK RESEARCH METHODS <ul><li>There are two kinds of research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonquanitative. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve also heard this called qualitative. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is research that has already been done that you find </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is you putting on the journalism hat and getting new information. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. SIX NONQUANITATIVE RESEARCH TOOLS <ul><li>Client records (financial reports, annual reports) </li></ul><ul><li>Published material about them (news articles or trade publications) </li></ul><ul><li>Published material from them (speeches PowerPoint, marketing material) </li></ul>
  17. 17. LET’S TALK SIX NONQUANITATIVE RESEARCH TOOLS <ul><li>Feedback from previous customers </li></ul><ul><li>Talking to potential customers </li></ul><ul><li>Focus Group </li></ul>
  18. 18. LET’S TALK THREE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH TOOLS <ul><li>Sample surveys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Interview </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Content analysis </li></ul><ul><li>These are usually done by professional firms. Most agencies and businesses will subcontract this kind of work out. </li></ul>
  19. 19. OBJECTIVES
  20. 20. LET’S TALK OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Objectives are the most important part of the PR process. Here are two golden rules for a good objective. </li></ul><ul><li>Make it an singular infinitive phrase. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To publicize random special event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To stimulate interest in political candidate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objectives must be verifiable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will we quantify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will be meet the due date? </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. LET’S TALK OBJECTIVES <ul><li>There is a hierarchy to objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Step One is disseminate. </li></ul><ul><li>Step Two is expose. </li></ul><ul><li>Step Three is reinforcement or comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>Step Four is change. </li></ul>
  22. 22. STEP ONE OUTPUT OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Output objectives are about disseminating content. </li></ul><ul><li>They are easy to quantify. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We sent a news release to 300 newspapers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We had 1,000 visitors to our website </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They are like empty calories. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did anyone act on those releases? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did anyone do something differently because of those releases? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OUTPUT OBJECTIVES ARE LIKE A FOUNDATION. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THEY’RE NOT THE WHOLE HOUSE. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. STEP TWO IMPACT OBJECTIVES <ul><li>There are three types of impact objectives. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudinal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each relies on the following concept. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create change. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. PROGRAMMING
  25. 25. LET’S TALK PROGRAMMING <ul><li>Programming breaks down into four main areas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action/Special Event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating the program </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. THEMES: MY FIVE RULES <ul><li>What is your commitment statement? </li></ul><ul><li>What is brand differentiation? </li></ul><ul><li>Be catchy </li></ul><ul><li>Create catchphrase </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate hashtag </li></ul>
  27. 27. LET’S TALK ACTION OR SPECIAL EVENTS <ul><li>There are dozens of ways to promote items listed on page 29 and 30 of the book. Here are four things the book doesn’t mention that I will. </li></ul><ul><li>What is your budget? </li></ul><ul><li>How much time do you really have to plan? </li></ul><ul><li>How shy is your client? </li></ul><ul><li>How many people will really show up? </li></ul>
  28. 28. LET’S TALK MEDIA AND HOW TO USE THEM <ul><li>Uncontrolled Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you willing to deal with negative press? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you confident with reporters? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have the resources? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have the platforms? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have the audience? </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. LET’S TALK ABOUT 9 TOOLS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Source Credibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Is it the right information for the right audience? </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal cues </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal cues </li></ul><ul><li>Two-way communication </li></ul>
  30. 30. LET’S TALK ABOUT 9 TOOLS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION <ul><li>6. Opinion leaders </li></ul><ul><li>7. Group influence </li></ul><ul><li>8. Selective exposure </li></ul><ul><li>9. Audience participation </li></ul>
  31. 31. WHAT WE FORGET ABOUT NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>Does the mood fit the objective? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you’re trying to calm someone down, having it in a loud area with dozens of reporters screaming questions doesn’t work. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are you dressed appropriately? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the backdrop right? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the guest comfortable? </li></ul><ul><li>Is everyone represented? </li></ul>
  32. 32. EVALUATION
  33. 33. LET’S TALK ABOUT INFORMATIONAL OBJECTIVE EVALUATION <ul><li>Message exposure is measured through programs like Cision and Vocus. Website analytics also help. </li></ul><ul><li>Message comprehension is measured through software that tests how easy it is to swallow the words. Website analytics also help. </li></ul><ul><li>Message retention can be measured through surveys. Website analytics can also help. </li></ul>
  34. 34. LET’S TALK ABOUT ATTITUDINAL OBJECTIVE EVALUATION <ul><li>Surveys </li></ul>
  35. 35. LET’S TALK ABOUT BEHAVIOR OBJECTIVE EVALUATION <ul><li>Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Are people doing what you want them to do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are smoking numbers down? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are people wearing seatbelts? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are people eating more vegetables? </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. LET’S TALK ABOUT OUTPUT OBJECTIVE EVALUATION <ul><li>Check your numbers </li></ul>

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